Ecology is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment. Objects of study include interactions of organisms that include biotic and abiotic components of their environment. Topics of interest include the biodiversity, distribution and populations of organisms, as well as cooperation and competition within and between species. Ecosystems are dynamically interacting systems of organisms, the communities they make up, the non-living components of their environment. Ecosystem processes, such as primary production, nutrient cycling, niche construction, regulate the flux of energy and matter through an environment; these processes are sustained by organisms with specific life history traits. Biodiversity means the varieties of species and ecosystems, enhances certain ecosystem services. Ecology is not synonymous with natural history, or environmental science, it overlaps with the related sciences of evolutionary biology and ethology. An important focus for ecologists is to improve the understanding of how biodiversity affects ecological function.
Ecologists seek to explain: Life processes and adaptations The movement of materials and energy through living communities The successional development of ecosystems The abundance and distribution of organisms and biodiversity in the context of the environment. Ecology has practical applications in conservation biology, wetland management, natural resource management, city planning, community health, economics and applied science, human social interaction. For example, the Circles of Sustainability approach treats ecology as more than the environment'out there', it is not treated as separate from humans. Organisms and resources compose ecosystems which, in turn, maintain biophysical feedback mechanisms that moderate processes acting on living and non-living components of the planet. Ecosystems sustain life-supporting functions and produce natural capital like biomass production, the regulation of climate, global biogeochemical cycles, water filtration, soil formation, erosion control, flood protection, many other natural features of scientific, economic, or intrinsic value.
The word "ecology" was coined in 1866 by the German scientist Ernst Haeckel. Ecological thought is derivative of established currents in philosophy from ethics and politics. Ancient Greek philosophers such as Hippocrates and Aristotle laid the foundations of ecology in their studies on natural history. Modern ecology became a much more rigorous science in the late 19th century. Evolutionary concepts relating to adaptation and natural selection became the cornerstones of modern ecological theory; the scope of ecology contains a wide array of interacting levels of organization spanning micro-level to a planetary scale phenomena. Ecosystems, for example, contain interacting life forms. Ecosystems are dynamic, they do not always follow a linear successional path, but they are always changing and sometimes so that it can take thousands of years for ecological processes to bring about certain successional stages of a forest. An ecosystem's area can vary from tiny to vast. A single tree is of little consequence to the classification of a forest ecosystem, but critically relevant to organisms living in and on it.
Several generations of an aphid population can exist over the lifespan of a single leaf. Each of those aphids, in turn, support diverse bacterial communities; the nature of connections in ecological communities cannot be explained by knowing the details of each species in isolation, because the emergent pattern is neither revealed nor predicted until the ecosystem is studied as an integrated whole. Some ecological principles, however, do exhibit collective properties where the sum of the components explain the properties of the whole, such as birth rates of a population being equal to the sum of individual births over a designated time frame; the main subdisciplines of ecology, population ecology and ecosystem ecology, exhibit a difference not only of scale, but of two contrasting paradigms in the field. The former focus on organisms distribution and abundance, while the focus on materials and energy fluxes; the scale of ecological dynamics can operate like a closed system, such as aphids migrating on a single tree, while at the same time remain open with regard to broader scale influences, such as atmosphere or climate.
Hence, ecologists classify ecosystems hierarchically by analyzing data collected from finer scale units, such as vegetation associations and soil types, integrate this information to identify emergent patterns of uniform organization and processes that operate on local to regional and chronological scales. To structure the study of ecology into a conceptually manageable framework, the biological world is organized into a nested hierarchy, ranging in scale from genes, to cells, to tissues, to organs, to organisms, to species, to populations, to communities, to ecosystems, to biomes, up to the level of the biosphere; this framework exhibits non-linear behaviors.
Urban open space
In land use planning, urban open space is open space areas for "parks," "green spaces," and other open areas. The landscape of urban open spaces can range from playing fields to maintained environments to natural landscapes. Considered open to the public, urban open spaces are sometimes owned, such as higher education campuses, neighborhood/community parks/gardens, institutional or corporate grounds. Areas outside city boundaries, such as state and national parks as well as open space in the countryside, are not considered urban open space. Streets, piazzas and urban squares are not always defined as urban open space in land use planning; the terms "urban open space" can describe many types of open areas. One definition holds that, "As the counterpart of development, urban open space is a natural and cultural resource, synonymous with neither'unused land' nor'park and recreation areas." Another is "Open space is land and/or water area with its surface open to the sky, consciously acquired or publicly regulated to serve conservation and urban shaping function in addition to providing recreational opportunities."
In all instances, the space referred to by the term is, in fact, green space. However, there are examples of urban green space which, though not publicly owned/regulated, are still considered urban open space. From another standpoint public space in general is defined as the meeting or gathering places that exist outside the home and workplace that are accessible by members of the public, which foster resident interaction and opportunities for contact and proximity; this definition implies a higher level of community interaction and places a focus on public involvement rather than public ownership or stewardship. The benefits that urban open space provides to citizens can be broken into three basic forms. Psychological benefits gained by visitors to urban green spaces increased with their biodiversity, indicating that'green' alone is not sufficient. Urban open space is appreciated for the recreational opportunities it provides. Recreation in urban open space may include active recreation or passive recreation, which may entail being in the open space.
Research shows that when open spaces are attractive and accessible, people are more to engage in physical activity. Time spent in an urban open space for recreation offers a reprieve from the urban environment and a break from over-stimulation. Studies done on physically active adults middle aged and older show there are amplified benefits when the physical activities are coupled with green space environments; such coupling leads to decreased levels of stress, lowers the risk for depression as well as increase the frequency of participation in exercise. Casual group walks in a green environment increase one's positive attitude and lower stress levels as well as risk of depression; the conservation of nature in an urban environment has direct impact on people for another reason as well. A Toronto civic affairs bulletin entitled Urban Open Space: Luxury or Necessity makes the claim that "popular awareness of the balance of nature, of natural processes and of man’s place in and effect on nature – i.e. "ecological awareness" – is important.
As humans live more and more in man-made surroundings – i.e. cities – he risks harming himself by building and acting in ignorance of natural processes." Beyond this man-nature benefit, urban open spaces serve as islands of nature, promoting biodiversity and providing a home for natural species in environments that are otherwise uninhabitable due to city development. In a sense, by having the opportunity to be within a natural urban green space people gain a higher appreciation for the nature around them; as Bill McKibben mentions in his book The End of Nature, people will only understand nature if they are immersed within it. He follows in Henry David Thoreau's footsteps when he isolated himself in the Adirondack Mountains in order to get away from society and the overwhelming ideals it carries. There he writes how society and human impact follows him as he sees airplanes buzzing overhead or hears the roar of motorboats in the distance; the aesthetic value of urban open spaces is self-evident.
People enjoy viewing nature when it is otherwise extensively deprived, as is the case in urban environments. Therefore, open space offers the value of "substituting gray infrastructure." One researcher states how attractive neighborhoods contribute to positive attitudes and social norms that encourage walking and community values. Properties near urban open space tend to have a higher value. One study was able to demonstrate that, "a pleasant view can lead to a considerable increase in house price if the house overlooks water or open space." Certain benefits may be derived from exposure to virtual versions of the natural environment, too. For example, people who were shown pictures of scenic, natural environments had increased brain activity in the region associated with recalling happy memories, compared to people that were shown pictures of urban landscapes; the advocacy for mental health is becoming rampant, given the psychiatric illnesses that contribute to morbidity and mortality in the United States.
Health disparities existing within and amongst communities make this issue of paramount importance. The correlation between psychological distress and socioeconomic status has been examined. Sugiyama demonstrates that psychological distress is positively correlated with lower SES. A contributing factor to this socioeconomic disparity is the higher amounts
Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind. This includes all valued characteristics such as magnetic, electrical properties and forces etc. On earth it includes: sunlight, water, land along with all vegetation and animal life that subsists upon or within the heretofore identified characteristics and substances. Particular areas such as the rainforest in Fatu-Hiva are characterized by the biodiversity and geodiversity existent in their ecosystems. Natural resources may be further classified in different ways. Natural resources are components that can be found within the environment; every man-made product is composed of natural resources. A natural resource may exist as a separate entity such as fresh water, as well as a living organism such as a fish, or it may exist in an alternate form that must be processed to obtain the resource such as metal ores, rare earth metals and most forms of energy. There is much debate worldwide over natural resource allocations, this is true during periods of increasing scarcity and shortages.
There are various methods of categorizing natural resources, these include source of origin, stage of development, by their renewability. On the basis of origin, natural resources may be divided into two types: Biotic — Biotic resources are obtained from the biosphere, such as forests and animals, the materials that can be obtained from them. Fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum are included in this category because they are formed from decayed organic matter. Abiotic – Abiotic resources are those that come from non-living, non-organic material. Examples of abiotic resources include land, fresh water, rare earth metals and heavy metals including ores such as gold, copper, etc. Considering their stage of development, natural resources may be referred to in the following ways: Potential resources — Potential resources are those that may be used in the future—for example, petroleum in sedimentary rocks that, until drilled out and put to use remains a potential resource Actual resources — Those resources that have been surveyed and qualified and, are used—development, such as wood processing, depends on technology and cost Reserve resources — The part of an actual resource that can be developed profitably in the future Stock resources — Those that have been surveyed, but cannot be used due to lack of technology—for example, hydrogenMany natural resources can be categorized as either renewable or non-renewable: Renewable resources — Renewable resources can be replenished naturally.
Some of these resources, like sunlight, wind, etc, are continuously available and their quantity is not noticeably affected by human consumption. Though many renewable resources do not have such a rapid recovery rate, these resources are susceptible to depletion by over-use. Resources from a human use perspective are classified as renewable so long as the rate of replenishment/recovery exceeds that of the rate of consumption, they replenish compared to Non-renewable resources. Non-renewable resources – Non-renewable resources either form or do not form in the environment. Minerals are the most common resource included in this category. By the human perspective, resources are non-renewable when their rate of consumption exceeds the rate of replenishment/recovery; some resources naturally deplete in amount without human interference, the most notable of these being radio-active elements such as uranium, which decay into heavy metals. Of these, the metallic minerals can be re-used by recycling them, but coal and petroleum cannot be recycled.
Once they are used they take millions of years to replenish. Resource extraction involves any activity; this can range in scale to global industry. Extractive industries are, along with agriculture, the basis of the primary sector of the economy. Extraction produces raw material, processed to add value. Examples of extractive industries are hunting, mining and gas drilling, forestry. Natural resources can add substantial amounts to a country's wealth, however, a sudden inflow of money caused by a resource boom can create social problems including inflation harming other industries and corruption, leading to inequality and underdevelopment, this is known as the "resource curse". Extractive industries represent a large growing activity in many less-developed countries but the wealth generated does not always lead to sustainable and inclusive growth. People accuse extractive industry businesses as acting only to maximize short-term value, implying that less-developed countries are vulnerable to powerful corporations.
Alternatively, host governments are assumed to be only maximizing immediate revenue. Researchers argue; these present opportunities for international governmental agencies to engage with the private sector and host governments through revenue management and expenditure accountability, infrastructure development, employment creation and enterprise development and impacts on children girls and women. A strong civil society can play an important role in ensuring effective management of natural resources. Norway can ser
Upper Las Virgenes Canyon Open Space Preserve
The Upper Las Virgenes Canyon Open Space Preserve is a large open space nature preserve owned and operated by the Santa Monica Mountains Conservancy spanning nearly 3,000 acres in the Simi Hills of western Los Angeles County and eastern Ventura County. Part of Ahmanson Ranch, this area was sold by Seattle-based Washington Mutual to the Santa Monica Mountains Conservancy in late 2003 after lengthy issues concerning development in the chaparral shrub forest and oak savanna understory and overstory Plant communities, it was called Ahmanson Ranch Park. It sustained severe damage during the Woolsey Fire of 2018. For thousands of years the Chumash Native American tribe lived in the current Preserve's area; the Chumash had, prior to European involvement, at least one village on the land, Huwam, a multi-cultural village where Chumash and Tataviam peoples lived. On Bell Creek beside Escorpión Peak a large rocky mountain on the property of El Escorpion Park, is the reported site of this village; the peak is one of nine alignment points in Chumash territory and is essential to maintaining the balance of the natural world.
A cave known as The Cave of Munits exists just inside the property. This is the believed cave of a mythical Chumash shaman, killed after murdering the son of a Chumash chief; this cave appeared in the films The Canyon of Missing Men and Tarzan and the Golden Lion. The 1769 Juan Bautista de Anza expedition, the first European exploration by land of Las Californias, passed by the area; the U. S. National Park service's Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail goes through the Preserve, entering in Moore Canyon from El Escorpion Park and Vanowen Street; the Rancho El Escorpión was an 1845 Mexican land grant named after the Peak, was adjacent on the northeast side of the Preserve. From the 1920s to the 1950s many Westerns and other types of motion pictures were filmed here at the Laskey Mesa movie ranch area. In 1963, Home Savings of America obtained the property, called Ahmanson Ranch, it sat unused, with no plans for development, until 1989 when Home Savings of America announced their plans for the 5,400 acres property.
The plans included over 3,000 homes, two golf courses, 400,000 square feet of commercial and residential space. However, in 1998, Home Savings of America was bought by Washington Mutual for $6.4 billion. In 2003 the Santa Monica Mountains Conservancy purchased the land from WAMU for an open space preserve and nature reserve Park. On September 28, 2005, the Topanga Canyon Fire broke out between the west-bound State Route 118 and Topanga Canyon Boulevard. By September 29, the fire had reached the Preserve, burned a large portion of the park near, including, El Escorpion Park. By October 3, 2005, the fire had been contained. A total of 24,175 acres were burned, it cost over $8 million to contain and extinguish the fire; the effects of the fire were visible in the park, as much of the chaparral and grasslands were burned away, Oak tree canopies burned off. Since the California native plants have evolved with wildfires, from their basel roots and branches they re-sprouted the following fall and winter exhibiting an amazing new growth by the next spring.
There are two preserve trailheads. Located at the western end of Victory Blvd. in West Hills, the Victory Trailhead is the main trailhead for the Preserve. It features a large gravel parking lot with a Portable Toilet, cleaned at least weekly; the parking lot has room for buses and equestrian trailers. Parking is $3 for the day. Parking passes are available through The Santa Monica Mountains Conservancy website. Multi-park 5- and 7-day and single park 7-day passes are available. Parking is available outside the park gates on Victory Blvd. Gilmore St. and Country Oak Rd. A bulletin board featuring information on the Santa Monica Mountains Conservancy and recent park and system information is located in the parking lot. There are two picnic tables just inside the park and a large informational display featuring the history and wildlife of the Preserve; this trailhead is located west of Calabasas and north of the Ventura Freeway on Las Virgenes Canyon Road, at the end of the road. Parking is provided, with a large informational display featuring the history and wildlife of the Preserve.
There are several primary trails through which people can access the park. 1. The Victory Trailhead has a junction with two main trails; the first goes due west through the Preserve directly to Upper Las Virgenes Canyon and the trails of Cheeseboro/Palo Comado Canyon Park in the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area. The second goes south through the Preserve to the Laskey Mesa area, on to Upper Las Virgenes Canyon. 2. The Las Virgenes Road Trailhead's main trail heads into Upper Las Virgenes Canyon, with junctions for trails to Laskey Mesa and to Cheeseboro/Palo Comado Canyon Park, or continuing on north to the Bell Canyon area. 3. The El Escorpión Trail, runs from L. A. City's El Escorpión Park at the west end of Vanowen Street near Valley Circle Boulevard in West Hills through the preserve to the Victory Trailhead; the trail runs through Moore's Canyon past the Cave of Munits, has a gentle slope, can be taken in either direction. L. A. City's Bell Canyon Park is directly adjacent to the north of these two parks, with one trail along Bell Creek and others connecting southward.
These trails are available for walking, mountain biking, equestrian use during the hours of daylight, 7 days a week. Evening access is permitted for park scheduled event participants only. Unauthorized motor vehicles and motorbikes are not perm
Green Infrastructure or blue-green infrastructure is a network providing the “ingredients” for solving urban and climatic challenges by building with nature. The main components of this approach include stormwater management, climate adaptation, less heat stress, more biodiversity, food production, better air quality, sustainable energy production, clean water and healthy soils, as well as the more anthropocentric functions such as increased quality of life through recreation and providing shade and shelter in and around towns and cities. Green infrastructure serves to provide an ecological framework for social and environmental health of the surroundings. Green Infrastructure is considered a subset of Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure, defined in standards such as SuRe - the Standard for Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure. However, green infrastructure can mean "low-carbon infrastructure" such as renewable energy infrastructure and public transportation systems. Blue-Green infrastructure can be a component of'sustainable drainage systems' or'sustainable urban drainage systems' designed to manage water quantity and quality, while providing improvements to biodiversity and amenity.
Nature can be used to provide important services for communities by protecting them against flooding or excessive heat, or helping to improve air and water quality. When nature is harnessed by people and used as an infrastructural system it is called “green infrastructure”. Green infrastructure occurs at all scales, it is most associated with stormwater management systems, which are smart and cost-effective. However, green infrastructure is a larger concept and is associated with many other things. Green infrastructure serves to provide an ecological framework for social and environmental health of the surroundings. "Blue infrastructure" refers to urban infrastructure relating to water. Blue infrastructure is associated with green infrastructure in the urban setting and may be referred to as "blue-green" infrastructure when in combination. Rivers, streams and lakes may exist as natural features within cities, or be added to an urban environment as an aspect of its design. Urban developments on coasts may have pre-existing features of the coastline employed in their design.
Harbours, quays and other extensions of the urban environment may be added to capture benefits associated with the marine environment. There may considerable co-benefits to health and wellbeing of populations with access to blue spaces in the urban context; some people might expect that green spaces are excessive to maintain and extravagant in nature, but high-performing green spaces can provide real economic and social benefits. For example: Urban forestry in an urban environment can supplement managing storm water and reduce the energy usage costs and runoff in result. Bioretention systems can work to create a green transportation system. In result, high performing green spaces work to create a balance between built and natural environments. Higher abundance of green space in communities or neighborhoods is observed to have higher frequencies in participation of physical activity among elderly men. More green space around one's house is associated with better mental health. A study in 2012 that focused on 479 green infrastructure projects across the United States, found that 44% of green infrastructure projects reduced costs compared to the 31% that increased the costs.
The most notable cost savings were due to reduced stormwater runoff and decreased heating and cooling costs. Ideas for green urban structures began in the 1870 with concepts of urban farming and garden allotments. Alternative terminology includes stormwater best management practices, source controls, low impact development practices. Green infrastructure concepts originated in mid-1980s proposals for best management practices that would achieve more holistic stormwater quantity management goals for runoff volume reduction, erosion prevention, aquifer recharge. In 1987, amendments to the U. S. Clean Water Act introduced new provisions for management of diffuse pollutant sources from urban land uses, establishing the regulatory need for practices that, unlike conventional drainage infrastructure, managed runoff "at source." The law requires Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems to obtain discharge permits under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency published its initial MS4 regulations in 1990, requiring large MS4s to develop stormwater pollution prevention plans and implement "source control practices".
EPA's 1993 handbook, Urban Runoff Pollution Prevention and Control Planning, identified BMPs to consider in such plans, including vegetative controls, filtration practices and infiltration practices. Regulations covering smaller municipalities were published in 1999. MS4s provide drainage for 4 % of the land area. Green Infrastructure is a concept that highlights the importance of the natural environment in decisions about land-use planning. However, the term does not have a recognized definition. Known as “blue-green infrastructure” or “green-blue urban grids” the terms are used by many design-, conservation-, planning related disciplines and feature stormwater management, climate adaptation, multifunctional green space; the term "green infrastructure" is sometimes expanded to "multifunctional" green infrastructure. Multifunctionality in this context refers to the integration and interaction of different functions or activities on the same piece of l
The Simi Hills are a low rocky mountain range of the Transverse Ranges in eastern Ventura County and western Los Angeles County, of southern California, United States. The Simi Hills are aligned east-west and run for 26 miles, average around 7 mi in north-south width; the Simi Hills are part of the central Transverse Ranges System. They lie entirely within southeastern Ventura County, with some southern and eastern foothills within western Los Angeles County; the Simi Hills are on the western edge of the San Fernando Valley. The Simi Valley lies to the north, the Conejo Valley lies to the southwest; the San Fernando Valley communities of Chatsworth, West Hills, Woodland Hills are in the eastern hills and adjacent valley floor in Los Angeles city and county. The cities of Thousand Oaks, Agoura Hills, Simi Valley city are in the hills and adjacent valleys within Ventura County; the two nearby mountain ranges are: the higher Santa Susana Mountains adjacent on the northeast across Santa Susana Pass.
The hills provide the complete or partial watersheds for several year-round creeks and numerous seasonal streams. They include Las Virgenes Creek, Moore's Canyon Creek, Bell Creek, Dayton Creek, Woolsey Canyon Creek, Brandeis Creek, Runkle Canyon Creek, Arroyo Simi, Palo Comado Creek, Cheeseboro Creek, Arroyo Calabasas. Bell Creek and Arroyo Calabasas are the headwaters of the Los Angeles River, by name its beginning with their confluence in nearby Canoga Park. 90% of the Santa Susana Field Lab property drains into the Los Angeles River via tributaries. Peaks in this region include Simi Peak, 2,403 ft, Chatsworth Peak, 2,314 ft, Escorpión Peak, 1,475 ft; because of its low elevation, the Simi Hills experience rainy, mild winters. Snow is rare in the Simi Hills in the highest areas. Summers are warm and dry and wildfires do occur here. Cool winds from the Pacific Ocean come from the Oxnard Plain and blow into the inland areas through the Santa Clara River Valley and the Conejo Valley, though some low hills, such as Conejo Mountain, block these winds from the Conejo Valley.
The Simi Hills further block these winds, which bring cool weather in both summer and winter from the San Fernando Valley. The southern lower hills are covered in grasslands and oak savanna; the northern rocky hills area is chaparral shrubland and oak woodlands. The Simi Hills are part of the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion; the oaks include: the evergreen coastal live oak, the deciduous valley oak, the scrub oak. Riparian zone plants include California arroyo willows. Spring wildflowers include the redbush monkey flower, Plummer's mariposa lily, canyon sunflower. Poison oak is an important member of the native plant habitat community here; the Simi Hills is the principal, much wider, of only two terrestrial wildlife corridors linking the coastal Santa Monica Mountains with the inland Santa Susana Mountains, Topatopa Mountains, San Gabriel Mountains, all of the transverse ranges fauna community. The Simi Hills are the most critical wildlife corridor linkage for the Santa Monica Mountains to these and other Transverse Ranges further east.
The Simi's undeveloped native habitat provides routes that protect larger land wildlife of the Santa Monicas from genetic isolation. Large sections of the Simi Hills are protected by parks and open space preserves; the Santa Susana Field Laboratory property, a crucial wildlife corridor to the Santa Susanas, has been proposed for public open space parkland after the closed site's cleanup completion. The Simi Hills were inhabited for over 8,000 years by Paleo-indians and Chumash-Venturaño Native Americans for settlements and hunting grounds; the Chumash had the established village of Hu'wam in Cañon del Escorpión. It was a multicultural'crossroads' destination, where Chumash and Tataviam peoples traded and lived beside Bell Creek below Escorpión Peak, at the present day Bell Canyon Park; this peak in the Simi Hills is one of nine alignment points in Chumash territory and is essential to maintaining the balance of the natural world. Upstream were healing springs and are rock outcrop'grinding stones.'
The Burro Flats Painted Cave, an example of the Rock art of the Chumash people, is nearby. The Juan Bautista de Anza expedition passed through the area in 1769, being the first European sighting of the Simi Hills; the U. S. National Park Service administers the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail which enters at Moore Canyon in El Escorpión Park and crosses across the southern Hills through Upper Las Virgenes Canyon Open Space Preserve and Cheeseboro/Palo Comado Canyon Park to the Conejo Valley. In 1845 the land grant for Rancho El Escorpión, beside the Peak and named for it, was issued to one Chumash and two Tongva people and a rare instance of Native Americans being grantees, by Mexican Governor Pío Pico; the Rancho El Conejo was to the west, included that end of the Simi Hills. In the first half of the 20th century, there were four large movie ranches in the Simi Hills for filming motion pictures on location; the gated community of Bell Canyon began development of geographic Bell Canyon in the 1968.
To the north of U. S. 101, east of Thousand Oaks, west of Simi Valley the early 1960s suburban expansion of metropolitan Los Angeles brought the development of small to sized parcels of land in the Simi Hills. Hillside subd
A greenway is "a strip of undeveloped land near an urban area, set aside for recreational use or environmental protection". However, the term can in fact include "a scenic road" and though many are in urban areas, there are some rural greenways, as for example the Monadnock-Sunapee Greenway, a hiking trail in southern New Hampshire. A greenway is a trail found in both urban and rural settings, created out of a disused railway, canal towpath, utility or similar right of way, or derelict industrial land. Rail trails are one of the most common forms of greenway, they resemble linear parks. In Southern England, the term refers to ancient trackways or green lanes those found on chalk downlands, like the Ridgeway; the American author Charles Little in his 1990 book, Greenways for America, defines a greenway as: a linear open space established along either a natural corridor, such as a riverfront, stream valley or ridgeline, or overland along a railroad right-of-way converted to recreational use, a canal, scenic road or other route.
It is a landscaped course for pedestrian or bicycle passage. The term greenway comes from the green in green belt and the way in parkway, implying a recreational or pedestrian use rather than a typical street corridor, as well as an emphasis on introducing or maintaining vegetation, in a location where such vegetation is otherwise lacking; some greenways include community gardens as well as typical park-style landscaping of trees and shrubs. They tend to have a contiguous pathway. Greenways resemble linear parks. Though wildlife corridors are greenways, because they have conservation as their primary purpose, they are not managed as parks for recreational use, may not include facilities such as public trails. Tom Turner analyzed greenways in London looking for common patterns among successful examples, he was inspired by the pattern language technique of architect Christopher Alexander. Turner concluded there are seven types, or'patterns', of greenway which he named: parkway, paveway, skyway and cycleway.
The European Greenways Association defines it as "communication routes reserved for non-motorised journeys, developed in an integrated manner which enhances both the environment and quality of life of the surrounding area. These routes should meet satisfactory standards of width and surface condition to ensure that they are both user-friendly and low-risk for users of all abilities.". Charles Little describes five general types of greenways: Urban riverside greenways created as part of a redevelopment program along neglected run-down, city waterfronts. Recreational greenways, featuring paths and trails of various kinds relatively long distance, based on natural corridors as well as canals, abandoned rail beds, public rights-of-way. Ecologically significant natural corridors along rivers and streams and less ridgelines, to provide for wildlife migration and species interchange, nature study and hiking. Scenic and Historic routes along a road, highway or waterway, the most representative of them making an effort to provide pedestrian access along the route or at least places to alight from the car.
Comprehensive greenway systems or networks based on natural landforms such as valleys or ridges but sometimes an opportunistic assemblage of greenways and open spaces of various kinds to create an alternative municipal or regional green infrastructure. Greenways are vegetated and multi-purpose, they incorporate a bikeway within a linear park. In urban design, they are a component of planning for bicycle walkability. Greenways are found in rural areas as well as urban. Corridors redeveloped as greenways travel through both city and country, connecting them together. In rural areas greenways serve the purpose of providing residents access to open land managed as parks, as contrasted with land, vegetated but inappropriate for public use, such as agricultural land. Where the historic rural road network has been enlarged and redesigned to favor highspeed automobile travel, greenways provide an alternative for people who are elderly, less mobile or seeking a reflective pace. Greenways are found globally.
However, most examples are known to be in North America. In Australia, a foreshoreway is a greenway that provides a public right-of-way along the edge of the sea, open to both walkers and cyclists. Foreshoreways include oceanways, resemble promenades and boardwalks. Foreshoreways are concerned with the idea of sustainable transport and the term is used to avoid the suggestion that the route favours either pedestrians or cyclists. A foreshoreway is accessible to both pedestrians and cyclists and gives them the opportunity to move unimpeded along the seashore. Dead end paths that offer public access only to the ocean are not part of a foreshoreway. A foreshoreway corridor includes a number of traffic routes that provide access along an oceanfront, including: walking along the beach edge of foreshore off-road greenway edge of road off-road greenway on road bikeway on road private vehicles routes on road public transport corridorA major example is The Gold Coast Oceanway along beaches in Gold Coast, Queensland, a shared use pedestrian and cyclist pathway