The Open Source Initiative is a California public benefit corporation, with 5013 tax-exempt status, founded in 1998. It promotes the usage of Open Source Software; the organization was founded in late February 1998 by Bruce Perens and Eric S. Raymond, part of a group inspired by the Netscape Communications Corporation publishing the source code for its flagship Netscape Communicator product. In August 1998, the organization added a board of directors. Raymond was president from its founding until February 2005, followed by Russ Nelson and Michael Tiemann. In May 2012, the new board elected Simon Phipps as president and in May 2015 Allison Randal was elected as president when Phipps stepped down in preparation for the 2016 end of his Board term. Phipps became President again in September 2017. Molly de Blanc was elected President in May, 2019; as a campaign of sorts, "open source" was launched in 1998 by Jon "maddog" Hall, Larry Augustin, Eric S. Raymond, Bruce Perens, others; the group adopted the Open Source Definition for open-source software, based on the Debian Free Software Guidelines.
They established the Open Source Initiative as a steward organization for the movement. However, they were unsuccessful in their attempt to secure a trademark for'open source' to control the use of the term. In 2008, in an apparent effort to reform governance of the organization, the OSI Board invited 50 individuals to join a "Charter Members" group; the full membership of the Charter Members has never been publicly revealed, the Charter Members group communicated by way of a closed-subscription mailing list, "osi-discuss", with non-public archives. In 2012, under the leadership of OSI director and then-president Simon Phipps, the OSI began transitioning towards a membership-based governance structure; the OSI initiated an Affiliate Membership program for "government-recognized non-profit charitable and not-for-profit industry associations and academic institutions anywhere in the world". Subsequently, the OSI announced an Individual Membership program and listed a number of Corporate Sponsors.
On November 8, 2013, OSI appointed Patrick Masson as its General Manager. Both the modern free software movement and the Open Source Initiative were born from a common history of Unix, Internet free software, the hacker culture, but their basic goals and philosophy differ; the Open Source Initiative chose the term "open source," in founding member Michael Tiemann's words, to "dump the moralizing and confrontational attitude, associated with'free software'" and instead promote open source ideas on "pragmatic, business-case grounds."As early as 1999, OSI co-founder Perens objected to the "schism", developing between supporters of the Free Software Foundation and the OSI because of their disparate approaches. Richard Stallman of FSF has criticized the OSI for its pragmatic focus and for ignoring what he considers the central "ethical imperative" and emphasis on "freedom" underlying free software as he defines it. Stallman has described his free software movement and the Open Source Initiative as separate camps within the same broad free-software community and acknowledged that despite philosophical differences, proponents of open source and free software "often work together on practical projects."
As of October 2019, the Open Source Initiative board of Directors is: Past board members include: Digital freedom Comparison of open source and closed source Business models for open-source software Commons-based peer production – an economic model for organizing projects without leaders or financial compensation Open-source governance – use of open-source principles to transform human social governance Techno-progressivism – a stance of active support for the convergence of technological change and social progress Open-source movement – the evolution and evidence of the open-source ideology Official website List of OSI approved licenses
The moderator band is a muscular band of heart tissue found in the right ventricle of the heart. It is well-marked in sheep and some other animals, extends from the base of the anterior papillary muscle to the ventricular septum; the moderator band is important because it carries part of the right bundle branch of the AV bundle of the conduction system of the heart to the anterior papillary muscle. This shortcut across the chamber of the ventricle seems to facilitate conduction time, allowing coordinated contraction of the anterior papillary muscle. From its attachments it was thought to prevent overdistension of the ventricle, was named the "moderator band", it was first described by Leonardo da Vinci in his exploration of human anatomy. The moderator band is used by radiologists and obstetricians to more identify the right ventricle in prenatal ultrasound. Trabecula Videos and photos of moderator band Photo of "septomarginal trabiculation" at acc.org Photo with caption "moderator band" at tjc.edu Sonogram
The 2010–11 Illinois Fighting Illini men's basketball team represented the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign in the 2010–11 NCAA Division I men's basketball season. This was head coach Bruce Weber's eighth season at Illinois, they are members of the Big Ten Conference. They finished the season 20–14, 9–9 in Big Ten play and lost in the quarterfinals of the 2011 Big Ten Conference Men's Basketball Tournament to Michigan, they received an at-large bid in the 2011 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament where they beat UNLV in the second round before falling to Kansas in the third round. Illinois welcomes back all its top seven players from last season; the Illini return 89.4 percent of its points, 79 percent of its rebounds, 85 percent of its minutes played from the 2009–10 campaign. In addition to the returning players, Illinois adds a top-15 ranked recruiting class to its roster. Three true freshmen join the squad this season in guard/forward Jereme Richmond, center Meyers Leonard, guard Crandall Head.
The 2010 recruiting class is ranked No. 11 by Scout.com and No. 13 by both Rivals.com and ESPNU. Richmond earned Illinois Mr. Basketball honors and was selected to play in the 2010 McDonald’s All-American Game, becoming Illinois’ 13th McDonald’s All-American and first since Dee Brown. A top-25 recruit, Richmond averaged 21 points, 11.5 rebounds, three assists and three blocks as a senior. Leonard was a consensus first-team all-state selection who led Robinson High School to the 2010 Illinois state title in Class 2A. A top-50 recruit, Leonard averaged 11 rebounds and 4.5 blocks as a senior. Head is the younger brother of former Illini All-American Luther Head. Crandall missed his senior season after having surgery to repair a torn ACL, he is a top-75 recruit who earned all-state honors as a junior, averaging 21 points, seven rebounds and four steals. Source Various publications and news sources released their preseason rankings prior to the start of the 2010–11 season. Illinois has been ranked by the publications below.
The Fighting Illini were ranked 13th in the AP Poll and 16th in the Coaches Poll in their respective pre-season polls. Individual Player Statistics MINUTES |--TOTAL--| |--3-PTS--| |-F-THROWS-| |---REBOUNDS---| |-SCORING-| ## Player GP GS Tot Avg FG FGA Pct 3FG FGA Pct FT FTA Pct Off Def Tot Avg PF FO A TO Blk Stl Pts Avg 32 McCamey, Demetri 31 29 1026 33.1 153 335.457 68 147.463 91 124.734 16 90 106 3.4 62 0 189 89 6 31 465 15.0 24 Davis, Mike 31 31 1009 32.5 158 295.536 0 1.000 61 90.678 50 170 220 7.1 73 1 51 41 26 28 377 12.2 54 Tisdale, Mike 31 29 792 25.5 119 230.517 18 42.429 56 70.800 70 129 199 6.4 111 5 36 52 50 15 312 10.1 03 Paul, Brandon 31 8 673 21.7 90 225.400 38 108.352 66 84.786 18 71 89 2.9 53 0 61 55 10 29 284 9.2 01 Richardson, D. J. 31 29 853 27.5 91 224.406 50 130.385 25 33.758 11 46 57 1.8 63 1 60 36 5 20 257 8.3 22 Richmond, Jereme 30 6 669 22.3 101 193.523 2 11.182 26 43.605 53 101 154 5.1 50 1 57 51 13 13 230 7.7 30 Cole, Bill 31 21 627 20.2 53 117.453 29 80.363 17 21.810 29 51 80 2.6 53 0 40 12 16 19 152 4.9 12 Leonard, Meyers 30 1 260 8.7 27 57.474 0 1.000 10 15.667 10 31 41 1.4 46 0 5 24 12 5 64 2.1 42 Griffey, Tyler 24 0 166 6.9 14 42.333 4 11.364 10 15.667 11 18 29 1.2 20 0 1 12 3 5 42 1.8 02 Bertrand, Joseph 13 0 49 3.8 7 13.538 0 1.000 3 4.750 1 5 6 0.5 6 0 3 3 2 1 17 1.3 04 Head, Crandall 15 1 83 5.5 7 18.389 1 7.143 4 6.667 1 2 3 0.2 8 0 10 11 0 3 19 1.3 21 Berardini, Kevin 8 0 14 1.8 1 1 1.000 0 0.000 4 6.667 1 2 4 0.4 2 0 1 2 0 1 6 0.8 15 Selus, Jean 5 0 5 1.0 0 1.000 0 1.000 1 2.500 0 0 0 0.0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0.2 Team 47 49 96 1 7 Total..........
31 6226 821 1751.469 210 540.389 374 513.729 318 765 1083 34.9 549 8 515 395 143 171 2226 71.8 Opponents...... 31 6227 712 1777.401 183 612.299 420 582.722 361 670 1031 33.3 509 5 375 382 91 171 2027 65.4
The 1989 Soul Train Music Awards was held at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles and aired live in select cities on April 13, 1989, honoring the best in R&B, rap and gospel music from the previous year. The show was hosted by Ahmad Rashād and Dionne Warwick. Michael Jackson Michael Jackson Winners are in bold text. Bobby Brown – Don't Be Cruel Bobby McFerrin – Simple Pleasures Al B. Sure – In Effect Mode Luther Vandross – Any Love Anita Baker – Giving You the Best That I Got Tracy Chapman – Tracy Chapman Sade – Stronger Than Pride Vanessa Williams – The Right Stuff New Edition – Heart Break Guy – Guy LeVert – Just Coolin' Tony! Toni! Toné! – Who? Michael Jackson – "Man in the Mirror" Bobby Brown – "My Prerogative" Johnny Kemp – "Just Got Paid" Keith Sweat – "Make It Last Forever" Anita Baker – "Giving You the Best That I Got" Whitney Houston – "Where Do Broken Hearts Go" Karyn White – "Superwoman" Vanessa Williams – "The Right Stuff" Note-This segment of the awards ceremony is most memorable due to the fact that when Whitney Houston's name was called, the crowd began to boo her, citing the idea that Houston was "acting white" and was a "sell-out".
E. U. – "Da Butt" Rob Base and DJ E-Z Rock – "It Takes Two" Guy – "Groove Me" New Edition – "Can You Stand the Rain" Anita Baker – "Giving You the Best That I Got" Bobby Brown – "Don't Be Cruel" Michael Jackson – "Man in the Mirror" Keith Sweat – "I Want Her" Michael Jackson – "Man in the Mirror" DJ Jazzy Jeff & the Fresh Prince – "Parents Just Don't Understand" Kool Moe Dee – "Wild Wild West" Stevie Wonder – "Skeletons" Al B. Sure! Guy Karyn White BeBe & CeCe Winans DJ Jazzy Jeff and the Fresh Prince – He's the DJ, I'm the Rapper Rob Base and DJ E-Z Rock – It Takes Two Public Enemy – It Takes a Nation of Millions to Hold Us Back Salt-N-Pepa – A Salt with a Deadly Pepa Take 6 – Take 6 Shirley Caesar – Live in Chicago The Clark Sisters – Conqueror James Cleveland – Inspired Kenny G – Silhouette Bobby McFerrin – Simple Pleasures Najee – Day by Day Sade – Stronger Than Pride Ashford & Simpson Sheena Easton – "The Lover in Me" Levert and Heavy D & The Boyz – "Just Coolin'" Bobby Brown – "My Prerogative" Patti LaBelle – "I Just Can't Stop Loving You" Dionne Warwick New Edition and Rob Base – "Crucial" Shirley Caesar, The Clark Sisters, Thelma Houston, BeBe & CeCe Winans, Vickie Winans and The Winans – "Lean on Me" Soul Train Music Awards 1989 Winners & Nominees
Minami-Ishige Station is a train station in Jōsō, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. Minami-Ishige Station is a station on the Kantō Railway’s Jōsō Line, is located 27.2 km from the official starting point of the line at Toride Station. The station has a single side platform serving traffic in both directions. There is no station building, but only a shelter built onto the platform; the station is unattended. Minami-Ishige Station was opened on 5 November 1931 as a station on the Jōsō Railroad, which became the Kanto Railway in 1965; the station is located in a semi-rural area with few buildings nearby. Http://kantetsu.co.jp/train/station_minamiishige.htmlKantō Railway Station Information]
An educational programming language is a programming language, designed as an instrument for learning, less as a tool for writing programs to perform work. Machine code was the first and only way to program computers. Assembly language was the next type of language used, thus is one of the oldest families of computer languages in use today. Many dialects and implementations are available some for each computer processor architecture, it is basic and termed a low level programming language. It is one of the more difficult languages to work with being untyped and rigid, but this is how computers work at low level. Several simplified dialects exist for education. Low level languages must be written for a specific processor architecture and cannot be written or taught in isolation without referencing the processor for which it was written. Unlike higher level languages, using an educational assembly language needs a representation of a processor, whether virtualized or physical. Assembly is the most helpful language to use for learning about fundamental computer processor operation.
Little Man Computer is an instructional model of a simple von Neumann architecture computer with all basic features of modern computers. It can be programmed in machine assembly, it is based on the concept of having a little man locked in a small room. At one end of the room are 100 mailboxes as memory. At the other end of the room are two mailboxes labeled INBOX and OUTBOX which receive and emit data. In the middle of the room is a work area with a simple two function calculator called the Accumulator and a resettable counter called the Program Counter; the counter is similar to. As specified by the von Neumann architecture, memory holds both data; the user loads data into the mailboxes and signals the little man to begin executing. Next Byte Codes is a simple language with assembly language syntax, used to program Lego Mindstorms NXT programmable bricks; the command line compiler emits NXT compatible machine code, supports Windows, Mac OS X and Linux. Little Computer 3, is an assembly language with a simplified instruction set, but can be used to write moderately complex assembly programs and is a theoretically viable target for C compilers.
It has many features similar to those in more complex languages. These features make it useful for teaching basic programming and computer architecture to beginning college computer science and computer engineering students, its most common use. DLX is a reduced instruction set computer processor architecture by the main designers of the MIPS and the Berkeley RISC designs, two benchmark examples of RISC design. DLX is a cleaned up, simplified MIPS, with a simple 32-bit load/store architecture, it is used in college-level computer architecture courses. MIX and MMIX are hypothetical computers used in Donald Knuth's monograph, The Art of Computer Programming. Paraphrasing Knuth: The MIX systems are computers intended to illustrate machine-level aspects of programming, so its machine language is simple, easy to learn, it includes all the complexities needed for high performance in practice, so in principle it can be built and be competitive with some of the fast general-purpose computers. MIX is hybrid programmable in decimal numbers.
Software implementations for MIX and MMIX have been developed by Knuth and made available. Several versions of both emulators exist. MIX is a 1960s-style computer, it is superseded by MMIX, a newer modern computer architecture, a 64-bit RISC instruction set architecture. For MMIX, Knuth collaborated with the architects of the Alpha ISAs. BASIC was invented in 1964 to provide computer access to non-science students, it became popular on minicomputers during the 1960s, became a standard computing language for microcomputers during the late 1970s and early 1980s. The goals of BASIC were focused on the needs of learning to program easily: be easy for beginners to use, be interactive, provide clear and friendly error messages, respond do not require an understanding of computer hardware or operating systems. What made BASIC useful for education was the small size of programs. Useful programs to illustrate a concept could be written in a dozen lines. At the same time BASIC did not require mathematical or computer science sophistication.
BASIC continues to this day to be self-taught with excellent tutorials and implementations. See List of BASIC dialects by platform for a complete list. BASIC offers a learning path from learning oriented BASICs such as Microsoft Small Basic, BASIC-256 and SiMPLE, to more full featured BASICs like Visual Basic. NET and Gambas. Microsoft Small Basic is a restricted version of Visual Basic designed as a first language, "aimed at bringing'fun' back to programming"; the language is explicitly quite small with only 15 intuitive keywords. By including object specific libraries for things of general interest to children, children can create entertaining, interactive programs, on the net or on the desktop. For example, with 6 lines of code, it is possible to demonstrate a random network image viewer using Flickr as the source; the system utilizes the Microsoft Visual Studio IDE to provide autocompletion and context sensitive help. Basic-256 an easy to use version of BASIC designed to teach anybody the basics of computer programming.