Resolution independence is where elements on a computer screen are rendered at sizes independent from the pixel grid, resulting in a graphical user interface, displayed at a consistent size, regardless of the resolution of the screen. As early as 1978, the typesetting system TeX due to Donald Knuth introduced resolution independence into the world of computers; the intended view can be rendered beyond the atomic resolution without any artifacts, the automatic typesetting decisions are guaranteed to be identical on any computer up to an error less than the diameter of an atom. This pioneering system has a corresponding font system, which provides suitable fonts of the same high standards of resolution independence; the terminology device independent file format is the file format of Donald Knuth's pioneering TeX system. The content of such a file can be interpreted at any resolution without any artifacts at high resolutions not in use. Apple included some support for resolution independence in early versions of MacOS, which could be demonstrated with the developer tool Quartz Debug that included a feature allowing the user to scale the interface.
However, the feature was incomplete, as some icons did not show, user interface elements were displayed at odd positions and certain bitmap GUI elements were not scaled smoothly. Because the scaling feature was never completed, MacOS's user interface remained resolution-dependent. On June 11, 2012, Apple introduced the 2012 MacBook Pro with a resolution of 2880×1800 or 5.2 megapixels – doubling the pixel density in both dimensions. The laptop shipped with a version of MacOS that provided support to scale the user interface twice as big as it has been been; this feature is called HighDPI mode in MacOS and it uses a fixed scaling factor of 2 to increase the size of the user interface for high-DPI screens. Apple introduced support for scaling the UI by rendering the user interface on higher or smaller resolution that the laptop's built-in native resolution and scaling the output to the laptop screen. One obvious downside of this approach is either a decreased performance on rendering the UI on a higher than native resolution or increased blurriness when rendering lower than native resolution.
Thus, while the MacOS's user interface can be scaled using this approach, the UI itself is not resolution-independent. The GDI system in Windows is pixel-based and thus not resolution-independent. To scale up the UI, Microsoft Windows has supported specifying a custom DPI from the Control Panel since Windows 95; when a custom system DPI is specified, the built-in UI in the operating system scales up. Windows includes APIs for application developers to design applications that will scale properly. GDI+ in Windows XP adds resolution-independent text rendering however, the UI in Windows versions up to Windows XP is not high-DPI aware as displays with high resolutions and high pixel densities were not available in that time frame. Windows Vista and Windows 7 scale better at higher DPIs. Windows Vista adds support for programs to declare themselves to the OS that they are high-DPI aware via a manifest file or using an API. For programs that do not declare themselves as DPI-aware, Windows Vista supports a compatibility feature called DPI virtualization so system metrics and UI elements are presented to applications as if they are running at 96 DPI and the Desktop Window Manager scales the resulting application window to match the DPI setting.
Windows Vista retains the Windows XP style scaling option which when enabled turns off DPI virtualization for all applications globally. Windows Vista introduces Windows Presentation Foundation. WPF applications are designed to be resolution-independent. Windows 7 adds the ability to change the DPI by doing only a log off, not a full reboot and makes it a per-user setting. Additionally, Windows 7 reads the monitor DPI from the EDID and automatically sets the DPI value to match the monitor's physical pixel density, unless the effective resolution is less than 1024 x 768. In Windows 8, only the DPI scaling percentage is shown in the DPI changing dialog and the display of the raw DPI value has been removed. In Windows 8.1, the global setting to disable DPI virtualization is removed. At pixel densities higher than 120 PPI, DPI virtualization is enabled for all applications without a DPI aware flag set inside the EXE. Windows 8.1 retains a per-application option to disable DPI virtualization of an app.
Windows 8.1 adds the ability for each display to use an independent DPI setting, although it calculates this automatically for each display. Windows 8.1 prevents a user from forcibly enabling DPI virtualization of an application. Therefore, if an application wrongly claims to be DPI-aware, it looks awful at high-DPI displays in 8.1, a user cannot correct that. Windows 10 adds manual control over DPI for individual monitors. Since Android 1.6 Android has provided support for multiple screen densities. Android expresses layout dimensions and position via the density-independent pixel or "dp", defined as one physical pixel on a 160 dpi screen. At runtime, the system transparently handles any scaling of the dp units, as necessary, based on the actual density of the screen in use. To aid in the creation of underlying bitmaps, Android categorizes resources based on screen size and density: In 2013, the GNOME desktop environment began efforts to bring resolution independence for various parts of the graphics stack.
Developer Alexander La
Open Packaging Conventions
The Open Packaging Conventions is a container-file technology created by Microsoft to store a combination of XML and non-XML files that together form a single entity such as an Open XML Paper Specification document. OPC-based file formats combine the advantages of leaving the independent file entities embedded in the document intact and resulting in much smaller files compared to normal use of XML; the OPC is specified in Part 2 of the Office Open XML standards ISO/IEC 29500:2008 and ECMA-376. The ISO/IEC 29500-2:2008 specification and the second edition of ECMA-376 makes a normative reference to PKWARE, Inc.'s. ZIP File Format Specification version 6.2.0, supplements it with a normative set of clarifications. Note: The older first edition of ECMA-376 makes an informative reference to the newer PKWARE Inc's ". ZIP File Format Specification" version 6.2.1. The ZIP format is not specified by any international standard, but has widespread community and developer acceptance. Microsoft submitted a draft in 2006 to the Internet Engineering Task Force for a "pack" URI Scheme to be used for URI references to OPC-based packages.
The draft expired in 2009, the specified syntax is incompatible with the Internet Standard for URI schemes. The scheme is now listed as historical; the ISO 19165:1-2018 recommends the use of the Open Packaging Conventions to implement the Geospatial Package defined in the Open Archival Information System Both the XML Paper Specification and Office Open XML use Open Packaging Conventions, which provide a profile of the common ZIP format. In addition to data and document content in XML markup, files in the ZIP package can include other text and binary files in formats such as PNG, BMP, AVI, PDF, RTF, or an packaged ODF file. OPC defines some naming conventions and an indirection method to allow position independence of binary and XML files in the ZIP archive. OPC files can be opened using common ZIP utilities. OPC allow indirection and relative indirection; the OPC is the foundation technology for many new file formats: OPC is natively supported in Microsoft. NET Framework 3.0 by the System. IO. Packaging namespace.
Open source libraries exist for other languages. Since Windows 7, OPC is natively supported in the Windows API through a set of COM interfaces, collectively referred to as Packaging API. Alternatively, ZIP libraries can be used to create and open OPC files, as long as the correct files are included in the ZIP and the conventions followed. In OPC terminology, the term package corresponds to a ZIP archive and the term part corresponds to a file stored within the ZIP; every part in a package has a unique URI-compliant part name along with a specified content-type expressed in the form of a MIME media type. A part's content-type explicitly defines the type of data stored in the part, reduces duplication and ambiguity issues inherent with file extensions. OPC packages can include relationships that define associations between the package and external resources. In addition to a hierarchy of directories and parts, OPC packages use relationships to access content through a directed graph of relationship associations.
Relationships are composed of four elements: an identifier an optional source a relationship type a target OPC packages can store parts that contain any type of data. The extension ".rels", however, is reserved for storing relationships metadata within "/_rels" subfolders. The subfolder name "_rels", the file extension ".rels" within such directory, the filename ".xml" in any folder are the only three reserved names for files stored in an OPC package. Xml file." The "/.xml" file defines default mappings based on file extensions, along with overrides for specific parts with content-types that are different from the file extension defaults. For example, one of these defined MIME types is: /_rels The root level "/_rels" folder stores the relationships for the package as a whole; the "/_rels" folder contains a file named ".rels". "/_rels/.rels" is an XML file where the starting package-level relationships are stored. When opening an OPC-based file, applications start by accessing to the "/_rels/.rels" file to read the starting package-level relationships..rels Each part may have its own relationships.
The _rels folders are where one goes to find the relationships for any given part within the package. To find the relationships for a specific part, one looks in the "_rels" folder, a sibling of that part: If the part has relationships, the "_rels" folder will contain a file that has one's original part name with a ".rels" appended to it. For example, if the content types part file had any relationships, there would be a file called ".xml.rels" inside the "/_rels" folder. All relationships are represented as XML files. If you open a ".rels" file in a text editor, you can view the actual XML markup that defines all the relationships targeted from that part. A typical relationships file contains XML code like this: which defines two relations for the root package, the first one being considered as the root package, the other one being used to reference an alternate form (here a thumbnail rendered image
CMYK color model
The CMYK color model is a subtractive color model, used in color printing, is used to describe the printing process itself. CMYK refers to the four inks used in some color printing: cyan, magenta and key; the CMYK model works by or masking colors on a lighter white, background. The ink reduces the light; such a model is called subtractive because inks "subtract" the colors red and blue from white light. White light minus red leaves cyan, white light minus green leaves magenta, white light minus blue leaves yellow. In additive color models, such as RGB, white is the "additive" combination of all primary colored lights, while black is the absence of light. In the CMYK model, it is the opposite: white is the natural color of the paper or other background, while black results from a full combination of colored inks. To save cost on ink, to produce deeper black tones and dark colors are produced by using black ink instead of the combination of cyan and yellow. With CMYK printing, halftoning allows for less than full saturation of the primary colors.
Magenta printed with a 20% halftone, for example, produces a pink color, because the eye perceives the tiny magenta dots on the large white paper as lighter and less saturated than the color of pure magenta ink. Without halftoning, the three primary process colors could be printed only as solid blocks of color, therefore could produce only seven colors: the three primaries themselves, plus three secondary colors produced by layering two of the primaries: cyan and yellow produce green and magenta produce blue and magenta produce red, plus layering all three of them resulting in black. With halftoning, a full continuous range of colors can be produced. To improve print quality and reduce moiré patterns, the screen for each color is set at a different angle. While the angles depend on how many colors are used and the preference of the press operator, typical CMYK process printing uses any of the following screen angles: The "black" generated by mixing commercially practical cyan and yellow inks is unsatisfactory, so four-color printing uses black ink in addition to the subtractive primaries.
Common reasons for using black ink include: In traditional preparation of color separations, a red keyline on the black line art marked the outline of solid or tint color areas. In some cases a black keyline was used when it served as both a color indicator and an outline to be printed in black; because the black plate contained the keyline, the K in CMYK represents the keyline or black plate sometimes called the key plate. Text is printed in black and includes fine detail, so to reproduce text or other finely detailed outlines, without slight blurring, using three inks would require impractically accurate registration. A combination of 100% cyan and yellow inks soaks the paper with ink, making it slower to dry, causing bleeding, or weakening the paper so much that it tears. Although a combination of 100% cyan and yellow inks should, in theory absorb the entire visible spectrum of light and produce a perfect black, practical inks fall short of their ideal characteristics and the result is a dark muddy color that does not quite appear black.
Adding black ink absorbs more light and yields much better blacks. Using black ink is less expensive than using the corresponding amounts of colored inks; when a dark area is desirable, a colored or gray CMY "bedding" is applied first a full black layer is applied on top, making a rich, deep black. A black made with just CMY inks is sometimes called a composite black; the amount of black to use to replace amounts of the other ink is variable, the choice depends on the technology and ink in use. Processes called under color removal, under color addition, gray component replacement are used to decide on the final mix. CMYK or process color printing is contrasted with spot color printing, in which specific colored inks are used to generate the colors appearing on paper; some printing presses are capable of printing with both four-color process inks and additional spot color inks at the same time. High-quality printed materials, such as marketing brochures and books include photographs requiring process-color printing, other graphic effects requiring spot colors, finishes such as varnish, which enhances the glossy appearance of the printed piece.
CMYK are the process printers which have a small color gamut. Processes such as Pantone's proprietary six-color Hexachrome expand the gamut. Light, saturated colors cannot be created with CMYK, light colors in general may make visible the halftone pattern. Using a CcMmYK process, with the addition of light cyan and magenta inks to CMYK, can solve these problems, such a process is used by many inkjet printers, including desktop models. Comparisons between RGB displays and CMYK prints can be difficult, since the color reproduction technologies and properties are different. A computer monitor mixes shades of red and blue light to create color pictures. A CMYK printer instead uses light-absorbing cyan and yellow inks, whose colors are mixed using dithering, halftoning, or some other optical technique. Similar to monitors, the inks used in printing produ
Windows XP is a personal computer operating system produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems. It was released to manufacturing on August 24, 2001, broadly released for retail sale on October 25, 2001. Development of Windows XP began in the late 1990s as "Neptune", an operating system built on the Windows NT kernel, intended for mainstream consumer use. An updated version of Windows 2000 was originally planned for the business market; as such, Windows XP was the first consumer edition of Windows not to be based on MS-DOS. Upon its release, Windows XP received positive reviews, with critics noting increased performance and stability, a more intuitive user interface, improved hardware support, expanded multimedia capabilities. However, some industry reviewers were concerned by the new licensing model and product activation system. Extended support for Windows XP ended on April 8, 2014, after which the operating system ceased receiving further support or security updates to most users.
As of March 2019, 1.75% of Windows PCs run Windows XP, the OS is still most popular in some countries with up to 38% of the Windows share. In the late 1990s, initial development of what would become Windows XP was focused on two individual products. However, the projects proved to be too ambitious. In January 2000, shortly prior to the official release of Windows 2000, technology writer Paul Thurrott reported that Microsoft had shelved both Neptune and Odyssey in favor of a new product codenamed "Whistler", after Whistler, British Columbia, as many Microsoft employees skied at the Whistler-Blackcomb ski resort; the goal of Whistler was to unify both the consumer and business-oriented Windows lines under a single, Windows NT platform: Thurrott stated that Neptune had become "a black hole when all the features that were cut from were re-tagged as Neptune features. And since Neptune and Odyssey would be based on the same code-base anyway, it made sense to combine them into a single project". At PDC on July 13, 2000, Microsoft announced that Whistler would be released during the second half of 2001, unveiled the first preview build, 2250.
The build notably introduced an early version of Windows XP's visual styles system. Microsoft released the first beta build of Whistler, build 2296, on October 31, 2000. Subsequent builds introduced features that users of the release version of Windows XP would recognise, such as Internet Explorer 6.0, the Microsoft Product Activation system and the Bliss desktop background. On February 5, 2001, Microsoft announced that Whistler would be known as Windows XP, where XP stands for "eXPerience". In June 2001, Microsoft indicated that it was planning to, in conjunction with Intel and other PC makers, spend at least 1 billion US dollars on marketing and promoting Windows XP; the theme of the campaign, "Yes You Can", was designed to emphasize the platform's overall capabilities. Microsoft had planned to use the slogan "Prepare to Fly", but it was replaced due to sensitivity issues in the wake of the September 11 attacks. On August 24, 2001, Windows XP build. During a ceremonial media event at Microsoft Redmond Campus, copies of the RTM build were given to representatives of several major PC manufacturers in briefcases, who flew off on decorated helicopters.
While PC manufacturers would be able to release devices running XP beginning on September 24, 2001, XP was expected to reach general, retail availability on October 25, 2001. On the same day, Microsoft announced the final retail pricing of XP's two main editions, "Home" and "Professional". While retaining some similarities to previous versions, Windows XP's interface was overhauled with a new visual appearance, with an increased use of alpha compositing effects, drop shadows, "visual styles", which changed the appearance of the operating system; the number of effects enabled are determined by the operating system based on the computer's processing power, can be enabled or disabled on a case-by-case basis. XP added ClearType, a new subpixel rendering system designed to improve the appearance of fonts on liquid-crystal displays. A new set of system icons was introduced; the default wallpaper, Bliss, is a photo of a landscape in the Napa Valley outside Napa, with rolling green hills and a blue sky with stratocumulus and cirrus clouds.
The Start menu received its first major overhaul in XP, switching to a two-column layout with the ability to list and display used applications opened documents, the traditional cascading "All Programs" menu. The taskbar can now group windows opened by a single application into one taskbar button, with a popup menu listing the individual windows; the notification area hides "inactive" icons by default. A "common tasks" list was added, Windows Explorer's sidebar was updated to use a new task-based design with lists of common actions. Fast user switching allows additional users to log into a Windows XP machine without existing users having to close their programs and loggin
Adobe Inc. is an American multinational computer software company headquartered in San Jose, California. It has focused upon the creation of multimedia and creativity software products, with a more recent foray towards digital marketing software. Adobe is best known for its Adobe Flash web software ecosystem, Photoshop image editing software, Acrobat Reader, the Portable Document Format, Adobe Creative Suite, as well as its successor Adobe Creative Cloud. Adobe was founded in December 1982 by John Warnock and Charles Geschke, who established the company after leaving Xerox PARC in order to develop and sell the PostScript page description language. In 1985, Apple Computer licensed PostScript for use in its LaserWriter printers, which helped spark the desktop publishing revolution; as of 2018, Adobe has about 19,000 employees worldwide, about 40% of whom work in San Jose. Adobe has major development operations in Newton, Massachusetts, it has major development operations in Noida and Bangalore in India The company was started in John Warnock's garage.
The name of the company, comes from Adobe Creek in Los Altos, which ran behind Warnock's house. Adobe's corporate logo features a stylized "A" and was designed by Marva Warnock, graphic designer and John Warnock's wife. Steve Jobs asked to buy the company for five million dollars in 1982, but Warnock and Geschke refused, their investors urged them to work something out with Jobs, so they agreed to sell him shares worth 19 percent of the company, for which Jobs paid a five-times multiple of their company's valuation at the time, plus a five-year license fee for PostScript, in advance. The purchase and advance made Adobe the first company in the history of Silicon Valley to become profitable in its first year. Warnock and Geschke considered various business options including a copy-service business and a turnkey system for office printing, they chose to focus on developing specialized printing software, created the Adobe PostScript page description language. PostScript was the first international standard for computer printing as it included algorithms describing the letter-forms of many languages.
Adobe added kanji printer products in 1988. Warnock and Geschke were able to bolster the credibility of Postscript by connecting with a typesetting manufacturer, they weren't able to work with Compugraphic, but worked with Linotype to license the Helvetica and Times Roman fonts. By 1987, PostScript had become the industry-standard printer language with more than 400 third-party software programs and licensing agreements with 19 printer companies. Warnock described the language as "extensible", in its ability to apply graphic arts standards to office printing. Adobe's first products after PostScript were digital fonts, which they released in a proprietary format called Type 1. Apple subsequently developed a competing standard, TrueType, which provided full scalability and precise control of the pixel pattern created by the font's outlines, licensed it to Microsoft. In the mid-1980s, Adobe entered the consumer software market with Illustrator, a vector-based drawing program for the Apple Macintosh.
Illustrator, which grew from the firm's in-house font-development software, helped popularize PostScript-enabled laser printers. Adobe entered NASDAQ in August 1986, its revenue has grown from $1 billion in 1999 to $4 billion in 2012. Adobe's fiscal years run from December to November. For example, the 2007 fiscal year ended on November 30, 2007. In 1989, Adobe introduced what was to become its flagship product, a graphics editing program for the Macintosh called Photoshop. Stable and full-featured, Photoshop 1.0 was ably soon dominated the market. In 1993, Adobe introduced PDF, the Portable Document Format, its Adobe Acrobat and Reader software. PDF is now an International Standard: ISO 32000-1:2008. In December 1991, Adobe released Adobe Premiere, which Adobe rebranded as Adobe Premiere Pro in 2003. In 1992, Adobe acquired Inc.. In 1994, Adobe acquired Aldus and added PageMaker and After Effects to its product line in the year. In the same year, Adobe acquired Compution Inc.. In 1995, Adobe added FrameMaker, the long-document DTP application, to its product line after Adobe acquired Frame Technology Corp.
In 1996, Adobe Inc added Ares Software Corp. In 2002, Adobe acquired Canadian company Accelio. On December 12, 2005, Adobe acquired its main rival, Macromedia, in a stock swap valued at about $3.4 billion, adding ColdFusion, Captivate, Adobe Connect, Dreamweaver, Flash, FlashPaper, FreeHand, HomeSite, JRun and Authorware to Adobe's product line. Adobe released Adobe Media Player in April 2008. On April 27, Adobe discontinued development and sales of its older HTML/web development software, GoLive in favor of Dreamweaver. Adobe offered a discount on Dreamweaver for GoLive users and supports those who still use GoLive with online tutorials and migration assistance. On June 1, Adobe launched a series of web applications geared for collaborative work. Creative Suite 4, which includes Design, Production Premium, Master Collection came out in October 2008 in six configurations at prices from about US$1,700 to $2,500 or by individual application; the Windows version of Photoshop includes 64-bit processing.
On December 3, 2008, Adobe laid off 600 of its employees citing the weak economic environment. On November 10, 2009, the company laid off a further 680 emplo
A color space is a specific organization of colors. In combination with physical device profiling, it allows for reproducible representations of color, in both analog and digital representations. A color space may be arbitrary, with particular colors assigned to a set of physical color swatches and corresponding assigned color names or numbers such as with the Pantone collection, or structured mathematically as with the NCS System, Adobe RGB and sRGB. A "color model" is an abstract mathematical model describing the way colors can be represented as tuples of numbers. Adding a specific mapping function between a color model and a reference color space establishes within the reference color space a definite "footprint", known as a gamut, for a given color model this defines a color space. For example, Adobe RGB and sRGB are two different absolute color spaces, both based on the RGB color model; when defining a color space, the usual reference standard is the CIELAB or CIEXYZ color spaces, which were designed to encompass all colors the average human can see.
Since "color space" identifies a particular combination of the color model and the mapping function, the word is used informally to identify a color model. However though identifying a color space automatically identifies the associated color model, such a usage is incorrect in a strict sense. For example, although several specific color spaces are based on the RGB color model, there is no such thing as the singular RGB color space. In 1802, Thomas Young postulated the existence of three types of photoreceptors in the eye, each of, sensitive to a particular range of visible light. Hermann von Helmholtz developed the Young–Helmholtz theory further in 1850: that the three types of cone photoreceptors could be classified as short-preferring, middle-preferring, long-preferring, according to their response to the wavelengths of light striking the retina; the relative strengths of the signals detected by the three types of cones are interpreted by the brain as a visible color. But it's not clear; the color-space concept was due to Hermann Grassmann, who developed it in two stages.
First, he developed the idea of vector space, which allowed the algebraic representation of geometric concepts in n -dimensional space. Fearnley-Sander describes Grassmann's foundation of linear algebra as follows: With this conceptual background, in 1853, Grassmann published a theory of how colors mix. Colors can be created in printing with color spaces based on the CMYK color model, using the subtractive primary colors of pigment. To create a three-dimensional representation of a given color space, we can assign the amount of magenta color to the representation's X axis, the amount of cyan to its Y axis, the amount of yellow to its Z axis; the resulting 3-D space provides a unique position for every possible color that can be created by combining those three pigments. Colors can be created on computer monitors with color spaces based on the RGB color model, using the additive primary colors. A three-dimensional representation would assign each of the three colors to the X, Y, Z axes. Note that colors generated on given monitor will be limited by the reproduction medium, such as the phosphor or filters and backlight.
Another way of creating colors on a monitor is with an HSL or HSV color space, based on hue, brightness. With such a space, the variables are assigned to cylindrical coordinates. Many color spaces can be represented as three-dimensional values in this manner, but some have more, or fewer dimensions, some, such as Pantone, cannot be represented in this way at all. Color space conversion is the translation of the representation of a color from one basis to another; this occurs in the context of converting an image, represented in one color space to another color space, the goal being to make the translated image look as similar as possible to the original. The RGB color model is implemented in different ways, depending on the capabilities of the system used. By far the most common general-used incarnation as of 2006 is the 24-bit implementation, with 8 bits, or 256 discrete levels of color per channel. Any color space based on such a 24-bit RGB model is thus limited to a range of 256×256×256 ≈ 16.7 million colors.
Some implementations use 16 bits per component for 48 bits total, resulting in the same gamut with a larger number of distinct colors. This is important when working with wide-gamut color spaces, or when a large number of digital filtering algorithms are used consecutively; the same principle applies for any color space based on the same color model, but implemented in different bit depths. CIE 1931 XYZ color space was one of the first attempts to produce a color space based on measurements of human color perception and it is the basis for all other color spaces; the CIERGB color space is a linearly-related companion of CIE XYZ. Additional derivatives of CIE XYZ include the CIELUV, CIEUVW, CIELAB. RGB uses additive color mixing, because it describes what kind of light needs to be em
Vector graphics are computer graphics images that are defined in terms of 2D points, which are connected by lines and curves to form polygons and other shapes. Each of these points has a definite position on the x- and y-axis of the work plane and determines the direction of the path. Vector graphics are found today in the SVG, EPS and PDF graphic file formats and are intrinsically different from the more common raster graphics file formats of JPEG, PNG, APNG, GIF, MPEG4. One of the first uses of vector graphic displays was the US SAGE air defense system. Vector graphics systems were retired from the U. S. en route air traffic control in 1999, are still in use in military and specialized systems. Vector graphics were used on the TX-2 at the MIT Lincoln Laboratory by computer graphics pioneer Ivan Sutherland to run his program Sketchpad in 1963. Subsequent vector graphics systems, most of which iterated through dynamically modifiable stored lists of drawing instructions, include the IBM 2250, Imlac PDS-1, DEC GT40.
There was a home gaming system that used vector graphics called Vectrex as well as various arcade games like Asteroids, Space Wars and many cinematronics titles such as Rip-Off, Tail Gunner using vector monitors. Storage scope displays, such as the Tektronix 4014, could display vector images but not modify them without first erasing the display. In computer typography, modern outline fonts describe printable characters by cubic or quadratic mathematical curves with control points. Bitmap fonts are still in use. Converting outlines requires filling them in. Processing outline character data in a sophisticated fashion to create satisfactory bitmaps for rendering is called "hinting". Although the term implies suggestion, the process is deterministic and done by executable code a special-purpose computer language. While automatic hinting is possible, results can be inferior to that done by experts. Modern vector graphics displays can sometimes be found at laser light shows, where two fast-moving X-Y mirrors position the beam to draw shapes and text as straight and curved strokes on a screen.
Vector graphics can be created in a form using a pen plotter, a special type of printer that uses a series of ballpoint and felt-tip pens on a servo-driven mount that moves horizontally across the paper, with the plotter moving the paper back and forth through its paper path for vertical movement. Although a typical plot might require a few thousand paper motions and forth, the paper doesn't slip. In a tiny roll-fed plotter made by Alps in Japan, teeth on thin sprockets indented the paper near its edges on the first pass and maintained registration on subsequent passes; some Hewlett-Packard pen plotters had stationery paper. However, the moving-paper H-P plotters had grit wheels which, on the first pass, indented the paper surface, collectively maintained registration. Present-day vector graphic files such as engineering drawings are printed as bitmaps, after vector-to-raster conversion; the term "vector graphics" is used today in the context of two-dimensional computer graphics. It is one of several modes.
Vector graphics can be uploaded to online databases for other designers to download and manipulate, speeding up the creative process. Other modes include text, 3D rendering. All modern 3D rendering is done using extensions of 2D vector graphics techniques. Plotters used in technical drawing still draw vectors directly to paper; the World Wide Web Consortium standard for vector graphics is Scalable Vector Graphics. The standard is complex and has been slow to be established at least in part owing to commercial interests. Many web browsers now have some support for rendering SVG data but full implementations of the standard are still comparatively rare. In recent years, SVG has become a significant format, independent of the resolution of the rendering device a printer or display monitor. SVG files are printable text that describes both straight and curved paths, as well as other attributes. Wikipedia prefers SVG for images such as simple maps, line illustrations, coats of arms, flags, which are not like photographs or other continuous-tone images.
Rendering SVG requires conversion to raster format at a resolution appropriate for the current task. SVG is a format for animated graphics. There is a version of SVG for mobile phones. In particular, the specific format for mobile phones is called SVGT; these images can count links and exploit anti-aliasing. They can be displayed as wallpaper; the list of image file formats covers public vector formats. Modern displays and printers are raster devices; the size of the bitmap/raster-format file generated by the conversion will depend on the resolution required, but the size of the vector file generating the bitmap/raster file will always remain the same. Thus, it is easy to convert from a vector file to a range of bitmap/raster file formats but it is much more difficult to go in the opposite direction if subsequent editing of the vector picture is required, it might be an advantage to save an image created