Rail transport operations
A railway has two major components: the rolling stock and the infrastructure. The operation of the railway is through a system of control by mechanical means, but nowadays more electronic and computerized. Signalling systems used to control the movement of traffic may be either of fixed block or moving block variety. Fixed block signallingMost blocks are'fixed' blocks, i.e. they delineate a section of track between two defined points. On timetable, train order, token-based systems, blocks start and end at selected stations. On signalling-based systems, blocks start and end at signals. Alternatively, cab signalling may be in use; the lengths of blocks are designed to allow trains to operate as as necessary. A used branch line might have blocks many kilometres long, whilst a busy commuter railway might have blocks a few hundred metres long. Moving block signallingA disadvantage of fixed blocks is that the faster trains are permitted to run, the longer the stopping distance, therefore the longer the blocks need to be.
This decreases a line's capacity. With moving block, computers are used to calculate a'safe zone', behind each moving train, which no other train may enter; the system depends on precise knowledge of how fast it is moving. With moving block, lineside signals are not provided, instructions are passed direct to the trains, it has the advantage of increasing track capacity by allowing trains to run much closer together. Most rail systems serve a number of functions on the same track, carrying local, long distance and commuter passenger trains, freight trains; the emphasis on each varies by country. Some urban rail transit, rapid transit and light rail systems are isolated from the national system in the cities they serve; some freight lines serving mines are isolated, these are owned by the mine company. An industrial railway is a specialized rail system used inside mines. Steep grade railways are isolated, with special safety systems; the permanent way trails through the physical geography. The tracks' geometry is limited by the physical geography.
Trains are pushed/pulled by one or more locomotive units. Two or more locomotives coupled in multiple traction are used in freight trains. Railroad cars or rolling stock consist of passenger cars, freight cars, maintenance cars and in America cabooses. Modern passenger trains sometimes are pushed/pulled by a tail and head unit, of which not both need to be motorised or running. Many passenger trains consist of multiple units with motors mounted beneath the passenger cars. Most public transport passenger operations happen in the passenger car; the passenger in the station, or on the train. There are speaking two ways of validating a ticket: The first way is for the passenger to validate the ticket himself, randomly checked by a ticket controller; this method is sometimes referred to as Proof-of-payment and is used extensively on one-man operated rail and bus lines. The second way is for a conductor to check all persons on the train for valid tickets and devaluating them, so they cannot be used again.
Some passenger cars in long distance high speed trains have a restaurant or bar. These need to be catered. In recent times, train catering has been diminished somewhat by vending machines in the train station or on the train; when not in use, passenger cars are stored and repaired in coach yards. Freight or cargo trains are loaded and unloaded in intermodal terminals, at customer locations. Intermodal freight transport uses standardized containers. Along their routes, freight trains are routed through rail yards to sort cars and assemble trains for their final destinations, as well as for equipment maintenance and crew changes. Within a freight yard, trains are composed in a classification yard. Switcher or shunter locomotives help the composing. A unit train, which carries a block of cars all of the same origin and destination, does not get sorted in a classification yard, but may stop in a freight yard for inspection, engine servicing and/or crew changes. Combining freight and passenger operations on a single track with passing loops poses operational problems, because of the different demands of freight operators and public transport.
In many smaller countries passenger operations are done during the day, while freight trains operate during the night. Dedicated tracks have been assigned to some operations. Inactive locomotives may be housed in a locomotive depot or engine house known as an engine shed or roundhouse. In engine facilities, or a traction maintenance depot, locomotives are cleaned, inspected for wear, updated, or otherwise improved. Decommissioned locomotives with steam generation capacities were sometimes positioned in semi-permanent locations and their boiler capacity was used to provide steam to heat facilities, power machinery, warm passenger cars, or snow and ice clearing activities such as defrosting railroad switches in cold weather conditions. Railroad equipment, considered obsolete by being outdated or inefficient when compared to newer equipment, or by being worn to a point, un-repairable, may be taken out of railroad service; these pieces of equipment may have usable parts removed by the railroad company for reuse on other machines, or may
In linguistics, grammatical relations are functional relationships between constituents in a clause. The standard examples of grammatical functions from traditional grammar are subject, direct object, indirect object. In recent times, the syntactic functions, typified by the traditional categories of subject and object, have assumed an important role in linguistic theorizing, within a variety of approaches ranging from generative grammar to functional and cognitive theories. Many modern theories of grammar are to acknowledge numerous further types of grammatical relations; the role of grammatical relations in theories of grammar is greatest in dependency grammars, which tend to posit dozens of distinct grammatical relations. Every head-dependent dependency bears a grammatical function; the grammatical relations are exemplified in traditional grammar by the notions of subject, direct object, indirect object: Fred gave Susan the book. The subject Fred is the source of the action; the direct object the book is acted upon by the subject, the indirect object Susan receives the direct object or otherwise benefits from the action.
Traditional grammars begin with these rather vague notions of the grammatical functions. When one begins to examine the distinctions more it becomes clear that these basic definitions do not provide much more than a loose orientation point. What is indisputable about the grammatical relations is that they are relational; that is, subject and object can exist as such only by virtue of the context in which they appear. A noun such as Fred or a noun phrase such as the book cannot qualify as subject and direct object unless they appear in an environment, e.g. a clause, where they are related to each other and/or to an action or state. In this regard, the main verb in a clause is responsible for assigning grammatical relations to the clause "participants". Most grammarians and students of language intuitively know in most cases what the subject and object in a given clause are, but when one attempts to produce theoretically satisfying definitions of these notions, the results are less than clear and therefore controversial.
The contradictory impulses have resulted in a situation where most theories of grammar acknowledge the grammatical relations and rely on them for describing phenomena of grammar but at the same time, avoid providing concrete definitions of them. Various principles can be acknowledged that attempts to define the grammatical relations are based on; the thematic relations can provide semantic orientation for defining the grammatical relations. There is a tendency for subjects to be objects to be patients or themes. However, the thematic relations can not be vice versa; this point is evident with the active-passive diathesis and ergative verbs: Marge has fixed the coffee table. The coffee table has been fixed; the torpedo sank the ship. The ship sank. Marge is the agent in the first pair of sentences because she initiates and carries out the action of fixing, the coffee table is the patient in both because it is acted upon in both sentences. In contrast, the subject and direct object are not consistent across the two sentences.
The subject is the agent Marge in the first sentence and the patient The coffee table in the second sentence. The direct object is the patient the coffee table in the first sentence, there is no direct object in the second sentence; the situation is similar with the ergative verb sunk/sink in the second pair of sentences. The noun phrase the ship is the theme in both sentences, although it is the object in the first of the two and the subject in the second; the grammatical relations belong to the level of surface syntax, whereas the thematic relations reside on a deeper semantic level. If, the correspondences across these levels are acknowledged the thematic relations can be seen as providing prototypical thematic traits for defining the grammatical relations. Another prominent means used to define the syntactic relations is in terms of the syntactic configuration; the subject is defined as the verb argument that appears outside of the canonical finite verb phrase, whereas the object is taken to be the verb argument that appears inside the verb phrase.
This approach takes the configuration as primitive, whereby the grammatical relations are derived from the configuration. This "configurational" understanding of the grammatical relations is associated with Chomskyan phrase structure grammars; the configurational approach is limited in. It works best for the object arguments. For other clause participants, it is less insightful, since it is not clear how one might define these additional syntactic functions in terms of the configuration. Furthermore concerning the subject and object, it can run into difficulties, e.g. There were two lizards in the drawer; the configurational approach has difficulty with such cases. The plural verb were agrees with the post-verb noun phrase two lizards, which suggests that two lizards is the subject, but since two lizards follows the verb, one might view it as being located inside the verb phrase, which means it should count as the object. This second observation suggests. Many efforts to define the grammatical relation
In law enforcement, a sting operation is a deceptive operation designed to catch a person committing a crime. A typical sting will have an undercover law enforcement officer, detective, or co-operative member of the public play a role as criminal partner or potential victim and go along with a suspect's actions to gather evidence of the suspect's wrongdoing. Mass media journalists resort to sting operations to record video and broadcast to expose criminal activity. Sting operations are common in many countries, such as the United States, but they are not permitted in some countries, such as Sweden. Deploying a bait car to catch a car thief Setting up a vulnerable honeypot computer to lure and gain information about hackers Arranging for someone under the legal drinking age to ask an adult to buy an alcoholic beverage or tobacco products for them Passing off explosives, to a would-be terror bomber Posing as... someone, seeking illegal drugs, contraband, or child pornography, to catch a supplier a child in a chat room to identify a potential child molester a potential customer of illegal prostitution, or as a prostitute to catch a customer a hitman to catch customers and solicitors of murder-for-hire.
Law-enforcement may have to be careful not to provoke the commission of a crime by someone who would not otherwise have done so. Additionally, in the process of such operations, the police engage in the same crimes, such as buying or selling contraband, soliciting prostitutes, etc. In common law jurisdictions, the defendant may invoke the defense of entrapment. Contrary to popular misconceptions, entrapment does not prohibit undercover police officers from posing as criminals or denying that they are police. Entrapment is a defense only when suspects are pressured into committing a crime they would not have committed otherwise, but the legal definition of this pressure varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. For example, if undercover officers coerced a potential suspect into manufacturing illegal drugs to sell them, the accused could use entrapment as a defense. However, if a suspect is manufacturing drugs and police pose as buyers to catch them, entrapment has not occurred. In 1998, three agencies joined forces to conduct a sting operation where they recovered the Honduras Goodwill Moon Rock from a vault in Miami.
The sting operation was known as "Operation Lunar Eclipse" and the participating agencies were NASA Office of Inspector General, the United States Postal Inspection Service and U. S. Customs; the moon rock was offered to the undercover agents for $5 million. Journalist Christina Reed broke that story in Geotimes in 2002. Operation Lunar Eclipse and the Moon Rock Project were the subject of the book The Case of the Missing Moon Rocks by Joe Kloc. In To Catch a Predator, an NBC reality TV show hosted by Chris Hansen, decoys posing as minors have online conversations with potential sexual predators in an attempt to lure them to a meeting, where they are confronted by Hansen and the police. In White Collar, a fictional renowned thief, known as Neal Caffrey, is caught and serves as a criminal consultant for the FBI. Neal during these cases assumes a false identity to lure forgers and other thieves out of hiding so that the FBI can arrest and charge them. In the penultimate story arc of the fourth season of the animated television series Star Wars: The Clone Wars, Jedi master Obi-Wan Kenobi conducts a sting operation to apprehend the Separatist bounty hunter Cad Bane by feigning his own death and assuming the disguise of a brand-new fellow bounty hunter named Rako Hardeen, who would follow Bane in taking part of Count Dooku's plan to kidnap Chancellor Palpatine.
In the 2008 video game Grand Theft Auto IV, the in-game police LCPD took over an in-game website "Little Lacy Surprise Pageant", referencing police attempts to catch child molesters. Visiting the site results in the player attracting police attention. In episode 15 of season 2 of Breaking Bad, Brandon "Badger" Mayhew is arrested in a sting operation for selling methamphetamine to undercover police officer Detective Getz. Getz convinces Badger he is not a cop by exploiting the common misconception that an undercover police officer is forced to reveal his identity upon an explicit enquiry. In "Contemporary American Poultry", a 2010 episode of the U. S. sitcom Community, the main characters set up a sting operation to catch their classmate "Star-Burns" stealing chicken fingers from their community college's cafeteria. They do a more direct homage to The Sting in a season 6 episode. A U. S. Customs undercover operation led by Special Agent Robert Mazur that discovered the money-laundering organization of drug lord Pablo Escobar, took down the Bank of Credit and Commerce International, was dramatized in the 2016 film The Infiltrator.
2013 New York divorce torture plot Advance-fee scam The Case of the Missing Moon Rocks Fence Handling Rachel Hoffman Honey trapping Honeypot Informant Mr. Big Narada Sting Operation Stephen Joseph Ratkai and convicted of espionage in Canada after a successful sting operation. Anuranjan Jha an Indian journalist known for investigative sting journalism Spencer Ackerman: Government agents'directly involved' in most high-profile US terror plots
Operations management is an area of management concerned with designing and controlling the process of production and redesigning business operations in the production of goods or services. It involves the responsibility of ensuring that business operations are efficient in terms of using as few resources as needed and effective in terms of meeting customer requirements. Operations management is concerned with planning and supervising in the contexts of production, manufacturing or the provision of services, it is concerned with managing an entire production system, the process that converts inputs into outputs, or delivers a product or services. Operations manage quality and creates service. Operation management covers sectors like banking systems, companies, working with suppliers and using technology. Operations is one of the major functions in an organization along with supply chains, marketing and human resources; the operations function requires management of both the strategic and day-to-day production of goods and services.
In managing manufacturing or service operations several types of decisions are made including operations strategy, product design, process design, quality management, facilities planning, production planning and inventory control. Each of these requires an ability to analyze the current situation and find better solutions to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of manufacturing or service operations; the history of production and operation systems began around 5000 B. C. when Sumerian priests developed the ancient system of recording inventories, loans and business transactions. The next major historical application of operation systems occurred in 4000 B. C, it was during this time that the Egyptians started using planning and control in large projects such as the construction of the pyramids. By 1100 B. C. labor was being specialized in China. C. Xenophon described the advantages of dividing the various operations necessary for the production of shoes among different individuals in ancient Greece: "...
In large cities, on the other hand, inasmuch as many people have demands to make upon each branch of industry, one trade alone, often less than a whole trade, is enough to support a man: one man, for instance, makes shoes for men, another for women. It follows, therefore, as a matter of course, that he who devotes himself to a highly specialized line of work is bound to do it in the best possible manner." In the Middle Ages and queens ruled over large areas of land. Loyal noblemen maintained large sections of the monarch's territory; this hierarchical organization in which people were divided into classes based on social position and wealth became known as the feudal system. In the feudal system and serfs produced for themselves and people of higher classes by using the ruler's land and resources. Although a large part of labor was employed in agriculture, artisans contributed to economic output and formed guilds; the guild system, operating between 1100 and 1500, consisted of two types: merchant guilds, who bought and sold goods, craft guilds, which made goods.
Although guilds were regulated as to the quality of work performed, the resulting system was rather rigid, for example, were prohibited from tanning hides. Services were performed in the Middle Ages by servants, they provided service to the nobility for cooking and entertainment. Court jesters were service providers; the medieval army could be considered a service since they defended the nobility. The industrial revolution was facilitated by two elements: interchangeability of parts and division of labor. Division of labor has always been a feature from the beginning of civilization, the extent to which the division is carried out varied depending on period and location. Compared to the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery were characterized by a greater specialization in labor, one of the characteristics of growing European cities and trade, it was in the late eighteenth century that Eli Whitney popularized the concept of interchangeability of parts when he manufactured 10,000 muskets.
Up to this point in the history of manufacturing, each product was considered a special order, meaning that parts of a given gun were fitted only for that particular gun and could not be used in other guns. Interchangeability of parts allowed the mass production of parts independent of the final products in which they would be used. In 1883, Frederick Winslow Taylor introduced the stopwatch method for measuring the time to perform each single task of a complicated job, he developed the scientific study of productivity and identifying how to coordinate different tasks to eliminate wasting of time and increase the quality of work. The next generation of scientific study occurred with the development of work sampling and predetermined motion time systems. Work sampling is used to measure the random variable associated with the time of each task. PMTS allows the use of standard predetermined tables of the smallest body movements, integrating them to predict the time needed to perform a simple task.
PMTS has gained substantial importance due to the fact that it can predict work measurements without observing the actual work. The foundation of PMTS was laid out by the research an
Set theory (music)
Musical set theory provides concepts for categorizing musical objects and describing their relationships. Howard Hanson first elaborated many of the concepts for analyzing tonal music. Other theorists, such as Allen Forte, further developed the theory for analyzing atonal music, drawing on the twelve-tone theory of Milton Babbitt; the concepts of musical set theory are general and can be applied to tonal and atonal styles in any equal temperament tuning system, to some extent more than that. One branch of musical set theory deals with collections of pitches and pitch classes, which may be ordered or unordered, can be related by musical operations such as transposition, melodic inversion, complementation; some theorists apply the methods of musical set theory to the analysis of rhythm as well. Although musical set theory is thought to involve the application of mathematical set theory to music, there are numerous differences between the methods and terminology of the two. For example, musicians use the terms transposition and inversion where mathematicians would use translation and reflection.
Furthermore, where musical set theory refers to ordered sets, mathematics would refer to tuples or sequences. Moreover, musical set theory is more related to group theory and combinatorics than to mathematical set theory, which concerns itself with such matters as, for example, various sizes of infinitely large sets. In combinatorics, an unordered subset of n objects, such as pitch classes, is called a combination, an ordered subset a permutation. Musical set theory is best regarded as a field, not so much related to mathematical set theory, as an application of combinatorics to music theory with its own vocabulary; the main connection to mathematical set theory is the use of the vocabulary of set theory to talk about finite sets. The fundamental concept of musical set theory is the set, an unordered collection of pitch classes. More a pitch-class set is a numerical representation consisting of distinct integers; the elements of a set may be manifested in music as successive tones, or both. Notational conventions vary from author to author, but sets are enclosed in curly braces:, or square brackets:.
Some theorists use angle brackets ⟨ ⟩ to denote ordered sequences, while others distinguish ordered sets by separating the numbers with spaces. Thus one might notate the unordered set of pitch classes 0, 1, 2 as; the ordered sequence C-C♯-D would be notated ⟨ 0, 1, 2 ⟩ or. Although C is considered zero in this example, this is not always the case. For example, a piece with a clear pitch center of F might be most usefully analyzed with F set to zero (in which case would represent F, F♯ and G. Though set theorists consider sets of equal-tempered pitch classes, it is possible to consider sets of pitches, non-equal-tempered pitch classes, rhythmic onsets, or "beat classes". Two-element sets are called dyads, three-element sets trichords. Sets of higher cardinalities are called tetrachords, hexachords, octachords, decachords and the dodecachord; the basic operations that may be performed on a set are inversion. Sets related by transposition or inversion are said to be transpositionally related or inversionally related, to belong to the same set class.
Since transposition and inversion are isometries of pitch-class space, they preserve the intervallic structure of a set, hence its musical character. This can be considered the central postulate of musical set theory. In practice, set-theoretic musical analysis consists in the identification of non-obvious transpositional or inversional relationships between sets found in a piece; some authors consider the operations of multiplication as well. The complement of set X is the set consisting of all the pitch classes not contained in X; the product of two pitch classes is the product of their pitch-class numbers modulo 12. Since complementation and multiplication are not isometries of pitch-class space, they do not preserve the musical character of the objects they transform. Other writers, such as Allen Forte, have emphasized the Z-relation, which obtains between two sets that share the same total interval content, or interval vector—but are not transpositionally or inversionally equivalent. Another name for this relationship, used by Howard Hanson, is "isomeric".
Operations on ordered sequences of pitch classes include transposition and inversion, as well as retrograde and rotation. Retrograding an ordered sequence reverses the order of its elements. Rotation of an ordered sequence is equivalent to cyclic permutation. Transposition and inversion can
Operations research, or operational research in British usage, is a discipline that deals with the application of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions. Further, the term operational analysis is used in the British military as an intrinsic part of capability development and assurance. In particular, operational analysis forms part of the Combined Operational Effectiveness and Investment Appraisals, which support British defense capability acquisition decision-making, it is considered to be a sub-field of applied mathematics. The terms management science and decision science are sometimes used as synonyms. Employing techniques from other mathematical sciences, such as mathematical modeling, statistical analysis, mathematical optimization, operations research arrives at optimal or near-optimal solutions to complex decision-making problems; because of its emphasis on human-technology interaction and because of its focus on practical applications, operations research has overlap with other disciplines, notably industrial engineering and operations management, draws on psychology and organization science.
Operations research is concerned with determining the extreme values of some real-world objective: the maximum or minimum. Originating in military efforts before World War II, its techniques have grown to concern problems in a variety of industries. Operational research encompasses a wide range of problem-solving techniques and methods applied in the pursuit of improved decision-making and efficiency, such as simulation, mathematical optimization, queueing theory and other stochastic-process models, Markov decision processes, econometric methods, data envelopment analysis, neural networks, expert systems, decision analysis, the analytic hierarchy process. Nearly all of these techniques involve the construction of mathematical models that attempt to describe the system; because of the computational and statistical nature of most of these fields, OR has strong ties to computer science and analytics. Operational researchers faced with a new problem must determine which of these techniques are most appropriate given the nature of the system, the goals for improvement, constraints on time and computing power.
The major sub-disciplines in modern operational research, as identified by the journal Operations Research, are: Computing and information technologies Financial engineering Manufacturing, service sciences, supply chain management Policy modeling and public sector work Revenue management Simulation Stochastic models Transportation In the decades after the two world wars, the tools of operations research were more applied to problems in business and society. Since that time, operational research has expanded into a field used in industries ranging from petrochemicals to airlines, finance and government, moving to a focus on the development of mathematical models that can be used to analyse and optimize complex systems, has become an area of active academic and industrial research. In the 17th century, mathematicians like Christiaan Huygens and Blaise Pascal tried to solve problems involving complex decisions with probability. Others in the 18th and 19th centuries solved these types of problems with combinatorics.
Charles Babbage's research into the cost of transportation and sorting of mail led to England's universal "Penny Post" in 1840, studies into the dynamical behaviour of railway vehicles in defence of the GWR's broad gauge. Beginning in the 20th century, study of inventory management could be considered the origin of modern operations research with economic order quantity developed by Ford W. Harris in 1913. Operational research may have originated in the efforts of military planners during World War I. Percy Bridgman brought operational research to bear on problems in physics in the 1920s and would attempt to extend these to the social sciences. Modern operational research originated at the Bawdsey Research Station in the UK in 1937 and was the result of an initiative of the station's superintendent, A. P. Rowe. Rowe conceived the idea as a means to analyse and improve the working of the UK's early warning radar system, Chain Home, he analysed the operating of the radar equipment and its communication networks, expanding to include the operating personnel's behaviour.
This allowed remedial action to be taken. Scientists in the United Kingdom including Patrick Blackett, Cecil Gordon, Solly Zuckerman, C. H. Waddington, Owen Wansbrough-Jones, Frank Yates, Jacob Bronowski and Freeman Dyson, in the United States with George Dantzig looked for ways to make better decisions in such areas as logistics and training schedules The modern field of operational research arose during World War II. In the World War II era, operational research was defined as "a scientific method of providing executive departments with a quantitative basis for decisions regarding the operations under their control". Other names for it included quantitative management. During the Second World War close to 1,000 men and women in Britain were engaged in operational research. About 200 operational research scientists worked for the British Army. Patrick Blackett worked for several different organizations during the war. Early in the war while working for the Royal Aircraft Establishment he set up a team known as the "Circus" which helped to reduce the number of anti-aircraft artillery rounds needed to shoot down an enemy aircraft from an
Operations was Multi-Man Publishing's house organ for articles and discussion about its wargaming products, published from 1991 to 2010. The stated aim of Multi-Man Publishing was to have Operations be to their line of games what The General was to Avalon Hill's line of products, it was published from 1991 to 2010. The first issue of Operations was published in the summer of 1991 by The Gamers and was printed until The Gamers were taken over by MMP; the magazine was produced quarterly, until Issue 42. Bruce Monnin of Boardgamer magazine, became editor of Operations beginning with the Fall 2004 edition; the last issue was #53 in the Fall of 2008, but there were three Special Operations issues published yearly in 2008-2010 that had additional content such as full games and counters. In Summer 2011 MMP published the first issue of its new "house organ" called Special Ops; the magazine published quarterly beginning in 1991. By 2001, the printing schedule became irregular, output fell from four issues a year, to as little as one.
The final issue, number 53, was published in 2010. Three "special editions" were published as summer issues in consecutive years in 2008, 2009, 2010. Operations was nominated in the "Best Professional Wargame Magazine" category of the Charles S. Roberts Award nine years in a row from 1992 to 2000, again in 2005, but never won, it did win other CSR awards for games. The game "Iwo Jima: Rage Against the Marines", published in Special Operations, won the Charles S. Roberts Award in 2008