Tim O'Reilly is the founder of O'Reilly Media. He popularised the terms open source and Web 2.0. Born in County Cork, Tim O'Reilly moved to San Francisco, with his family when he was a baby, he has three sisters. As a teenager, encouraged by his older brother Sean, O'Reilly became a follower of George Simon, a writer and adherent of the general semantics program. Through Simon, O'Reilly became acquainted with the work of Alfred Korzybski, which he has cited as a formative experience. In 1973, Tim O'Reilly went to Harvard College to study classics and graduated cum laude with a B. A. in 1975. During O'Reilly's first year at Harvard, George Simon died in an accident. After graduating, O'Reilly completed an edition of Simon's Notebooks, 1965–1973, he wrote a well-received book on the science fiction writer Frank Herbert and edited a collection of Herbert's essays and interviews. After graduating, Tim O'Reilly married his first wife, with whom he moved to the Boston area; the couple raised two daughters and Meara.
Arwen is married to Saul Griffith. Tim O'Reilly got started as a technical writer in 1977, he started publishing computer manuals in 1983, setting up his business in a converted barn in Newton, where about a dozen employees worked in a single open room. In 1989, Tim O'Reilly moved his company to Sebastopol and published the Whole Internet User's Guide and Catalog, a best-seller in 1992. Tim O'Reilly's business known as O'Reilly & Associates grew through the 1990s, during which period it expanded from paper printed materials to web publishing. In 1993, the company's catalogue became an early web portal, the Global Network Navigator, which in 1995 was sold to America Online; the company suffered in the dotcom crash of 2000. As book sales decreased, O'Reilly had to lay off about seventy people, about a quarter of the staff, but thereafter rebuilt the company around ebook publishing and event production. In 2011 Tim O'Reilly handed over the reins of O'Reilly Media to the company's CFO, Laura Baldwin, but retained the title of CEO in recognition for the indispensable role he had in building the O'Reilly Media company and brand.
Tim O'Reilly serves on the board of directors of three companies, Safari Books Online, Maker Media, PeerJ. He served on the board of Macromedia until its 2005 merger with Adobe Systems, on the board of MySQL AB until its sale to Sun Microsystems, he serves on the board of directors for the advocacy group Code for America. In February 2012, he joined the UC Berkeley School of Information Advisory Board; as a venture capitalist, O'Reilly has invested in companies such as Blogger, Foursquare and Chumby. On 11 April 2015 Tim O'Reilly married Jennifer Pahlka, a former colleague at O'Reilly Media, a former Deputy CTO of the US, Founder and Executive Director of Code for America. In 2017, O'Reilly's book WTF? What's the Future and Why It's Up to Us was published, in which he discusses the consequences of technology and its potential to enhance the human experience. O'Reilly has worked as an activist for a number of causes and prides himself on his company's "long history of advocacy, meme-making, evangelism."
As a strategy of persuasion, he has evolved a technique of "meme engineering," which seeks to modify the terminology that people use. In 1996, O'Reilly fought against a 10-Connection Limit on TCP/IP NT Workstations, writing a letter to the United States Department of Justice, Bill Gates, CNN, concerned that the Internet is still in its infancy, that limitations could cripple the technology before it has a chance to reach its full potential. In 2001, O'Reilly was involved in a dispute with Amazon.com, against Amazon's one-click patent and Amazon's assertion of that patent against rival Barnes & Noble. The protest ended with O'Reilly and Amazon.com founder Jeff Bezos visiting Washington D. C. to lobby for patent reform. In 1998, O'Reilly helped rebrand free software under the term open source. O'Reilly sees the role of open source as being inseparable from the development of the Internet, pointing to the used TCP/IP protocol, Apache, Perl and other open source platforms, he is concerned about trends towards new forms of lock-in.
In 2003, after the dot com bust, O'Reilly Media's corporate goal was to reignite enthusiasm in the computer industry. Dale Dougherty, an executive at O'Reilly, coined the phrase "Web 2.0" during a brainstorming session. Though Tim O'Reilly is described as the person who coined the phrase Web 2.0, it is well documented that the phrase was Dougherty's idea. Tim O'Reilly went on to popularise the phrase as a handle for the resurgence of the web after the dotcom crash of 2000, as a generic term for the "harnessing of collective intelligence" viewed as the hallmark of this resurgence. O'Reilly first called an "executive conference" in 2004, inviting five hundred technology and business leaders, followed by a public version of the event in 2005. Annual iterations of the event, known as the "Web 2.0 Summit" from 2006 onwards, continued until 2011. Tim O'Reilly and employees of O'Reilly Media have applied the "2.0" concept to conferences in publishing and government, amongst other things. O'Reilly envisions the Internet Operating System as consisting of various sub systems, such as media, speech recognition and identity.
He uses the analogy of the biome of the human body having more bacterial than human cells, but depending upon millions of other organisms each pursuing their own interest but weaving a co-operative web. O'Reilly has been propagating the notion of "government as platform", or "Gov 2.0"
BarCamp is an international network of user-generated conferences focused around technology and the web. They are open, participatory workshop-events, the content of, provided by participants; the first BarCamps focused on early-stage web applications, were related to open source technologies, social software, open data formats. The format has been used for a variety of other topics, including public transit, health care and political organizing; the BarCamp format has been adapted for specific industries like banking, real estate and social media. The name BarCamp is a playful allusion to the event's origins, with reference to the programmer slang term, foobar: BarCamp arose as an open-to-the-public alternative to Foo Camp, an annual invitation-only participant-driven conference hosted by Tim O'Reilly; the first BarCamp was held in Palo Alto, from August 19–21, 2005, in the offices of Socialtext. It was organized from concept to event, with 200 attendees. Since BarCamps have been held in over 350 cities around the world, in North America, South America, Europe, the Middle East and Asia.
Attendees have travelled internationally to attend BarCamps. To mark the first anniversary of BarCamp, BarCampEarth was held in multiple locations worldwide on August 25–27, 2006; the second anniversary of BarCamp, BarCampBlock, was held in Palo Alto at the original location, but over a three block radius on August 18–19, 2007, was attended by over 800 people. The largest recorded BarCamp took place in January 2013 with over 6400 confirmed registered attendees in Yangon, Myanmar; the January 2010 BarCamp Yangon attracted over 4700 attendees. BarCamp makes their organizational process available, codifying it in a publicly available wiki. In addition to the BarCamp-branded network, it is a model for user-generated conferences in other fields and for more specialized applications such as EdCamp, IndieWebCamp, WordCamp, crisis camps, SkeptiCamp. Unlike traditional conference formats, both BarCamps and FooCamps have a self-organizing character, relying on the passion and the responsibility of the participants.
Attendees schedule sessions by writing on a whiteboard or putting a Post-It note on a'grid' of sessions. Those giving sessions are discouraged from using the sessions for promotion. BarCamps are organized through the web. Although the format is loosely structured, there are rules at BarCamp. All attendees are encouraged to present or facilitate a session or otherwise contribute to the event. Everyone is asked to share information and experiences of the event via public web channels, including blogs, photo sharing, social bookmarking, wikis, IRC; this encouragement to share is a deliberate change from the "off-the-record by default" and "no recordings" rules at many invite-only participant driven conferences. It turns a physical, face-to-face event into a'hybrid event' which enables remote online engagement with BarCamp participants. Venues provide basic services. Free network access WiFi, is crucial. Following the model of Foo Camp, the venue makes space for the attendees, or BarCampers, to camp out overnight.
Thus, BarCamps rely on securing sponsorship, ranging from the venue and network access to beverages and food. Attendance is free of charge and restricted only by space constraints. Participants are encouraged to sign up in advance. Bar Camp was based on the structure of Foo Camp, but with the requirement that participation should be open to all. (Foo Camp, an early unconference, was organized by Tim O'Reilly and Sara Winge. This form of self-organized user generated conferences is related to hackers' meetings in Europe those nearer to anarchism and autonomism, happening since the'90s in Temporary Autonomous Zones or other occupied places. However, BarCamps lack the political motivations and are quite integrated with the mainstream ICT industry getting substantial sponsorships from major corporations. Café Philosophique CloudCamp Hackathon Knowledge Cafe StixCamp SuperHappyDevHouse Sweden Social Web Camp TeachMeet Tribe DataMeet BarCamp.org. Retrieved June 30, 2006. Hart, Kim. "Twittering Types Share Ideas Offline".
Washington Post. Singel, Ryan. Barring None, Geek Camp Rocks. Wired News. August 23, 2005. Retrieved June 30, 2006. Craig, Kathleen. Why "unconferences" are fun conferences. Business 2.0 Magazine. June 6, 2006. Retrieved June 30, 2006. Murali, J. New conferencing tool: An attempt to conduct on-line meetings in a participatory environment; the Hindu. April 17, 2006. Retrieved June 30, 2006. Jagadeesh, Namith. With focus on human interaction, "unconferences" come of age. "LiveMint". May 26, 2008. Retrieved May 26, 2008. Tarun Chandel. Bridging the gap between students and industry. "LiveMint". Mar 8, 2008. Retrieved Mar 8, 2008. Çelik, Tantek. Remembering the idea of BarCamp, Tantek's Thoughts. July 10, 2006. Retrieved July 14, 2006. Messina, Chris. Bar camp buzz builds. FactoryCity. August 18, 2005. Retrieved June 30, 2006. Solaris, Julius A collection of resources to run a BarCamp. Event Manager Blog. January 31, 2008, Retrieved February 28, 2008
Foo Camp is an annual hacker event hosted by publisher O'Reilly Media. O'Reilly describes it as "the wiki of conferences", where the program is developed by the attendees at the event, using big whiteboard schedule templates that can be rewritten or overwritten by attendees to optimize the schedule; the event started as a joke between Tim O'Reilly and Sara Winge, O'Reilly's VP of Corporate Communications. Sara had always wanted to run a foo bar, an open bar for Friends of O'Reilly, at one of O'Reilly's conferences; that joke morphed into a brainstorm after the dot com bust left O'Reilly with lots of unused office space in its new buildings, creating the opportunity for Foo Camp. The first FOO Camp was held in August, 2003, had 200 attendees. There was a Foo Bar at the camp. Tim O'Reilly describes the goal of his company as "changing the world by spreading the knowledge of innovators." Foo Camp has evolved into an important mechanism for finding those innovators. O'Reilly asks attendees to nominate interesting people to be invited to future camps.
In 2005, a complementary alternative BarCamp was created by a past attendee of Foo Camp and a few individuals who were interested in organizing their own version of Foo Camp, hosted at the Socialtext offices in Palo Alto, California, by Socialtext founder Ross Mayfield, with an open invitation to anyone who wanted to join. Since February 2007, former O'Reilly employee Nathan Torkington has hosted an annual Kiwi Foo Camp in Warkworth, New ZealandO'Reilly has since held a series of topical Foo Camps at Google Headquarters, including Science Foo Camp, Collective Intelligence Foo Camp, Social Graph Foo Camp, others. In December 2010, O'Reilly co-organized NewsFoo with Google and the Knight Foundation at the Walter Cronkite School of Journalism and Mass Communication in Phoenix Arizona. In 2011, O'Reilly announced the Health Foo on the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Blog. In February 2018, O’Reilly, Facebook and SAGE Publications held the first Social Science Foo Camp at Facebook in Menlo Park, California.
An unconference is a participant-driven meeting. The term "unconference" has been applied, or self-applied, to a wide range of gatherings that try to avoid one or more aspects of a conventional conference, such as fees, sponsored presentations, top-down organization. According to Tim O'Reilly, the first unconference was organized by Alexander von Humboldt in 1828. Unconferences use variations on Open Space Technology, the format/method developed by Harrison Owen in 1985. Owen's 1993 book Open Space Technology: a User's Guide discussed many of the techniques now associated with unconferences, although his book does not use that term; the term "unconference" first appeared in an announcement for the annual XML developers conference in 1998. The term was used by Lenn Pryor when discussing BloggerCon and was popularized by Dave Winer, the organizer of BloggerCon, in an April 2004 writeup; the first BloggerCon was held October 4 -- 2003 at Harvard's Berkman Center for Internet & Society. Sarah Winge, the organizer of Foo Camp, an early unconference, drew on her experience of open space and conversations with Harrison Owen to develop the format.
The first Foo Camp happened October 10 -- 2003, in Sebastopol, California. In 2005 some of the attendees from previous years decided to produce their own "Bar" Camp; these three events, BloggerCon, Foo Camp and BarCamp helped to popularize the term "unconference". Foo and Bar Camp in particular popularized the form where "there is no agenda until.. The attendees made one up." At an unconference, the agenda is created by the attendees at the beginning of the meeting. Anyone who wants to initiate a discussion on a topic can claim a space; some unconference sessions are led by the participant. An "unconference" is useful when participants have a high level of expertise or knowledge in the field the conference convenes to discuss. An unconference can be conducted using a number of facilitation styles; some of these are: Birds of a feather Dotmocracy Fishbowl Ignite Knowledge Café Lightning talks Open Space Technology PechaKucha Speed geeking World Café BarCamp FooCamp Pause On Error
Goddard Space Flight Center
The Goddard Space Flight Center is a major NASA space research laboratory located 6.5 miles northeast of Washington, D. C. in unincorporated Prince George's County, United States. Established on May 1, 1959 as NASA's first space flight center, GSFC employs 10,000 civil servants and contractors, it is one of ten major NASA field centers, named in recognition of American rocket propulsion pioneer Dr. Robert H. Goddard. GSFC is within the former Goddard census-designated place. GSFC is the largest combined organization of scientists and engineers in the United States dedicated to increasing knowledge of the Earth, the Solar System, the Universe via observations from space. GSFC is a major US laboratory for operating unmanned scientific spacecraft. GSFC conducts scientific investigation and operation of space systems, development of related technologies. Goddard scientists can develop and support a mission, Goddard engineers and technicians can design and build the spacecraft for that mission. Goddard scientist John C.
Mather shared the 2006 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on COBE. GSFC operates two spaceflight tracking and data acquisition networks and maintains advanced space and Earth science data information systems, develops satellite systems for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. GSFC manages operations for many NASA and international missions including the Hubble Space Telescope, the Explorers Program, the Discovery Program, the Earth Observing System, INTEGRAL, MAVEN, OSIRIS-REx, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, the Solar Dynamics Observatory, Swift. Past missions managed by GSFC include the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, SMM, COBE, IUE, ROSAT. Unmanned earth observation missions and observatories in Earth orbit are managed by GSFC, while unmanned planetary missions are managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Goddard is NASA's first, oldest, space center, its original charter was to perform five major functions on behalf of NASA: technology development and fabrication, scientific research, technical operations, project management.
The center is organized into several directorates, each charged with one of these key functions. Until May 1, 1959, NASA's presence in Greenbelt, Maryland was known as the Beltsville Space Center, it was renamed the Goddard Space Flight Center, after Dr. Robert H. Goddard, its first 157 employees transferred from the United States Navy's Project Vanguard missile program, but continued their work at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D. C. while the center was under construction. Goddard Space Flight Center contributed to Project Mercury, America's first manned space flight program; the Center assumed a lead role for the project in its early days and managed the first 250 employees involved in the effort, who were stationed at Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. However, the size and scope of Project Mercury soon prompted NASA to build a new Manned Spacecraft Center, now the Johnson Space Center, in Houston, Texas. Project Mercury's personnel and activities were transferred there in 1961.
Goddard Space Flight Center remained involved in the manned space flight program, providing computer support and radar tracking of flights through a worldwide network of ground stations called the Spacecraft Tracking and Data Acquisition Network. However, the Center focused on designing unmanned satellites and spacecraft for scientific research missions. Goddard pioneered several fields of spacecraft development, including modular spacecraft design, which reduced costs and made it possible to repair satellites in orbit. Goddard's Solar Max satellite, launched in 1980, was repaired by astronauts on the Space Shuttle Challenger in 1984; the Hubble Space Telescope, launched in 1990, remains in service and continues to grow in capability thanks to its modular design and multiple servicing missions by the Space Shuttle. Today, the center remains involved in each of NASA's key programs. Goddard has developed more instruments for planetary exploration than any other organization, among them scientific instruments sent to every planet in the Solar System.
The Center's contribution to the Earth Science Enterprise includes several spacecraft in the Earth Observing System fleet as well as EOSDIS, a science data collection and distribution system. For the manned space flight program, Goddard develops tools for use by astronauts during extra-vehicular activity, operates the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, a spacecraft designed to study the Moon in preparation for future manned exploration. Goddard's wooded campus is a few miles northeast of Washington, D. C. in Prince George's County. The center is on Greenbelt Road, Maryland Route 193. Baltimore, NASA Headquarters in Washington are 30–45 minutes away by highway. Greenbelt has a train station with access to the Washington Metro system and the MARC commuter train's Camden line; the High Bay Cleanroom located in building 29 is the world's largest ISO 7 cleanroom with 1.3 million cubic feet of space. Vacuum chambers in adjacent buildings 10 and 7 can be chilled or heated to +/- 200 °C. Adjacent building 15 houses the High Capacity Centrifuge, capable of generating 30 G on up to a 2.5 tons load.
Parsons Corporation assisted in the construction of the Class 10,000 cleanroom to support Hubble Space Telescope as well as other Goddard missions. The High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center is NASA's designated center for the archiving and
A design sprint is a time-constrained, five-phase process that uses design thinking with the aim of reducing the risk when bringing a new product, service or a feature to the market. It has been developed through independent work by many designers, including those within GV, those at Boston-Based User Experience Agency Fresh Tilled Soil. Two books have been published on the approach so far - one by Jake Knapp with co-authors John Zeratsky and Braden Kowitz, another by C. Todd Lombardo, Richard Banfield, Trace WaxAt GV, the Design Sprint concept developed from a vision to grow UX culture and the practice of design leadership across the organization. Multiple teams within Google experimented with different methods from traditional UX practice, IDEO, the Stanford dSchool and a range of other disciplines; the process aims to help teams to define goals, validating assumptions and deciding on a product roadmap before starting development. It seeks to address strategic issues using interdisciplinary, rapid prototyping, user testing.
This design process is similar to Sprints in an Agile development cycle. Claimed uses of the approach include Launching a service. Extending an existing experience to a new platform. Existing MVP needing revised User experience design and/or UI Design. Adding new features and functionality to a digital product. Opportunities for improvement of a product Opportunities for improvement of a service; the creators of the Design Sprint approach, recommend preparation by picking the proper team, environment and tools working with six key'ingredients'. Understand: Discover the business opportunity, the audience, the competition, the value proposition, define metrics of success. Diverge: Explore and iterate creative ways of solving the problem, regardless of feasibility. Converge: Identify ideas that fit the next product cycle and explore them in further detail through storyboarding. Prototype: Design and prepare prototype that can be tested with people. Test: Conduct 1:1 user testing with people from the product's primary target audience.
Ask good questions. The main deliverables after the Design sprint: Answers to a set of vital questions Findings from the sprint Prototypes Report from the user testing with the findings A plan for next steps Validate or invalidate hypotheses before committing resources to build the solution The suggested ideal number of people involved in the sprint is 4-7 people and they include the facilitator, designer, a decision maker, product manager and someone from companies core business departments
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff