In video games, an open world is a virtual world in which the player can explore and approach objectives as opposed to a world with more linear and structured gameplay. While games have used open-world designs since the 1980s, the implementation in Grand Theft Auto III set a standard, used since. Games with open or free-roaming worlds lack level structures like walls and locked doors, or the invisible walls in more open areas that prevent the player from venturing beyond them. Players do not encounter loading screens common in linear level designs when moving about the game world, with the open world game using strategic storage and memory techniques to load the game world in a dynamic and seamless manner. Open-world games still enforce many restrictions in the game environment, either because of absolute technical limitations or in-game limitations imposed by a game's linearity. While the openness of the game world is an important facet to games featuring open worlds, the main draw of open world games is about providing the player with autonomy - not so much the freedom to do anything they want in the game, but the ability to choose how to approach the game and its challenges in the order and manner as the player desires while still constrained by gameplay rules.
Examples of high level of autonomy in computer games can be found in massively multiplayer online role-playing games or in single-player games adhering to the open-world concept such as the Fallout series. The main appeal of open-world gameplay is that they provide a simulated reality and allow players to develop their character and its behaviour in the direction and the pace of their own choosing. In these cases, there is no concrete goal or end to the game, although there may be the main storyline, such as with games like The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim. An open world is a level or game designed as nonlinear, open areas with many ways to reach an objective; some games are designed with both open-world levels. An open world facilitates greater exploration than a series of smaller levels, or a level with more linear challenges. Reviewers have judged the quality of an open world based on whether there are interesting ways for the player to interact with the broader level when they ignore their main objective.
Some games use real settings to model an open world, such as New York City. A major design challenge is to balance the freedom of an open world with the structure of a dramatic storyline. Since players may perform actions that the game designer did not expect, the game's writers must find creative ways to impose a storyline on the player without interfering with their freedom; as such, games with open worlds will sometimes break the game's story into a series of missions, or have a much simpler storyline altogether. Other games instead offer side-missions to the player. Most open-world games make the character a blank slate that players can project their own thoughts onto, although several games such as Landstalker: The Treasures of King Nole offer more character development and dialogue. Writing in 2005, David Braben described the narrative structure of current videogames as "little different to the stories of those Harold Lloyd films of the 1920s", considered genuinely open-ended stories to be the "Holy Grail we are looking for in fifth generation gaming".
Gameplay designer Manveer Heir, who worked on Mass Effect 3 and Mass Effect Andromeda for Electronic Arts, said that there are difficulties in the design of an open-world game since it is difficult to predict how players will approach solving gameplay challenges offered by a design, in contrast to a linear progression, needs to be a factor in the game's development from its onset. Heir opined that some of the critical failings of Andromeda were due to the open world being added late in development; some open-world games, to guide the player towards major story events, do not provide the world's entire map at the start of the game, but require the player to complete a task to obtain part of that map identifying missions and points of interest when they view the map. This has been derogatorily referred to as "Ubisoft towers", as this mechanic was promoted in Ubisoft's Assassin's Creed series and reused in other Ubisoft games, including Far Cry, Might & Magic X: Legacy and Watch Dogs. Other games that use this approach include Middle-Earth: Shadow of Mordor and The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild.
Games with open worlds give players infinite lives or continues, although some force the player to start from the beginning should they die too many times. There is a risk that players may get lost as they explore an open world. Procedural generation refers to content generated algorithmically rather than manually, is used to generate game levels and other content. While procedural generation does not guarantee that a game or sequence of levels is nonlinear, it is an important factor in reducing game development time and opens up avenues making it possible to generate larger and more or less unique seamless game worlds on the fly and using fewer resources; this kind of procedural generation is known as worldbuilding, in which general rules are used to construct a believable world. Most 4X and roguelike games make use of procedural generation to some extent to generate game levels. SpeedTree is an example of a developer-oriented tool used in the develop
San Beda College Alabang and is an autonomous college affiliated with San Beda University, a private Roman Catholic university run by the Benedictine monks in the Philippines. It is located in Alabang in Metro Manila; the Benedictine monks came to the Philippines on September 12, 1895. They started missionary work in Surigao in 1896. Rev. José Deas y Villar, OSB founded the Benedictine community in Mindanao. A few years after the monks’ Mindanao mission, the Benedictine community transferred their residence and apostolate to Balmes Street in Quiapo, Manila. Under the leadership of Fr. Juan Sabater, OSB, El Colegio de San Beda was established in 1901 in Manila. Restiveness marked the late 1960s and the early 1970s, which led to the decision by the Benedictine monks to establish another campus outside Manila, they decided on Alabang in Muntinlupa as the site of the new campus. A modern edifice was constructed in 1972 on a nine and a half hectare lot inside the Alabang Hills Village. On July 10, 1972, Benedictine Abbey School opened its doors to girls.
Fr. Roberto de Jesus, OSB, the first Rector, supervised the growing years of the new institution. BAS opened its high school department in 1977. Both elementary and high school departments gained accreditation from the Philippine Accrediting Association of Schools and Universities. Fr. Bellarmine R. Baltasar, OSB, who served as Rector for a decade, established the tertiary level which opened on the Benedictines' centennial anniversary in the Philippines; the school was renamed St. Benedict College on June 5, 1995. Along with this came the construction of the Fr. Bellarmine Baltasar Gym. Under the leadership of Fr. Tarcisio H. Narciso, OSB, the college department offered business oriented courses; the department welcomed 208 students and 15 faculty members recruited from other colleges and universities and from the roster of the San Beda University high school and grade school faculty. In the succeeding years, the college opened additional courses that catered to the arts and other sciences. St. Bede Hall was constructed in March 1996 and inaugurated on July 1, 1997 in time for the institution’s silver jubilee.
In 2001, Fr. Aloysius A. Maranan, OSB, Rector and concurrent Dean, renamed the college department the "College of Arts & Sciences." He focused on revitalizing the CAS through extensive operational and academic policies, curriculum adjustments, administrator overhauls and faculty development. On September 7, 2004, after 32 years since its establishment, the college made the decision to adopt the secondary name of the institution as its official name. Fr. Anscar Chupungco, OSB, Rector-President led the decision in response to the growing demand of the institute's stakeholders. Fr. Chupungco led the expansion of the higher education departments by opening the School of Law in 2005, it began as an extension of San Beda University in Manila until the new department became a separate entity in 2009. With the assumption of Dom Clement Ma. H. Roque, OSB as the eighth Rector-President in 2008 and his re-election in 2010, the school's efforts towards PAASCU accreditation were placed. Construction of new facilities like the St. Maur Building for the School of Law were accomplished at the same time with the upgrading of sports facilities.
In 2013, Rev. Fr. Anselm M. Manalastas, OSB was installed as the ninth rector, which occurred after the passing of its seventh rector-president. On July 2, 2015, SBCA inaugurated its Graduate School with its initial offering of a degree leading to Master in Business Administration. Responding to the government’s mandate of an expanded basic education program, the school began preparations for the transition to the new curriculum. A task force on the Senior High program was created by Rev. Fr. Anselm M. Manalastas, OSB in 2013. In April 2016, the Board of Trustees approved the establishment of the Senior High School Department as a separate unit from the IBED department; the move was in line with the strategy to position the SHS as a college preparatory program and align it with the course offerings of the CAS. Dom Clement Ma. H. Roque, OSB, Rector-President led the ground-breaking of the SHS building, named Our Lady of Montserrat Hall on May 14, 2016 together with the members of the Board of Trustees which opened on January 20, 2018.
In 2019, Fr. Gerardo Ma. A. De Villa, OSB was installed as the eleventh Rector-President of San Beda College Alabang; the San Beda School of Law in Alabang was established in 2004 and has been declared autonomous from the San Beda Law School in Mendiola, with lawyer Ulpiano P. Sarmiento III as its first dean. Among San Beda Alabang's faculty members are former Philippine senator Rene Saguisag, Rene Sarmiento, a former commissioner of the Philippines' Commission on Elections, the lawyer brothers Sigfrid and Raymond Fortun. San Beda College Alabang established the Center for Performing Arts in 2007; the center offers short courses in theatre, acting and music
Gajits Music Software known as Software Technology Ltd. was a software company based in Manchester, England. The company developed music software for the Atari Commodore Amiga in the early 1990s. Sequencer One - MIDI sequencer Sequencer One Plus - MIDI sequencer Breakthru - MIDI sequencer Breakthru Plus - MIDI sequencer Sample Series - IFF format sample collection CM-Panion - Editor/librarian for the Roland MT-32 and CM-series synthesizers 4D Companion - Editor/librarian for Roland D-series synthesizers The Hit Kit! - MIDI sequence patterns The Atari ST version of Sequencer One was used in the production of the number one single "Your Woman" by White Town
Es ist ein Ros entsprungen is the setting of the Christmas carol Es ist ein Ros entsprungen for two choirs a cappella by Swedish composer Jan Sandström. The work of 1990, which incorporates the harmonization by Praetorius, is one of his signature compositions, along with his Trombone Concerto No. 1, the Motorbike Concerto. Jan Sandström composed the work in one year after the success of his Motorbike Concerto, he took the four-part setting of the Christmas carol Es ist ein Ros entsprungen by Michael Praetorius as a starting point. Line by line, he placed it in slow motion within an eight-part a cappella setting. Choir I in four parts, singing Praetorius, can be performed by soloists. Choir II in eight parts is hummed throughout; the way of combining a chorale as a cantus firmus with different musical material is similar to chorale preludes, but in this case the cantus firmus is quoted not only in the melody but a full harmonization, the contrasting music is given to voices. Their humming renders the work suitable for international presentation.
The work was first published in 1995 by Stockholm. It is available as a single copy or in the collection Cantemus 3, it is published for the U. S. by Walton Music as "Lo, How a Rose E'er Blooming / Es ist ein Ros entsprungen". It is written in F major in common time with a tempo indication of ♩=56, slow since Sandström has changed the note grades so that this is equivalent to ♩=28 in Praetorius's notation and he uses the longest notes; the voices of choir II enter one after the other within four measures, from the lowest to the highest, starting ppp and increasing to piano. All voices but bass II, which stays on its first note F, move upwards from their first note to a second on which they stay, building up a chord into which choir I enters in measure 5 ppp to piano and back again on the words "Es ist ein Ros entsprungen"; the chords in choir II change subtly by voices moving or pausing supporting the harmonies of Praetorius. Choir II is singing alone for more than a measure before choir I continues "aus einer Wurzel zart".
The composition is a highlight of Christmas programs by vocal ensembles. In 2007 it was included in a broadcast from Kings College Chapel on Christmas Eve, with the Choir of King's College, conducted by Stephen Cleobury. Chanticleer performed it in 2007 and commissioned the composer to write a piece for them for the Christmas season of 2010, which resulted in The Word Became Flesh. In 2010 it was broadcast twice by the BBC in a Choral Evensong from Winchester College. New England Conservatory's Chamber Singers and Concert Choir included the composition in their 2011 Lessons and Carols program, it is on the 2011 Christmas program of the NDR Chor in St. Nikolai. In 2002, the chamber choir Dresdner Kammerchor, conducted by Hans-Christoph Rademann, included it on their CD Weihnachten, it was described in a review as an "absolutely otherworldly setting... Praetorius meets Ligeti". Performed by the Dale Warland Singers, the composition is part of a 2005 CD Noel – A Music Feast, a charitable project which features "Carol of the Bells" and "Hallelujah" from Messiah, sung by the Westminster Choir.
In 2009, a CD titled Es ist ein Ros' entsprungen – Christmas Music for Choir and Organ combined several settings of the tune, the original by Praetorius, an organ prelude by Johannes Brahms, variations on it by Hugo Distler from Die Weihnachtsgeschichte and Sandström's setting, together with related Christmas music, performed by Vox Bona, the chamber choir of the Kreuzkirche, conducted by Karin Freist-Wissing. Reviewer Dan Morgan commented on Sandström's work: "From its dark, monastic beginning rising to a radiant, multi-layered crescendo, this is the disc's crowning glory.... It's an extraordinary fusion of old and new, a minor masterpiece that deserves the widest possible audience." Stefan Schmöe compared the "schwebende Klangflächen" of the added second chorus to an acoustic halo. John Miller describes Sandström's addition as a "timeless, dream-like sound-scape of poignantly dissonant polyphonic strands". In 2011, Es ist ein Ros entsprungen was recorded by the TOWER Voices New Zealand for their CD A Voices Christmas.
The Crypt Choir of The King's School, Canterbury included it on the program A Spotless Rose, recommended by the Royal School of Church Music. The Society of Swedish Composers selected it for its "Composer's Radio 2011" titled "Inspirations"
Jess Johnson is a New York-based New Zealand contemporary artist who works in drawing, installation and virtual reality. Her drawings depict alternative realms while her collaborations with Simon Ward and Andrew Clarke adapt the world of her drawings into video animations and virtual reality. Jess Johnson was born in Tauranga, New Zealand in 1979, she grew up in Mount Maunganui, New Zealand and attended University of Canterbury in Christchurch from 1997–2001, where she earned a BFA. In 2004 she moved to Melbourne, where she co-founded and ran Hell Gallery from 2008–2011, she began exhibiting her work in group and solo shows throughout Australia in New Zealand, including shows at institutions such as the Museum of Contemporary Art in Sydney and the National Gallery of Victoria in Melbourne. In 2016 she relocated permanently to New York City after participating in the Australia Council's Greene Street residency in SoHo. Johnson's drawings include bold colors and fractal geometric shapes, humanoid figures, alien creatures, structures that draw from both classical and ancient architecture.
They have been likened to the work of Japanese pop-psychedelia artist Keiichi Tanaami. Although the detail and precision of her drawings suggest digital composition, the drawings are all done by hand. Mistakes made during the creation of her drawings "act as mutational directions" that she incorporates into them, she has said: "If I were able to digitally erase my mistakes, I wouldn't get that organic growth in the world. I like that it's a little out of my control and driven by something else."About Johnson's drawings, Chloe Mandryk of Art Almanac wrote: Jess Johnson's complex and sensuous images use bold colour and a geometric bravura that conjure the glow and kinaesthesia of arcade video games and the'wormholes' of speculative thought so key to good science fiction. Her humanoids occupy a virtual reality comprised of patterns and ancient architectural forms that delineate the boundaries of these imagined spaces. Johnson has discussed the role of text in the creation of her drawings: Whenever I start a new drawing I first choose a piece of text from one of my notebooks.
The text is always the starting point. Whatever amorphous vibe the words give off determines the imagery that comes; the phrases are rhythmic and I choose them because they get stuck in my head like thought-worms. The text plays a practical role in the construction of the drawings; the letters and words are like scaffolding and I arrange the composition around them. The number of letters gives me mathematical starting points for mapping out other areas. In 2014, Johnson began collaborating with video artist Simon Ward to adapt her drawings into animated video, their first collaborative work, the single-channel high-definition digital video Mnemonic Pulse, premiered at Gertrude Contemporary in Melbourne in March 2014. Composer Andrew Clarke created original audio for the piece and continues to collaborate with Johnson and Ward; the first virtual reality work created by Johnson and Clarke, Ixian Gate, premiered in 2015 as the centerpiece of Johnson's solo exhibition, WURM HAUS, at the National Gallery of Victoria in Melbourne.
Johnson participated in the Oculus Rift Launchpad Program at Facebook HQ in May 2016. Johnson and Ward began creating a series of five HD video animations, each of which translated a single drawing by Johnson into "richly rendered 3-dimensional animations, digitally extrapolating Johnson's planar surfaces into tonally modelled architectures and bodies." Drawings translated in this series are Worldweb Allthing, Transkin Simulator, Whilst In Genuflect, Milxyz Wae, Worldken. In 2017, the installation piece WHOL WHY WURLD collected these five videos and displayed them on five HD televisions mounted on poles around the perimeter of a painted decagon platform; the videos played on a continuous loop. WHOL WHY WURLD premiered at The National 2017 at Carriageworks in Sydney. An edition of WWW was acquired in 2018 by Buxton Contemporary in Melbourne and presented as part of the museum's inaugural The shape of things to come exhibition. WHOL WHY WURLD was a finalist for the 2018 Walters Prize. Both Ixian Gate and Whol Why Wurld were featured in Johnson's first solo exhibition in the United States, Everything not saved will be lost, in September 2017 at Jack Hanley Gallery.
The show was reviewed in the November 2017 edition of ArtForum magazine. In May 2017, Johnson and Ward received a commission from the National Gallery of Australia for a major new virtual reality work as part of their Balnaves Contemporary Intervention Series. Five new VR pieces premiered as part of Terminus and Ward's exhibition at the NGA opening 4 May 2018. In an interview in Ocula Magazine, Johnson discussed how her drawing practice translated to her work in VR, as a means to catapult the viewer'to a different planet entirely.' Johnson has identified a wide range of influences including the ideas of Terence McKenna. Neon Meat Dream, Nanzuka Gallery, Japan, 2019 Panspermia, Sing Omega, Jack Hanley Gallery, New York, NY, 2019 Terminus, National Gallery of Australia, Canberra, 2018 Auckland Art Fair, Ivan Anthony Gallery, New Zealand, 2018 Everything not saved will be lost, Jack Hanley Gallery, New York, NY, 2017 Jess Johnson at CLIFT, presented by FOUR A. M, San Francisco, CA, 2017 Hex Nemesis, Fremantle Arts Centre, Australia, 2017 Chondrule Terminus, Dark Mofo: Welcome Stranger, Australia, 2017 Darren Knigh
The World Bank Group, composed of five institutions, works together with the Panamanian government using sustainable solutions to reduce poverty and increase prosperity. Panama first became a member of the World Bank Group in March 14, 1946. In the past decade, Panama's annual growth has increased by 7.2% in the span of 12 years, making it one of the fastest growing economies in the world. In 2019, Panama was ranked the second fastest growing economy in Latin America by the World Bank; as of 2019, Panama has $435.59 million US dollars being distributed amongst seven projects, all geared toward their overall goal of poverty reduction and indigenous inclusion. Continuing with their efforts to reduce extreme poverty, the World Bank along with efforts of the Panamanian government has reduced poverty from 39.9% to 26.2% while extreme poverty has been reduced by an estimated 15.6% to 11.3% from 2014-2019. As of late 2019, there is an estimated $213.26 million US dollars of undisbursed loans. The five institutions of the World Bank are the IBRD, IDA, IFC, MIGA, ICSID.
Panama has projects with three institutions of the World Bank given they are not eligible for IDA Loans and have no connections with ICSID. They have a total of 66 disclosed projects with IBRD, 20 with IFC and 2 with MIGA. Panama holds 0.07% of all IBRD and IFC votes, 0.04% of IDA votes, 0.21% of MIGA votes, respectively. Out of these three institutions, IBRD financing have impacted the economy of Panama the most from 2008 to 2019. Working together, these five institutions and the Panamanian government developed the Country Partnership Framework of 2015-2021 in 2015 to outline the specific areas needed for improvement and development in the country; as outlined by this plan, there are three specific areas of focus needed for the continued improvement of the country: the support of continued growth, the inclusion and opportunity for growth of marginalized and indigenous communities and supporting resilience and sustainability through the country. Following the goals of the CPF, the Panamanian government ensures the support of growth through the economy with investments in infrastructure and logistics projects.
Additionally, the Panamanian government has increased funding for the tourism sector as it has shown to increase economic growth by 0.4% in Latin America countries. The Support for the National Indigenous Peoples Development Plan was first voted on March 15, 2018 as part of Panamas continuous efforts of increased inclusivity and fairness; the original closing date for this plan is set to be June 30, 2023. The project itself is set to cost an estimated $85.20 million US dollars with a commitment of $80.00 million US dollars made by the World Bank. The goal of this plan is to strengthen the capacity of Indigenous authorities to decide on investments of Indigenous land and resources used by the government. Additionally, the plan is set to aid in the delivery of public services to these indigenous communities; as of December 2019, this plan has an "Overall Implementation Progress" score of moderately unsatisfactory and a "Progress toward Achievement" score of moderately satisfactory. The implementation process in the year of 2019 has been delayed due to elections and changes in government in Panama, all which began in February 2019.
In response, the Indigenous communities of Panama have expressed their need for urgent implementation and demanded the Panamanian government begin implementation before the end of 2019. In their efforts to strengthen shared prosperity in Panama, the Panamanian government, along with the help of the World Bank, approved the Burunga Wastewater Management Project in March 17, 2017; the projected closing date for this project is set to be December 31, 2021. This project is set to cost $81.20 million US dollars, with a commitment of $65.00 million US dollars made by the World Bank. This project is composed of three specific steps: 1) Construction of new sewerage system in the town of Burunga, Panama. 2) development and strengthening of said sewage system to assist surrounding communities, 3) finance management of project and management costs. Each step costing $49.50 US million dollars, $12.70 US million dollars, $19.00 US million dollars, respectively. According to the World Bank, this project is set to address the serious health risks that arise from the untreated wastewater in Panama.
As of now, many Panamanian citizens living in extreme poverties deposit their sewage waste into rivers in their surrounding areas. This leads to significant increases in water-borne illness amongst indigenous and impoverished communities. Despite Panamas economic success, the measures of student enrollment and retention differs between urban and indigenous/rural communities. Problems of internal efficiency have been cited as the number one obstacle in Panamas education system, that of which most effects the poor and indigenous. In response, the Panamanian government implemented this project from August 5, 2008 to December 31, 2014. In total, the program cost $42.00 million US dollars, with a commitment amount of $35 million US dollars from the World Bank. The goals of this project were to improve the quality of basic and secondary education programs, increase internal efficiency amongst these programs, lastly, to enhance the performance and strategic plans of the Ministry of Education in Panama.
From 2009 to 2013, enrollment for pre-primary school increased from 62.1% to 70.7%, pre-middle school increased from 85.1% to 97.6%, middle school registration increased from 52.3% to 79.9%, while the overall drop-out rates decreased from 5.1% to 3.1 percent in 2012. The above table was all derived from the official World Bank data archives