Water is a transparent, tasteless and nearly colorless chemical substance, the main constituent of Earth's streams and oceans, the fluids of most living organisms. It is vital for all known forms of life though it provides no calories or organic nutrients, its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms, connected by covalent bonds. Water is the name of the liquid state of H2O at standard ambient pressure, it forms precipitation in the form of rain and aerosols in the form of fog. Clouds are formed from suspended droplets of its solid state; when finely divided, crystalline ice may precipitate in the form of snow. The gaseous state of water is water vapor. Water moves continually through the water cycle of evaporation, condensation and runoff reaching the sea. Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface in seas and oceans. Small portions of water occur as groundwater, in the glaciers and the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland, in the air as vapor and precipitation.
Water plays an important role in the world economy. 70% of the freshwater used by humans goes to agriculture. Fishing in salt and fresh water bodies is a major source of food for many parts of the world. Much of long-distance trade of commodities and manufactured products is transported by boats through seas, rivers and canals. Large quantities of water and steam are used for cooling and heating, in industry and homes. Water is an excellent solvent for a wide variety of chemical substances. Water is central to many sports and other forms of entertainment, such as swimming, pleasure boating, boat racing, sport fishing, diving; the word water comes from Old English wæter, from Proto-Germanic *watar, from Proto-Indo-European *wod-or, suffixed form of root *wed-. Cognate, through the Indo-European root, with Greek ύδωρ, Russian вода́, Irish uisce, Albanian ujë; the identification of water as a substance Water is a polar inorganic compound, at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, nearly colorless with a hint of blue.
This simplest hydrogen chalcogenide is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" for its ability to dissolve many substances. This allows it to be the "solvent of life", it is the only common substance to exist as a solid and gas in normal terrestrial conditions. Water is a liquid at the pressures that are most adequate for life. At a standard pressure of 1 atm, water is a liquid between 0 and 100 °C. Increasing the pressure lowers the melting point, about −5 °C at 600 atm and −22 °C at 2100 atm; this effect is relevant, for example, to ice skating, to the buried lakes of Antarctica, to the movement of glaciers. Increasing the pressure has a more dramatic effect on the boiling point, about 374 °C at 220 atm; this effect is important in, among other things, deep-sea hydrothermal vents and geysers, pressure cooking, steam engine design. At the top of Mount Everest, where the atmospheric pressure is about 0.34 atm, water boils at 68 °C. At low pressures, water cannot exist in the liquid state and passes directly from solid to gas by sublimation—a phenomenon exploited in the freeze drying of food.
At high pressures, the liquid and gas states are no longer distinguishable, a state called supercritical steam. Water differs from most liquids in that it becomes less dense as it freezes; the maximum density of water in its liquid form is 1,000 kg/m3. The density of ice is 917 kg/m3. Thus, water expands 9% in volume as it freezes, which accounts for the fact that ice floats on liquid water; the details of the exact chemical nature of liquid water are not well understood. Pure water is described as tasteless and odorless, although humans have specific sensors that can feel the presence of water in their mouths, frogs are known to be able to smell it. However, water from ordinary sources has many dissolved substances, that may give it varying tastes and odors. Humans and other animals have developed senses that enable them to evaluate the potability of water by avoiding water, too salty or putrid; the apparent color of natural bodies of water is determined more by dissolved and suspended solids, or by reflection of the sky, than by water itself.
Light in the visible electromagnetic spectrum can traverse a couple meters of pure water without significant absorption, so that it looks transparent and colorless. Thus aquatic plants and other photosynthetic organisms can live in water up to hundreds of meters deep, because sunlight can reach them. Water vapour is invisible as a gas. Through a thickness of 10 meters or more, the intrinsic color of water is visibly turquoise, as its absorption spectrum has
Motor oil, engine oil, or engine lubricant is any of various substances comprising base oils enhanced with additives antiwear additive plus detergents, dispersants and, for multi-grade oils viscosity index improvers. Motor oil is used for lubrication of internal combustion engines; the main function of motor oil is to reduce friction and wear on moving parts and to clean the engine from sludge and varnish. It neutralizes acids that originate from fuel and from oxidation of the lubricant, improves sealing of piston rings, cools the engine by carrying heat away from moving parts. In addition to the basic constituents noted in the preceding paragraph all lubricating oils contain corrosion and oxidation inhibitors. Motor oil may be composed of only a lubricant base stock in the case of non-detergent oil, or a lubricant base stock plus additives to improve the oil's detergency, extreme pressure performance, ability to inhibit corrosion of engine parts. Motor oils today are blended using base oils composed of petroleum-based hydrocarbons, that means organic compounds consisting of carbon and hydrogen, or polyalphaolefins or their mixtures in various proportions, sometimes with up to 20% by weight of esters for better dissolution of additives.
On September 6, 1866 American John Ellis founded the Continuous Oil Refining Company. While studying the possible healing powers of crude oil, Dr. Ellis was disappointed to find no real medicinal value, but was intrigued by its potential lubricating properties, he abandoned the medical practice to devote his time to the development of an all-petroleum, high viscosity lubricant for steam engines – using inefficient combinations of petroleum and animal and vegetable fats. He made his breakthrough when he developed an oil that worked in high temperatures; this meant corroded cylinders or leaking seals. Motor oil is a lubricant used in internal combustion engines, which power cars, lawnmowers, engine-generators, many other machines. In engines, there are parts which move against each other, the friction wastes otherwise useful power by converting the kinetic energy to heat, it wears away those parts, which could lead to lower efficiency and degradation of the engine. This increases fuel consumption, decreases power output, can lead to engine failure.
Lubricating oil creates a separating film between surfaces of adjacent moving parts to minimize direct contact between them, decreasing heat caused by friction and reducing wear, thus protecting the engine. In use, motor oil transfers heat through conduction. In an engine with a recirculating oil pump, this heat is transferred by means of air flow over the exterior surface of the, airflow through an oil cooler and through oil gases evacuated by the Positive Crankcase Ventilation system. While modern recirculating pumps are provided in passenger cars and other engines similar or larger in size, total loss oiling is a design option that remains popular in small and miniature engines. In petrol engines, the top piston ring can expose the motor oil to temperatures of 160 °C. In diesel engines the top ring can expose the oil to temperatures over 315 °C. Motor oils with higher viscosity indices thin less at these higher temperatures. Coating metal parts with oil keeps them from being exposed to oxygen, inhibiting oxidation at elevated operating temperatures preventing rust or corrosion.
Corrosion inhibitors may be added to the motor oil. Many motor oils have detergents and dispersants added to help keep the engine clean and minimize oil sludge build-up; the oil is able to trap soot from combustion in itself, rather than leaving it deposited on the internal surfaces. It is a combination of this, some singeing that turns used oil black after some running. Rubbing of metal engine parts produces some microscopic metallic particles from the wearing of the surfaces; such particles could circulate in the grind against moving parts, causing wear. Because particles accumulate in the oil, it is circulated through an oil filter to remove harmful particles. An oil pump, a vane or gear pump powered by the engine, pumps the oil throughout the engine, including the oil filter. Oil filters can be a full bypass type. In the crankcase of a vehicle engine, motor oil lubricates rotating or sliding surfaces between the crankshaft journal bearings, rods connecting the pistons to the crankshaft; the oil collects in sump, at the bottom of the crankcase.
In some small engines such as lawn mower engines, dippers on the bottoms of connecting rods dip into the oil at the bottom and splash it around the crankcase as needed to lubricate parts inside. In modern vehicle engines, the oil pump takes oil from the oil pan and sends it through the oil filter into oil galleries, from which the oil lubricates the main bearings holding the crankshaft up at the main journals and camshaft bearings operating the valves. In typical modern vehicles, oil pressure-fed from the oil galleries to the main bearings enters holes in the main journals of the crankshaft. From these holes in the main journals, the oil moves through passageways inside the crankshaft to exit holes in the rod journals to lubricate the rod bearings and connecting rods; some simpler designs relied on these moving parts to splash and lubricate the contacting surfaces between the piston rings and interior surfaces of the cylinders. However, in modern designs, there are passageways through the rods which carry oil from the rod bearings to the rod-piston connections and lubricate the contacting su
An antifreeze is an additive which lowers the freezing point of a water-based liquid and increases its boiling point. An antifreeze mixture is used to achieve freezing-point depression for cold environments and achieves boiling-point elevation to allow higher coolant temperature. Freezing and boiling points are colligative properties of a solution, which depend on the concentration of the dissolved substance; because water has good properties as a coolant, water plus antifreeze is used in internal combustion engines and other heat transfer applications, such as HVAC chillers and solar water heaters. The purpose of antifreeze is to prevent a rigid enclosure from bursting due to expansion when water freezes. Commercially, both the additive and the mixture are called antifreeze, depending on the context. Careful selection of an antifreeze can enable a wide temperature range in which the mixture remains in the liquid phase, critical to efficient heat transfer and the proper functioning of heat exchangers.
Salts are used for de-icing, but salt solutions are not used for cooling systems because they can cause severe corrosion to metals. Instead, non-corrosive antifreezes are used for critical de-icing, such as for aircraft wings. Most automotive engines are "water"-cooled to remove waste heat, although the "water" is antifreeze/water mixture and not plain water; the term engine coolant is used in the automotive industry, which covers its primary function of convective heat transfer for internal combustion engines. When used in an automotive context, corrosion inhibitors are added to help protect vehicles' radiators, which contain a range of electrochemically incompatible metals. Water pump seal lubricant is added. Antifreeze was developed to overcome the shortcomings of water as a heat transfer fluid. In some engines freeze plugs are placed in areas of the engine block where coolant flows in order to protect the engine from freeze damage if the ambient temperature drops below the freezing point of the antifreeze/water mixture.
These should not be confused with core plugs, whose purpose is to allow removal of sand used in the casting process of engine blocks. On the other hand, if the engine coolant gets too hot, it might boil while inside the engine, causing voids, leading to localized hot spots and the catastrophic failure of the engine. If plain water were to be used as an engine coolant, it would promote galvanic corrosion. Proper engine coolant and a pressurized coolant system can help obviate the problems which make plain water incompatible with automotive engines. With proper antifreeze, a wide temperature range can be tolerated by the engine coolant, such as −34 °F to +265 °F for 50% propylene glycol diluted with water and a 15 psi pressurized coolant system. Early engine coolant antifreeze was methanol. Methanol was used in windshield fluids, however, in Europe, due to new REACH legislation, the use of methanol in windshield fluids is limited to 5% and in the near future will be further reduced to 3%; as radiator caps were vented, not sealed, the methanol was lost to evaporation, requiring frequent replenishment to avoid freezing of the coolant.
Methanol accelerates corrosion of the metals aluminum, used in the engine and cooling systems. Ethylene glycol was developed, soon replaced methanol as an engine cooling system antifreeze, it has a low volatility compared to methanol and to water. Before the 1950s, coolant systems were unpressurized and the engine was cooler than modern automotive engines. By pressurizing the coolant system with a radiator cap, the boiling point of the fluid is increased, permitting higher engine temperatures and better fuel efficiency. Pressurized systems do not appreciably change the freezing point. Propylene glycol was introduced due to its environmental credentials; the most common water-based antifreeze solutions used in electronics cooling are mixtures of water and either ethylene glycol or propylene glycol. The use of ethylene glycol has a longer history in the automotive industry. However, EGW solutions formulated for the automotive industry have silicate based rust inhibitors that can coat and/or clog heat exchanger surfaces.
Ethylene glycol is listed as a toxic chemical requiring care in disposal. Ethylene glycol has desirable thermal properties, including a high boiling point, low freezing point, stability over a wide range of temperatures, high specific heat and thermal conductivity, it has a low viscosity and, reduced pumping requirements. Although EGW has more desirable physical properties than PGW, the latter coolant is used in applications where toxicity might be a concern. PGW is recognized as safe for use in food or food processing applications, can be used in enclosed spaces. Similar mixtures are used in HVAC and industrial heating or cooling systems as a high-capacity heat transfer medium. Many formulations have corrosion inhibitors, it is expected that these chemicals will be replenished to keep expensive piping and equipment from corroding. Most antifreeze is made by mixing distilled water with additives and a base product - MEG or MPG. Methanol is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH, it is the simplest alcohol, is a ligh
Aviation, or air transport, refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry. Aircraft includes fixed-wing and rotary-wing types, morphable wings, wing-less lifting bodies, as well as lighter-than-air craft such as balloons and airships. Aviation began in the 18th century with the development of the hot air balloon, an apparatus capable of atmospheric displacement through buoyancy; some of the most significant advancements in aviation technology came with the controlled gliding flying of Otto Lilienthal in 1896. Since that time, aviation has been technologically revolutionized by the introduction of the jet which permitted a major form of transport throughout the world; the word aviation was coined by the French writer and former naval officer Gabriel La Landelle in 1863. He derived the term from the verb avier, itself derived from the Latin word avis and the suffix -ation. There are early legends of human flight such as the stories of Icarus in Greek myth and Jamshid and Shah Kay Kāvus in Persian myth.
Somewhat more credible claims of short-distance human flights appear, such as the flying automaton of Archytas of Tarentum, the winged flights of Abbas ibn Firnas, Eilmer of Malmesbury, the hot-air Passarola of Bartholomeu Lourenço de Gusmão. The modern age of aviation began with the first untethered human lighter-than-air flight on November 21, 1783, of a hot air balloon designed by the Montgolfier brothers; the practicality of balloons was limited. It was recognized that a steerable, or dirigible, balloon was required. Jean-Pierre Blanchard flew the first human-powered dirigible in 1784 and crossed the English Channel in one in 1785. Rigid airships became the first aircraft to transport passengers and cargo over great distances; the best known aircraft of this type were manufactured by the German Zeppelin company. The most successful Zeppelin was the Graf Zeppelin, it flew over one million miles, including an around-the-world flight in August 1929. However, the dominance of the Zeppelins over the airplanes of that period, which had a range of only a few hundred miles, was diminishing as airplane design advanced.
The "Golden Age" of the airships ended on May 6, 1937 when the Hindenburg caught fire, killing 36 people. The cause of the Hindenburg accident was blamed on the use of hydrogen instead of helium as the lift gas. An internal investigation by the manufacturer revealed that the coating used in the material covering the frame was flammable and allowed static electricity to build up in the airship. Changes to the coating formulation reduced the risk of further Hindenburg type accidents. Although there have been periodic initiatives to revive their use, airships have seen only niche application since that time. In 1799, Sir George Cayley set forth the concept of the modern airplane as a fixed-wing flying machine with separate systems for lift and control. Early dirigible developments included machine-powered propulsion, rigid frames and improved speed and maneuverability There are many competing claims for the earliest powered, heavier-than-air flight; the first recorded powered flight was carried out by Clément Ader on October 9, 1890 in his bat-winged self-propelled fixed-wing aircraft, the Ader Éole.
It was the first manned, heavier-than-air flight of a significant distance but insignificant altitude from level ground. Seven years on 14 October 1897, Ader's Avion III was tested without success in front of two officials from the French War ministry; the report on the trials was not publicized until 1910. In November 1906 Ader claimed to have made a successful flight on 14 October 1897, achieving an "uninterrupted flight" of around 300 metres. Although believed at the time, these claims were discredited; the Wright brothers made the first successful powered and sustained airplane flight on December 17, 1903, a feat made possible by their invention of three-axis control. Only a decade at the start of World War I, heavier-than-air powered aircraft had become practical for reconnaissance, artillery spotting, attacks against ground positions. Aircraft began to transport people and cargo as designs grew more reliable; the Wright brothers took aloft the first passenger, Charles Furnas, one of their mechanics, on May 14, 1908.
During the 1920s and 1930s great progress was made in the field of aviation, including the first transatlantic flight of Alcock and Brown in 1919, Charles Lindbergh's solo transatlantic flight in 1927, Charles Kingsford Smith's transpacific flight the following year. One of the most successful designs of this period was the Douglas DC-3, which became the first airliner to be profitable carrying passengers starting the modern era of passenger airline service. By the beginning of World War II, many towns and cities had built airports, there were numerous qualified pilots available; the war brought many innovations to aviation, including the first jet aircraft and the first liquid-fueled rockets. After World War II in North America, there was a boom in general aviation, both private and commercial, as thousands of pilots were released from military service and many inexpensive war-surplus transport and training aircraft became available. Manufacturers such as Cessna and Beechcraft expanded production to provide light aircraft for the new middle-class market.
A hydraulic fluid or hydraulic liquid is the medium by which power is transferred in hydraulic machinery. Common hydraulic fluids are based on mineral water. Examples of equipment that might use hydraulic fluids are excavators and backhoes, hydraulic brakes, power steering systems, garbage trucks, aircraft flight control systems and industrial machinery. Hydraulic systems like the ones mentioned above will work most efficiently if the hydraulic fluid used has zero compressibility; the primary function of a hydraulic fluid is to convey power. In use, there are other important functions of hydraulic fluid such as protection of the hydraulic machine components; the table below lists the major functions of a hydraulic fluid and the properties of a fluid that affect its ability to perform that function: The original hydraulics fluid, dating back to the time of ancient Egypt, was water. Beginning in the 1920s, mineral oil began to be used more than water as a base stock due to its inherent lubrication properties and ability to be used at temperatures above the boiling point of water.
Today most hydraulic fluids are based on mineral oil base stocks. Natural oils such as rapeseed are used as base stocks for fluids where biodegradability and renewable sources are considered important. Other base stocks are used for specialty applications, such as for fire resistance and extreme temperature applications; some examples include: glycol, organophosphate ester, propylene glycol, silicone oils. NaK-77, a eutectic alloy of sodium and potassium, can be used as a hydraulic fluid in high-temperature and high-radiation environments, for temperature ranges of 10 to 1400 °F, its bulk modulus at 1000 °F is higher than of a hydraulic oil at room temperature. Its lubricity is poor, so positive-displacement pumps are unsuitable and centrifugal pumps have to be used. Addition of caesium shifts the useful temperature range to -95 to 1300 °F; the NaK-77 alloy was tested in hydraulic and fluidic systems for the Supersonic Low Altitude Missile. Hydraulic fluids can contain a wide range of chemical compounds, including: oils, esters, polyalkylene glycols, silicones, alkylated aromatic hydrocarbons, corrosion inhibitors, anti-erosion additives, etc.- Environmentally sensitive applications may benefit from using biodegradable hydraulic fluids based upon rapeseed vegetable oil when there is the risk of an oil spill from a ruptured oil line.
These oils are available as ISO 32, ISO 46, ISO 68 specification oils. ASTM standards ASTM-D-6006, Guide for Assessing Biodegradability of Hydraulic Fluids and ASTM-D-6046, Standard Classification of Hydraulic Fluids for Environmental Impact are relevant. Anti-wear hydraulic oils are made from a petroleum base fluid and contain the anti-wear additive Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate; this additive works to protect the hydraulic pump. They come in multiple viscosity grades. For example, AW 46 hydraulic oils can be used to operate the hydraulic systems in off-road equipment such as dump trucks and backhoes, while AW 32 hydraulic oils may be more suitable for colder weather applications like in a snow plow's pump. Brake fluid is a subtype of hydraulic fluid with high boiling point, both when new and after absorption of water vapor. Under the heat of braking, both free water and water vapor in a braking system can boil into a compressible vapor, resulting in brake failure. Glycol-ether based fluids are hygroscopic, absorbed moisture will reduce the boiling point over time.
Mineral oil and silicone based fluids are not hygroscopic. Power steering fluid is a sub type of hydraulic fluid. Most are mineral oil or silicone based fluids, while some use automatic transmission fluid, made from synthetic base oil. Use of the wrong type of fluid can lead to failure of the power steering pump; because industrial hydraulic systems operate at hundreds to thousands of PSI and temperatures reaching hundreds of degrees Celsius, severe injuries and death can result from component failures and care must always be taken when performing maintenance on hydraulic systems. Fire resistance is a property available with specialized fluids. Water-gycol and polyol-ester are some of these specialized fluids that contain excellent thermal and hydrolitic properties, which aid in fire resistance; as aircraft performance increased in the mid-20th century, the amount of force required to operate mechanical flight controls became excessive, hydraulic systems were introduced to reduce pilot effort.
The hydraulic actuators are controlled by valves. Hydraulic power is used for other purposes, it can be stored in accumulators to start an auxiliary power unit for self-starting the aircraft's main engines. Many aircraft equipped with the M61 family of cannon use hydraulic power to drive the gun system, permitting reliable high rates of fire; the hydraulic power itself comes from pumps driven by the engines directly, or by electrically driven pumps. In modern commercial aircraft these are electrically driven pumps; this provides electrical power for the hydraulic pu
Royal Aeronautical Society
The Royal Aeronautical Society known as the RAeS, is a British multi-disciplinary professional institution dedicated to the global aerospace community. Founded in 1866, it is the oldest aeronautical society in the world. Fellows and Companions of the society can use the post-nominal letters CRAeS, respectively; the objectives of The Royal Aeronautical Society include: to support and maintain high professional standards in aerospace disciplines. The Royal Aeronautical Society is a worldwide society with an international network of 67 branches. Many practitioners of aerospace disciplines use the Society's designatory post-nominals such as FRAeS, CRAeS, MRAeS, AMRAeS, ARAeS; the RAeS headquarters is located in the United Kingdom. The staff of the Royal Aeronautical Society are based at the Society's headquarters at No. 4 Hamilton Place, London, W1J 7BQ. The headquarters is on the north-east edge of Hyde Park Corner, with the nearest access being Hyde Park Corner tube station; the Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society: ISSN 0368-3931 The Aeronautical Quarterly: Aerospace: Aerospace International: ISSN 1467-5072 The Aerospace Professional: The Aeronautical Journal: ISSN 0001-9240 The Journal of Aeronautical History: AEROSPACE: ISSN 2052-451X Branches are the regional embodiment of the Society.
They deliver membership benefits and provide a global platform for the dissemination of aerospace information. As of September 2013, branches located in the United Kingdom include: Belfast, Boscombe Down, Brough, Cardiff, Christchurch, Cranfield, Derby, FAA Yeovilton, Gatwick, Gloucester & Cheltenham, Heathrow, Isle of Wight, Isle of Man, Manchester, Medway, Preston, Sheffield, Southend, Swindon and Yeovil; the RAeS international branch network includes: Adelaide, Blenheim, Brussels, Canterbury, Dublin, Hamilton, Hong Kong, Melbourne, Munich, Palmerston North, Perth, Singapore, Sydney and the UAE. Divisions of the Society have been formed in countries and regions that can sustain a number of Branches. Divisions operate with a large degree of autonomy, being responsible for their own branch network, membership recruitment, subscription levels and lecture programmes. Specialist Groups covering all facets of the aerospace industry exist under the overall umbrella of the Society, with the aim of serving the interests of both enthusiasts and industry professionals.
The Groups' remit is to consider significant developments in their field, they attempt to achieve this through their conferences and lectures, with the intention of stimulating debate and facilitating action on key industry issues in order to reflect and respond to the constant innovation and progress in aviation. The Groups act as focal points for all enquiries to the Society concerning their specialist subject matter, forming a crucial interface between the Society and the world in general; as of September 2013, the Specialist Group committees are as follows: Aerodynamics, Aerospace Medicine, Air Power, Air Law, Air Transport, Airworthiness & Maintenance, Avionics & Systems, Flight Operations, Flight Simulation, Flight Test, General Aviation, Greener by Design, Human Factors, Human Powered Flight, Rotorcraft, Structures & Materials, UAS, Weapons Systems & Technologies, Women in Aviation & Aerospace. In 2009, the Royal Aeronautical Society formed a group of experts to document how to better simulate aircraft upset conditions, thus improve training programs.
The Society was founded in January 1866 with the name "The Aeronautical Society of Great Britain" and is the oldest aeronautical society in the world. Early or founding members included James Glaisher, Francis Wenham, the Duke of Argyll, Frederick Brearey. In the first year, there were 65 members, at the end of the second year, 91 members, in the third year, 106 members. Annual reports were produced in the first decades. In 1868 the Society held a major exhibition at London's Crystal Palace with 78 entries. John Stringfellow's steam engine was shown there; the Society sponsored the first wind tunnel in 1870-71, designed by Browning. In 1918, the organization's name was changed to the Royal Aeronautical Society. In 1923 its principal journal was renamed from The Aeronautical Journal to The Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society and in 1927 the Institution of Aeronautical Engineers Journal was merged into it. In 1940, the RAeS responded to the wartime need to expand the aircraft industry; the Society established a Technical Department to bring together the best available knowledge and present it in an authoritative and accessible form – a working tool for engineers who might come from other industries and lack the specialised knowledge required for aircraft design.
This technical department became known as the Engineering Sciences Data Unit and became a separate entity in the 1980s. In 1987 the'Society of Licensed Aircraft Engineers and Technologists' called the'Society of Licensed Aircraft Engineers' was incorporated into the Royal Aeronautical Society; the following have served as President of the Royal Aeronautical Society: In addition to the award of Fellowship of the Royal Aeronautical Society, the Society awards several other medals and p