A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
Voyager (Manilla Road album)
Voyager is an album released by heavy metal band Manilla Road in 2008. "Tomb of the Serpent King / Butchers of the Sea" - 9:02 "Frost and Fire" - 6:02 "Tree of Life" - 8:00 "Blood Eagle" - 6:11 "Voyager" - 9:31 "Eye of the Storm" - 4:40 "Return of the Serpent King" - 8:04 "Conquest" - 4:37 "Totentanz" - 7:57 Mark Shelton - vocals, electric guitar, 6- and 12-string acoustic guitars, Cathedral organ Cory Christner - drums Harvey Patrick - bass guitar, backing vocals
The Circus Maximus
The Circus Maximus is an album released by American Heavy Metal band Manilla Road in 1992. This album is not a Manilla Road album, but rather a Mark Shelton solo project that Black Dragon Records added the Manilla Road logo onto to sell more copies. "Throne of Blood" - 5:01 "Lux Aeterna" - 8:01 "Spider" - 7:15 "Murder by Degrees" - 4:28 "No Sign From Above" - 5:23 "In Gein We Trust" - 6:47 "Flesh and Fury" - 4:11 "No Touch" - 6:20 "Hack It Off" - 4:04 "Forbidden Zone" - 8:41 "She's Fading" - 8:00 Mark Shelton - vocals and guitars Aaron Brown - drums Andrew Coss - bass, keyboards
The Courts of Chaos (album)
The Courts of Chaos is an album released by American epic heavy metal band Manilla Road in 1990. This is the last album before the band split up, they reunited in 2001. "Road to Chaos" - 4:44 "Dig Me No Grave" - 4:21 "D. O. A." - 7:02 "Into the Courts of Chaos" - 5:23 "From Beyond" - 5:05 "A Touch of Madness" - 7:03 " The Impaler" - 3:27 "The Prophecy" - 7:01 "The Books of Skelos" - 8:08 "The Book of the Ancients" "The Book of Shadows" "The Book of Skulls" Reissued in 2002 by Iron Glory Records with a bonus track: 10. Far Side of the Sun - appeared on the Roadkill live album. Mark Shelton - vocals and guitars Randy Foxe - drums and keyboards Scott Park - bass Official Manilla Road site The Courts of Chaos album details The Courts of Chaos album details and review on Metal Storm
Out of the Abyss
Out of the Abyss is the seventh studio album released by the band Manilla Road. It was first issued in 1988 on Black Dragon Records re-released in 2005 on Cult Metal Classics. Though the band had been increasing the thrash metal influence to their music since their album Open the Gates, this album was its peak, being completely thrash metal. "Whitechapel" – 7:16 "Rites of Blood" – 4:18 "Out of the Abyss" – 3:25 "Return of the Old Ones" – 6:22 "Black Cauldron" – 2:57 "Midnight Meat Train" – 3:00 "War in Heaven" – 4:58 "Slaughterhouse" – 3:40 "Helicon" – 6:39 Mark Shelton – Lead vocals, guitars Scott Park – Bass Guitar Randy Foxe – Backing vocals and percussion
Heavy metal music
Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s in the United Kingdom. With roots in blues rock, psychedelic rock, acid rock, the bands that created heavy metal developed a thick, massive sound, characterized by amplified distortion, extended guitar solos, emphatic beats, overall loudness; the genre's lyrics and performance styles are sometimes associated with machismo. In 1968, three of the genre's most famous pioneers, Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath and Deep Purple were founded. Though they came to attract wide audiences, they were derided by critics. During the mid-1970s, Judas Priest helped spur the genre's evolution by discarding much of its blues influence. Beginning in the late 1970s, bands in the new wave of British heavy metal such as Iron Maiden and Def Leppard followed in a similar vein. Before the end of the decade, heavy metal fans became known as "metalheads" or "headbangers". During the 1980s, glam metal became popular with groups such as Mötley Crüe.
Underground scenes produced an array of more aggressive styles: thrash metal broke into the mainstream with bands such as Metallica, Slayer and Anthrax, while other extreme subgenres of heavy metal such as death metal and black metal remain subcultural phenomena. Since the mid-1990s popular styles have further expanded the definition of the genre; these include groove metal and nu metal, the latter of which incorporates elements of grunge and hip hop. Heavy metal is traditionally characterized by loud distorted guitars, emphatic rhythms, dense bass-and-drum sound, vigorous vocals. Heavy metal subgenres variously alter, or omit one or more of these attributes; the New York Times critic Jon Pareles writes, "In the taxonomy of popular music, heavy metal is a major subspecies of hard-rock—the breed with less syncopation, less blues, more showmanship and more brute force." The typical band lineup includes a drummer, a bassist, a rhythm guitarist, a lead guitarist, a singer, who may or may not be an instrumentalist.
Keyboard instruments are sometimes used to enhance the fullness of the sound. Deep Purple's Jon Lord played an overdriven Hammond organ. In 1970, John Paul Jones used a Moog synthesizer on Led Zeppelin III; the electric guitar and the sonic power that it projects through amplification has been the key element in heavy metal. The heavy metal guitar sound comes from a combined use of heavy distortion. For classic heavy metal guitar tone, guitarists maintain moderate levels gain at moderate levels, without excessive preamp or pedal distortion, to retain open spaces and air in the music. Thrash metal guitar tone has scooped mid-frequencies and compressed sound with lots of bass frequencies. Guitar solos are "an essential element of the heavy metal code... that underscores the significance of the guitar" to the genre. Most heavy metal songs "feature at least one guitar solo", "a primary means through which the heavy metal performer expresses virtuosity"; some exceptions are nu grindcore bands, which tend to omit guitar solos.
With rhythm guitar parts, the "heavy crunch sound in heavy metal... palm muting" the strings with the picking hand and using distortion. Palm muting creates a tighter, more precise sound and it emphasizes the low end; the lead role of the guitar in heavy metal collides with the traditional "frontman" or bandleader role of the vocalist, creating a musical tension as the two "contend for dominance" in a spirit of "affectionate rivalry". Heavy metal "demands the subordination of the voice" to the overall sound of the band. Reflecting metal's roots in the 1960s counterculture, an "explicit display of emotion" is required from the vocals as a sign of authenticity. Critic Simon Frith claims; the prominent role of the bass is key to the metal sound, the interplay of bass and guitar is a central element. The bass guitar provides the low-end sound crucial to making the music "heavy"; the bass plays a "more important role in heavy metal than in any other genre of rock". Metal basslines vary in complexity, from holding down a low pedal point as a foundation to doubling complex riffs and licks along with the lead or rhythm guitars.
Some bands feature the bass as a lead instrument, an approach popularized by Metallica's Cliff Burton with his heavy emphasis on bass guitar solos and use of chords while playing bass in the early 1980s. Lemmy of Motörhead played overdriven power chords in his bass lines; the essence of heavy metal drumming is creating a loud, constant beat for the band using the "trifecta of speed and precision". Heavy metal drumming "requires an exceptional amount of endurance", drummers have to develop "considerable speed and dexterity... to play the intricate patterns" used in heavy metal. A characteristic metal drumming technique is the cymbal choke, which consists of striking a cymbal and immediately silencing it by grabbing it with the other hand, producing a burst of sound; the metal drum setup is much larger than those employed in other forms of rock music. Black metal, death metal and some "mainstream metal" bands "all depend upon double-kicks and blast beats". In live performance, loudness—an "onslaught of sound", in sociologist Deena Weinstein's description—is considered vital.
In his book Metalheads, psychologist Jeffrey Arnett refers to heavy me
Roadkill (Manilla Road album)
Roadkill is a live album released by the band Manilla Road in 1988 on Black Dragon Records. "Dementia" – 3:08 "Open the Gates" – 2:15 "Mystification" – 5:25 "The Deluge" – 7:21 "Masque of the Red Death" – 5:06 "Witches Brew" – 5:21 "Spirits of the Dead" – 4:12 "Far Side of the Sun" – 5:57 "Dementia" – 3:08 "Open the Gates" – 2:15 "Mystification" – 5:25 "The Deluge" – 7:21 "Masque of the Red Death" – 5:06 "Witches Brew" – 5:21 "Spirits of the Dead" – 4:12 "Far Side of the Sun" – 5:57 "Death by the Hammer" – 3:45 "Shadows in the Black" - 5:25 "Hammer of the Witches" - 2:42 "Taken by Storm" - 3:21 "Friction in Mass" - 6:32 "Rest in Pieces" - 1:49 "Isle of the Dead" - 2:54 Mark Shelton - Lead vocals, guitars Scott Park - Bass Guitar Randy Foxe - Backing vocals and percussion