University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill known as UNC-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, or Carolina is a public research university in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. It is the flagship of the 17 campuses of the University of North Carolina system. After being chartered in 1789, the university first began enrolling students in 1795, which allows it to be one of three schools to claim the title of the oldest public university in the United States. Among the claimants, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is the only one to have held classes and graduated students as a public university in the eighteenth century; the first public institution of higher education in North Carolina, the school opened its doors to students on February 12, 1795. The university offers degrees in over 70 courses of study through fourteen colleges and the College of Arts and Sciences. All undergraduates receive a liberal arts education and have the option to pursue a major within the professional schools of the university or within the College of Arts and Sciences from the time they obtain junior status.
Under the leadership of President Kemp Plummer Battle, in 1877 North Carolina became coeducational and began the process of desegregation in 1951 when African-American graduate students were admitted under Chancellor Robert Burton House. In 1952, North Carolina opened its own hospital, UNC Health Care, for research and treatment, has since specialized in cancer care; the school's students and sports teams are known as "Tar Heels". UNC's faculty and alumni include 9 Nobel Prize laureates, 23 Pulitzer Prize winners, 49 Rhodes Scholars. Additional notable alumni include a U. S. President, a U. S. Vice President, 38 Governors of U. S. States, 98 members of the United States Congress, 9 Cabinet members, 39 Henry Luce Scholars, 9 World Cup winners and 3 astronauts as well as founders and CEOs of Fortune 500 companies; the campus covers 729 acres of Chapel Hill's downtown area, encompassing the Morehead Planetarium and the many stores and shops located on Franklin Street. Students can participate in over 550 recognized student organizations.
The student-run newspaper The Daily Tar Heel has won national awards for collegiate media, while the student radio station WXYC provided the world's first internet radio broadcast. In 2018, UNC was ranked amongst the top 30 universities in the United States according to the Academic Ranking of World Universities, Washington Monthly, U. S. News & World Report. Internationally, UNC is ranked 33rd and 34th in the world by Academic Ranking of World Universities and U. S. News and World Report, respectively. UNC is regarded as a Public Ivy, an institution which provides an Ivy League collegiate experience at a public school price. North Carolina is one of the charter members of the Atlantic Coast Conference, founded on June 14, 1953. Competing athletically as the Tar Heels, North Carolina has achieved great success in sports, most notably in men's basketball, women's soccer, women's field hockey. Chartered by the North Carolina General Assembly on December 11, 1789, the university's cornerstone was laid on October 12, 1793, near the ruins of a chapel, chosen because of its central location within the state.
The first public university chartered under the US Constitution, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is one of three universities that claims to be the oldest public university in the United States and the only such institution to confer degrees in the eighteenth century as a public institution. During the Civil War, North Carolina Governor David Lowry Swain persuaded Confederate President Jefferson Davis to exempt some students from the draft, so the university was one of the few in the Confederacy that managed to stay open. However, Chapel Hill suffered the loss of more of its population during the war than any village in the South, when student numbers did not recover, the university was forced to close during Reconstruction from December 1, 1870 until September 6, 1875. Despite initial skepticism from university President Frank Porter Graham, on March 27, 1931, legislation was passed to group the University of North Carolina with the State College of Agriculture and Engineering and Woman's College of the University of North Carolina to form the Consolidated University of North Carolina.
In 1963, the consolidated university was made coeducational, although most women still attended Woman's College for their first two years, transferring to Chapel Hill as juniors, since freshmen were required to live on campus and there was only one women's residence hall. As a result, Woman's College was renamed the "University of North Carolina at Greensboro", the University of North Carolina became the "University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill." In 1955, UNC Chapel Hill desegregated its undergraduate divisions. During World War II, UNC Chapel Hill was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. During the 1960s, the campus was the location of significant political protest. Prior to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, protests about local racial segregation which began in Franklin Street restaurants led to mass demonstrations and disturbance; the climate of civil unrest prompted the 1963 Speaker Ban Law prohibiting speeches by communists on state campuses in North Carolina.
The law was criticized by university Chancellor William Brantley Aycock and university President William Friday, but was not reviewed by the North Carolina General Assembly until 1965. Small amendments to allow "infrequent" visits failed to placate the student body when the university's board of trustees overruled new Chancellor Paul Frederick Sh
One-room schools were commonplace throughout rural portions of various countries, including Prussia, Sweden, the United States, Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and Spain. In most rural and small town schools, all of the students met in a single room. There, a single teacher taught academic basics to several grade levels of elementary-age boys and girls. While in many areas one-room schools are no longer used, it is not uncommon for them to remain in developing nations and rural or remote areas. Examples include remote parts of the American West, the Falklands, the Shetland Islands. Prussia was among the first countries in the world to introduce a tax-funded and compulsory primary education for either boys and girls. In comparison, compulsory schooling in France or Great Britain was not enacted until the 1880s; the state-sponsored system was introduced in the late 18th century and has had a widespread influence since. The first Prussian schools were simple one-room schools, but by 1773 Friedrich Eberhard von Rochow had set up a model school with primary education in two separate age-grouped classes.
In Ireland, free primary education was mandated in 1831, prompting the establishment of many single-teacher National Schools across rural areas, most using a room in an existing building. By the 1890s there was a school in every parish. Most extant one- and two-room school buildings date from the decades after 1891 when primary education became compulsory. Most of those still in use today have been extended following merger with neighbouring schools. Since 2002, any state-funded school with at least 10 pupils is entitled to at least 2 teachers. In recent decades, an increasing number of schools have been founded for parents not content with the National School system; these include multi-denominational schools. Although such schools become eligible for state funding, they begin with a single teacher in a room or prefabricated building. Many schools served as the local chapel on Sundays, evening/Saturday meeting places for local people and activities. Being rural, many schools had no water or sanitation and this was provided by converting wells into toilets, melting snow for water in the winter and relying on the help of nearby farms in the summer.
Teaching standards varied from school to school as the teacher was compelled to coach children of all ages/grades within one room and regardless of their area of main competence. The quality of facilities at one-room schools varied with local economic conditions, but the number of children at each grade level would vary with local populations. Most buildings were of some with the school bell on a cupola. In the Midwest, sod construction was used, as well as stone and adobe in areas like the Southwest where trees were scarce. In some locations, the schoolhouse was painted red. Mission Ridge School was one of the early schools in West Virginia, it has since been moved to the West Virginia State Farm Museum complex near Point Pleasant. Examination of the materials in this building indicates that boards and timbers were hand-sawed and hand-planed. Square nails were used throughout the building. Except for the roof and a few boards in the floor, all of the material in this building is original; the blackboard is painted black.
It was not until much that slate was used for chalkboards, although students had individual slates for writing practice. Teachers in one-room schools were former students themselves, their role is well-described by a student from Kentucky in the 1940s: The teachers that taught in the one room, rural schools were special people. During the winter months they would get to the school early to get a fire started in the potbelly stove, so the building would be warm for the students. On many occasions they would prepare a hot, noon meal on top of the stove consisting of soup or stew of some kind, they took. A typical school day was 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. with morning and afternoon recesses of 15 minutes each and an hour period for lunch. "The older students were given the responsibility of bringing in water, carrying in coal or wood for the stove. The younger students would be given responsibilities according to their size and gender such as cleaning the black board, taking the erasers outside for dusting plus other duties that they were capable of doing."Transportation for children who lived too far to walk was provided by horse-drawn kid hack or sulky, which could only travel a limited distance in a reasonable amount of time each morning and evening, or students might ride a horse, these being put out to pasture in an adjoining paddock during the day.
In more recent times, students rode bicycles. The school house was the center and focus for thousands of rural communities and small towns. Town meetings and picnics were held there; the vast majority of one-room schools in the United States are no longer used as schools and have either been torn down or converted for other purposes. However, in some rural communities, including among the Amish, one-room or two-room schools are still used for elementary education, with students graduating to local or regional middle and high schools. There are several historic one-room schoolhouses in
A cubicle is a enclosed office workspace, separated from neighboring workspaces by partitions that are 5–6 feet tall. Its purpose is to isolate office workers and managers from the sights and noises of an open workspace so that they may concentrate with fewer distractions. Cubicles are composed of modular elements such as walls, work surfaces, overhead bins and shelving, which can be configured depending on the user's needs. Installation is performed by trained personnel, although some cubicles allow configuration changes to be performed by users without specific training. Cubicles in the 2010s are equipped with a computer, monitor and mouse on the work surface. Cubicles have a desk phone. Since many offices use overhead fluorescent lights to illuminate the office, cubicles may or may not have lamps or other additional lighting. Other furniture, used in cubicles includes an office chair, a filing cabinet for locking documents away, a bookcase and a coatrack; the office cubicle was created by designer Robert Propst for Herman Miller, released in 1967 under the name "Action Office II".
Although cubicles are seen as being symbolic of work in a modern office setting due to their uniformity and blandness, they afford the employee a greater degree of privacy and personalization than in previous work environments, which consisted of desks lined up in rows within an open room. They do so at a lower cost than private offices. In some office cubicle workspaces, employees can decorate the walls of their cubicle with posters and other items. A cubicle is called a cubicle desk, office cubicle, cubicle workstation, or a cube. An office filled with cubicles is sometimes called a sea of cubicles or cube farm. Although humorous, the phrase has negative connotations; the term cubicle comes for bed chamber. It was used in English as early as the 15th century, it came to be used for small chambers of all sorts, for small rooms or study spaces with partitions which do not reach to the ceiling. Like the older carrel desk, a cubicle seeks to give a degree of privacy to the user while taking up minimal space in a large or medium-sized room.
Prior to the widespread adoption of cubicles, office workers worked at desks arranged in rows in an open room, where they were exposed to the sounds and activity of those working around them. In 1960, Herman Miller created the Herman Miller Research Corporation under the direction of Robert Propst, the supervision of George Nelson, its mission was to solve problems related to the use of furniture, but not the furniture itself. The corporation's first major project was an evaluation of the "office" as it had evolved during the 20th Century, in particular, how it functioned in the 1960s. Propst's studies included learning about the ways people work in an office, how information travels, how the office layout affects their performance. Propst consulted with mathematicians, behavioral psychologists, anthropologists. Propst concluded from his studies that during the 20th Century the office environment had changed particularly in relation to the amount of information being processed; the amount of information an employee had to analyze and maintain had increased dramatically.
Despite this, the basic layout of the corporate office had remained unchanged, with employees sitting behind rows of traditional desks in a large open room, devoid of privacy. Propst's studies suggested that an open environment reduced communication between employees, impeded personal initiative. On this, Propst commented "One of the regrettable conditions of present day offices is the tendency to provide a formula kind of sameness for everyone." In addition, the employees' bodies were suffering from long hours of sitting in one position. Propst concluded that office workers require both privacy and interaction, depending on which of their many duties they were performing. Propst and the Research Corporation developed a plan, which George Nelson's office executed in the form of the Action Office I, introduced it in the Herman Miller lineup in 1964. AO-1 featured desks and workspaces of varying height which allowed the worker a freedom of movement, to assume the work position best suited for the task.
AO-1 was ideally suited to small professional offices in which managers and employees interacted using the same furnishings, but wasn't suitable for large corporation offices. In addition, it was difficult to assemble. Despite its shortcomings, Nelson won the Alcoa Award for the design, neglecting to mention Propst's contribution. Following the poor sales of the AO-1, Propst and Nelson went back to the drawing board. For several years and Nelson fought over a disagreement on the work environment best suited to the employee of a corporate office, Nelson was taken off the project. Nelson's departure left Propst free to indulge in his concept of an office capable of constant change to suit the changing needs of the employee, without having to purchase new furnishings, allowing the employee a degree of privacy, the ability to personalize the work environment without impacting the environment of the workers nearby. Propst recognized that people are more productive within a territorial enclave that they can personalize, but that they require vistas outside their space.
Propst's concept was the "back-up", a two- or three-sided vertical division that defined territory and afforded privacy without hindering the ability to view or participate in surrounding activities. Propst based AO-2 around the mobile wall-unit; the unit supported multiple workstation furnishings
Learning space or learning setting refers to a physical setting for a learning environment, a place in which teaching and learning occur. The term is used as a more definitive alternative to "classroom," but it may refer to an indoor or outdoor location, either actual or virtual. Learning spaces are diverse in use, learning styles, configuration and educational institution, they support a variety of pedagogies, including quiet study, passive or active learning, kinesthetic or physical learning, vocational learning, experiential learning, others. The word school derives from Greek σχολή meaning "leisure" and "that in which leisure is employed", "a group to whom lectures were given, school"; the Japanese word for school, means "learning garden" or "garden of learning". Kindergarten is a German word whose literal meaning is "garden for the children", however the term was coined in the metaphorical sense of "place where children can grow in a natural way". Over time different methods of instruction have led to different types of learning spaces.
Direct instruction is civilization's oldest method of formal, structured education and continues to be a dominant form throughout the world. In its essence it involves the transfer of information from one who possesses more knowledge to one who has less knowledge, either in general or in relation to a particular subject or idea; this method is used in traditional classrooms. The Socratic method was developed over two millennia ago in response to direct instruction in the scholae of Ancient Greece, its dialectic, questioning form continues to be an important form of learning in western schools of law. This method is used in seminar rooms and smaller lecture halls. Hands-on learning, a form of active and experiential learning, predates language and the ability to convey knowledge by means other than demonstration, has been shown to be one of the more effective means of learning and over the past two decades has been given an important role in education; this method is used in outdoor learning spaces, specialty labs, vocational shops, in physical education facilities.
Institutions that provide learning spaces can be categorized in several ways, including: Student age: kindergarten, elementary or primary school, middle school, secondary or high school Academic level: school, university, graduate school Physical, mental, or social development: special education, school for the deaf, school for the blind, etc. Pedagogy: traditional education, progressive education, Reggio Emilia approach, Waldorf schools, etc. Subject or focus: STEM, magnet school, vocational or trades school, flight school, sailing school, dive shops, finishing school, etc. Organizational, institutional, or philosophical type: public or state school, private school, independent school, community school, military school, parochial school Location: neighborhood, distance learning, online or virtual school or classroom, outdoor school or classroom Learning environments are organized into six pedagogical and physical models: Departmental model Integrative model Project based learning model Academy model Small learning communities model School-within-a-school model The physical, and/or virtual, characteristics of learning spaces play a strong role in their effectiveness and, by impacting student learning, on society.
As Winston Churchill stated: "we shape our buildings and afterwards our buildings shape us."The importance of interactions between individuals and their environment have long been established by Kurt Lewin's field theory and life space, Urie Bronfenbrenner's concept of microsystem, Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger's situated learning theory, others. Research continues to show us that active learning, learning spaces configured to support active learning, contribute to more effective learning and encourage different methods of instruction. Learning spaces extend well beyond real-world, "mortar" educational institutions, they are varied in style and location. Their physical characteristics include many variables, including size and shape. A basic tenet of learning spaces housed in buildings is to provide shelter, although many facilities from campuses to portable classrooms, do not provide shelter between individual spaces. Outdoor learning spaces rely on clothing and personal items to maintain comfort.
The location of the learning space affects both its functional and operational interrelationships with other spaces and instructor cohorts, learning programs, support spaces. The proportion of a space's height-width-length can affect the ability of learners to see instructional or demonstration material or the presenter; the orientation of the space towards adjacent spaces or the outdoor environment can affect activities, thermal comfort, as well as daylight penetration at different times of the day. Increased demand for flexibility and adaptability have seen greater use of to combine and separate spaces. Safety and security in schools, including major incidents of violence and vandalism have led to increased use of security monitoring systems, strategies such crime prevention through environmental design, sometimes competing discussions of transparency versus visible lockdown of learning spaces. Thermal comfort of a learning space is important for student comfort, therefore learning; this is affected by several factors: ambient room temperature, air movement (via open windows, mechanical ventilation, drafts across cold surf
Charlotte, North Carolina
Charlotte is the most populous city in the U. S. state of North Carolina. Located in the Piedmont, it is the county seat of Mecklenburg County. In 2017, the U. S. Census Bureau estimated the population was 859,035, making it the 17th-most populous city in the United States; the Charlotte metropolitan area's population ranks 22nd in the U. S. and had a 2016 population of 2,474,314. The Charlotte metropolitan area is part of a sixteen-county market region or combined statistical area with a 2016 census-estimated population of 2,632,249. Between 2004 and 2014, Charlotte was ranked as the country's fastest-growing metro area, with 888,000 new residents. Based on U. S. Census data from 2005 to 2015, it tops the 50 largest U. S. cities as the millennial hub. It is the second-largest city in the southeastern United States, just behind Florida, it is the third-fastest-growing major city in the United States. It is listed as a "gamma" global city by World Cities Research Network. Residents are referred to as "Charlotteans".
Charlotte is home to the corporate headquarters of Bank of America and the east coast operations of Wells Fargo, which along with other financial institutions has made it the second-largest banking center in the United States since 1995. Among Charlotte's many notable attractions, some of the most popular include the Carolina Panthers of the NFL, the Charlotte Hornets of the NBA, the Charlotte Checkers of the AHL, the Charlotte Independence of the USL, the Charlotte Hounds of Major League Lacrosse, two NASCAR Cup Series races and the NASCAR All-Star Race, the Wells Fargo Championship, the NASCAR Hall of Fame, the Charlotte Ballet, Children's Theatre of Charlotte, Carowinds amusement park, the U. S. National Whitewater Center. Charlotte has a humid subtropical climate, it is located several miles east of the Catawba River and southeast of Lake Norman, the largest man-made lake in North Carolina. Lake Wylie and Mountain Island Lake are two smaller man-made lakes located near the city; the Catawba Native Americans were the first known historic tribe to settle Mecklenburg County and were first recorded around 1567 in Spanish records.
By 1759 half the Catawba tribe had died from smallpox, endemic among Europeans, because the Catawba had no acquired immunity to the new disease. At the time of their largest population, Catawba people numbered 10,000, but by 1826 their total population had dropped to 110; the European-American city of Charlotte was developed first by a wave of migration of Scots-Irish Presbyterians, or Ulster-Scot settlers from Northern Ireland, who dominated the culture of the Southern Piedmont Region. They made up the principal founding European population in the backcountry. German immigrants settled the area before the American Revolutionary War, but in much smaller numbers, they still contributed to the early foundations of the region. Mecklenburg County was part of Bath County of New Hanover Precinct, which became New Hanover County in 1729; the western portion of New Hanover split into Bladen County in 1734, its western portion splitting into Anson County in 1750. Mecklenburg County formed from Anson County in 1762.
Further apportionment was made in 1792, after the American Revolutionary War, with Cabarrus County formed from Mecklenburg. In 1842, Union County formed from Mecklenburg's southeastern portion and a western portion of Anson County; these areas were all part of one of the original six judicial/military districts of North Carolina known as the Salisbury District. The area, now Charlotte was settled by people of European descent around 1755, when Thomas Spratt and his family settled near what is now the Elizabeth neighborhood. Thomas Polk, who married Thomas Spratt's daughter, built his house by the intersection of two Native American trading paths between the Yadkin and Catawba rivers. One path was part of the Great Wagon Road. Nicknamed the "Queen City", like its county a few years earlier, Charlotte was named in honor of German princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, who had become the Queen Consort of Great Britain and Ireland in 1761, seven years before the town's incorporation. A second nickname derives from the American Revolutionary War, when British commander General Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis occupied the city but was driven out by hostile residents.
He wrote that Charlotte was "a hornet's nest of rebellion", leading to the nickname "The Hornet's Nest". Within decades of Polk's settling, the area grew to become "Charlotte Town", incorporating in 1768; the crossroads in the Piedmont became the heart of Uptown Charlotte. In 1770, surveyors marked the streets in a grid pattern for future development; the east–west trading path became Trade Street, the Great Wagon Road became Tryon Street, in honor of William Tryon, a royal governor of colonial North Carolina. The intersection of Trade and Tryon—commonly known today as "Trade & Tryon," or "The Square"—is more properly called "Independence Square". While surveying the boundary between the Carolinas in 1772, William Moultrie stopped in Charlotte Town, whose five or six houses were "very ordinary built of logs". Local leaders came together in 1775 and signed the Mecklenburg Resolves, more popularly known as the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence. While not a true declaration of independence from British rule, it is among the first such declarations that led to the American Revolution.
May 20, the traditional date of the signing of the declaration, is celebrated annually in Charlotte as "MecDec", with musket and cannon fire by reenactors in Independence Square. North Carolina's state flag and state seal bea
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
A middle school is an educational stage which exists in some countries, providing education between primary school and secondary school. The concept and classification of middle schools, as well as the ages covered, vary between, sometimes within, countries. In Afghanistan, middle school consists of the primary school grades 5,6, 7 and the secondary school grade 8. In Albania, middle school is included in the primary education which lasts 9 years and attendance is mandatory. In Algeria, a middle school includes 4 grades; the ciclo básico of secondary education is equivalent to middle school. Most regions of Australia do not have middle schools, as students go directly from primary school to secondary school; as an alternative to the middle school model, some secondary schools divided their grades into "junior high school" and "senior high school". Some have three levels, "junior", "intermediate", "senior". In 1996 and 1997, a national conference met to develop what became known as the National Middle Schooling Project, which aimed to develop a common Australian view of early adolescent needs guiding principles for educators appropriate strategies to foster positive adolescent learning.
The first middle school established in Australia was The Armidale School, in Armidale. Other schools have since followed this trend; the Northern Territory has introduced a three tier system featuring Middle Schools for years 7–9 and high school year 10–12. Many schools across Queensland have introduced a Middle School tier within their schools; the middle schools cover years 5 to 8. In Bangladesh, middle school is not separated like other countries. Schools are from class 1 to class 10, it means upper primary. From class 6–8 is thought as middle school. Grades 1,2,3,4 and 5 are said to be primary school while all the classes from 6 to 9 are considered high school while 10–12 is called college. There aren't middle schools in Bolivia since 1994. Students aged 11–15 attend the last years of elementary education or the first years of secondary education. In Bosnia and Herzegovina "middle school" refers to educational institutions for ages between 14 and 18, lasts 3–4 years, following elementary school.
Gymnasiums are the most prestigious type of "middle" school. In Brazil, middle school is a mandatory stage that precedes High School called "Ensino Fundamental II" consisting of grades 6 to 9, ages 11 to 14. In Canada, the terms "Middle School" and "Junior High School" are both used, depending on which grades the school caters to. Junior high schools tend to include only grades 7, 8, sometimes 9, whereas middle schools are grades 6–8 or only grades 7–8 or 6–7, varying from area to area and according to population vs. building capacity. Another common model is grades 5–8. Alberta, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island junior high schools include only grades 7–9, with the first year of high school traditionally being grade 10. In some places students go from elementary school to secondary school, meaning the elementary school covers to the end of Grade 8. In Ontario, the term "Middle School" and "Senior Public School" are used, with the latter being used in the Old Toronto and Scarborough sections of Toronto plus in Mississauga and Kitchener-Waterloo.
In many smaller Ontario cities and in some parts of larger cities, most elementary schools serve junior kindergarten to grade 8 meaning there are no separate Middle Schools buildings, while in some cities specific schools do serve the intermediate grades but are still called "Elementary" or "Public" schools with no recognition of the grades they serve in their name. Quebec uses a grade system, different from those of the other provinces. In Quebec there is no Middle school section; the Secondary level has five grades starting after Elementary Grade 6. These are called Secondary I to Secondary V. There aren't middle schools in Chile. Students aged 11 to 16 attend the last years of educación básica or the first years of educación media. In the People's Republic of China, middle school has junior stage and senior stage; the junior stage education is the last 3 years of 9-year-compulsory education for all young citizens. Some middle schools have both stages; the admissions for most students to enroll in senior middle schools from junior stage are on the basis of the scores that they get in "Senior Middle School Entrance Exam", which are held by local governments.
Other students may bypass the exam, based on their distinctive talents, like athletics, or excellent daily performance in junior stage. Secondary education is divided into basic secondary and