Alonei Abba is a moshav shitufi, or semi-cooperative village, in northern Israel. It is located in the Lower Galilee near Bethlehem of Galilee and Alonim, in the hills east of Kiryat Tivon. Alonei Abba falls under the jurisdiction of the Jezreel Valley Regional Council. In 2017 it had a population of 970. Archaeological investigations indicate that this was an industrial agricultural processing area in the Hellenistic and Roman periods. Among the remains found are Roman-period industrial oil press and a winepress, in addition to a paved path from the same era. Umm al-'Amad was mentioned in the Ottoman defter for the year 1555-6, as Mezraa land, located in the Nahiya of Tabariyya of the Liwa of Safad; the land was designated as Ziamet land. In 1799 it appeared as a village Umm el Amed on the map of Pierre Jacotin compiled. In 1859, the British consul Rogers stated that the population of Umm al-Amed was 100 souls, the tillage was ten feddans. In 1875 Victor Guérin found Umm al-Amed situated on a small plateau, surrounded by gardens.
In spite of its name Umm al-Amed, which meant "The place with the columns", Guérin could find no columns. In 1881, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine described it as standing in oak-woods on a hill-top. There was an ancient rock-cut sepulchre on the east side. A population list from about 1887 showed. Alonei Abba was known as Waldheim, a colony founded in 1907 by German Protestants affiliated with the Old-Prussian State Church on land purchased from the fellaheen village of Umm al-Amed; the purchase price of 170,000 francs was financed by a Haifa-based bank Darlehenskasse der deutschen evangelischen Gemeinde Haifa GmbH and refinanced by the Stuttgarter Gesellschaft zur Förderung der deutschen Ansiedlungen in Palästina. The colony comprised 7,200,000 square meters. Most of the colonists came from the German Colony, founded by the Templers. In 1874, the Temple Society underwent a schism and envoys of the Evangelical State Church of Prussia's older Provinces proselytised among the schismatics.
Thus the Haifa German Colony became home to their congregations. While in Germany the Templers were regarded sectarians, the Evangelical proselytes gained major financial and ideological support from German Lutheran and United church bodies; this created an atmosphere of envy among the German colonists in Haifa. Due to population increase and the ongoing urbanisation of Haifa, they searched for land to found new monodenominational colonies, thus the Protestants founded Waldheim, while Templers settled in the neighbouring Bethlehem of Galilee. The settlement was inaugurated on the occasion of Harvest Festival on 6 October 1907; the new Waldheimers still lived in the simple clay huts bought from the previous owners. The Haifa engineer Ernst August Voigt presented the plan of the streets and the 16 sites around a central site, reserved for a church. In 1909 the Jerusalemsverein, a Berlin-based organisation supportive of Protestant activities in the Holy Land, contributed money for the development of a water supply.
By 1914, the Waldheimers planted vineyards of more than 500 olive trees. In December 1913, the farmers of Waldheim and Bethlehem keeping dairy cattle founded a common dairy cooperative to pasteurise milk and deliver it to Haifa. In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British authorities, Umm al Amad had a population of 128. Of the Christians, 62 were Protestant and 1 was Greek Catholic; this had increased in the 1931 census, when Umm el Amad had a population of 231. Most of the residents bore German citizenship. In 1932 the Nazi party won the first two members in Palestine. In the course of the 1930s some Waldheimers joined the Nazi party, indicating the fading affinity to the Evangelical ideals; until August 1939, 17% of all Gentile Germans in Palestine were enrolled as members of the Nazi party. After the Nazi takeover in Germany, the new Reich government adapted foreign policy to Nazi ideals, based on the idea that Germany and Germanness were equal to Nazism. International schools of German language subsidised or financed with government funds were asked to redraw their educational programs and employ teachers aligned to the Nazi party.
The teachers in Waldheim were financed by the Reich so that here Nazi teachers took over. In 1933 Germans Gentiles living in Palestine appealed unsuccessfully to Paul von Hindenburg and the Foreign Office not to use Swastika symbols for German institutions; some German Gentiles pleaded the Reich's government to drop its announced plan to boycott shops of Jewish Germans on 1 April 1933. The opposition of Gentile Germans in Palestine acquiesced. A Palestinian branch of the Hitler youth was built up by the help of German government subsidies. By 1935 the Nazis had succeeded to streamline the municipal bodies of the settlements of Gentile Germans in Palestine. On 20 August 1939, the German government ordered the Gentile German men for recruitment in the Wehrmacht. 350 followed the call. After the start of the World War, all Germans in Palestine became enemy aliens; the British authorities decided to intern most of the enemy aliens. Sarona, Bethlehem of Galilee and Wilhelma were converted into internment camps.
Most enemy aliens living elsewhere in Pal
Jericho is a city in the Palestinian Territories and is located near the Jordan River in the West Bank. It is the administrative seat of the Jericho Governorate, is governed by the Fatah faction of the Palestinian National Authority. In 2007, it had a population of 18,346; the city was occupied by Jordan from 1949 to 1967, has been held under Israeli occupation since 1967. It is believed to be one of the oldest inhabited cities in the world and the city with the oldest known protective wall in the world, it was thought to have the oldest stone tower in the world as well, but excavations at Tell Qaramel in Syria have discovered stone towers that are older. Archaeologists have unearthed the remains of more than 20 successive settlements in Jericho, the first of which dates back 11,000 years to the beginning of the Holocene epoch of the Earth's history. Copious springs in and around the city have attracted human habitation for thousands of years. Jericho is described in the Hebrew Bible as the "city of palm trees".
Jericho's name in Hebrew, Yeriẖo, is thought to derive from the Canaanite word reaẖ, but other theories hold that it originates in the Canaanite word for "moon" or the name of the lunar deity Yarikh for whom the city was an early centre of worship. Jericho's Arabic name, ʼArīḥā, means "fragrant" and has its roots in Canaanite Reaẖ; the first excavations of the site were made by Charles Warren in 1868. Ernst Sellin and Carl Watzinger excavated Tell es-Sultan and Tulul Abu el-'Alayiq between 1907 and 1909, in 1911, John Garstang excavated between 1930 and 1936. Extensive investigations using more modern techniques were made by Kathleen Kenyon between 1952 and 1958. Lorenzo Nigro and Nicolò Marchetti conducted excavations in 1997–2000. Since 2009 the Italian-Palestinian archaeological project of excavation and restoration was resumed by Rome "La Sapienza" University and Palestinian MOTA-DACH under the direction of Lorenzo Nigro and Hamdan Taha, Jehad Yasine since 2015; the Italian-Palestinian Expedition carried out 13 seasons in 20 years, with some major discoveries, like Tower A1 in the Middle Bronze Age southern Lower Town and Palace G on the eastern flanks of the Spring Hill overlooking the Spring of'Ain es-Sultan dating from Early Bronze III.
The earliest settlement was located at the present-day Tell es-Sultan, a couple of kilometers from the current city. In both Arabic and Hebrew, tell means "mound" – consecutive layers of habitation built up a mound over time, as is common for ancient settlements in the Middle East and Anatolia. Jericho is the type site for the Pre-Pottery Neolithic Pre-Pottery Neolithic B periods. Epipaleolithic construction at the site appears to predate the invention of agriculture, with the construction of Natufian culture structures beginning earlier than 9000 BCE, the beginning of the Holocene epoch in geologic history. Jericho has evidence of settlement dating back to 10,000 BCE. During the Younger Dryas period of cold and drought, permanent habitation of any one location was impossible. However, the Ein es-Sultan spring at what would become Jericho was a popular camping ground for Natufian hunter-gatherer groups, who left a scattering of crescent-shaped microlith tools behind them. Around 9600 BCE, the droughts and cold of the Younger Dryas stadial had come to an end, making it possible for Natufian groups to extend the duration of their stay leading to year-round habitation and permanent settlement.
The first permanent settlement on the site of Jericho developed near the Ein es-Sultan spring between 9,500 and 9000 BCE. As the world warmed up, a new culture based on agriculture and sedentary dwelling emerged, which archaeologists have termed "Pre-Pottery Neolithic A", its cultures lacked pottery, but featured the following: small circular dwellings burial of the dead under the floor of buildings reliance on hunting of wild game cultivation of wild or domestic cerealsAt Jericho, circular dwellings were built of clay and straw bricks left to dry in the sun, which were plastered together with a mud mortar. Each house measured about 5 metres across, was roofed with mud-smeared brush. Hearths were located outside the homes. By about 9400 BCE, the town had grown to more than 70 modest dwellings; the Pre-Sultan is sometimes called Sultanian. The site is a 40,000 square metres settlement surrounded by a massive stone wall over 3.6 metres high and 1.8 metres wide at the base, inside of which stood a stone tower, over 8.5 metres high, containing an internal staircase with 22 stone steps and placed in the centre of the west side of the tell.
This tower and the older ones excavated at Tell Qaramel in Syria are the oldest to be discovered. The wall may have served as a defence against flood-water, with the tower used for ceremonial purposes; the wall and tower were built during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A period around 8000 BCE. For the tower, carbon dates published in 1981 and 1983 indicate that it was built around 8300 BCE and stayed in use until c. 7800 BCE. The wall and tower would have taken a hundred men more than a hundred days to construct, thus suggesting some kind of social organization; the town contained round mud-brick houses, yet no street planning. The identity and number of the inhabitants of Jericho during the PPNA period is still under debate, with estimates going as high as 2,000–3,000, as low as 200–300, it is known that this population had domesticated emmer whea
The Palestinian people referred to as Palestinians or Palestinian Arabs, are an ethnonational group comprising the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the centuries, including Jews and Samaritans, who today are culturally and linguistically Arab. Despite various wars and exoduses one half of the world's Palestinian population continues to reside in historic Palestine, the area encompassing the West Bank, the Gaza Strip and Israel. In this combined area, as of 2005, Palestinians constituted 49% of all inhabitants, encompassing the entire population of the Gaza Strip, the majority of the population of the West Bank and 20.8% of the population of Israel proper as Arab citizens of Israel. Many are Palestinian refugees or internally displaced Palestinians, including more than a million in the Gaza Strip, about 750,000 in the West Bank and about 250,000 in Israel proper. Of the Palestinian population who live abroad, known as the Palestinian diaspora, more than half are stateless, lacking citizenship in any country.
Between 2.1 and 3.24 million of the diaspora population live in neighboring Jordan, over 1 million live between Syria and Lebanon and about 750,000 live in Saudi Arabia, with Chile's half a million representing the largest concentration outside the Middle East. Palestinian Christians and Muslims constituted 90% of the population of Palestine in 1919, just before the third wave of Jewish immigration under the post-WW1 British Mandatory Authority, opposition to which spurred the consolidation of a unified national identity, fragmented as it was by regional, class and family differences; the history of a distinct Palestinian national identity is a disputed issue amongst scholars. Legal historian Assaf Likhovski states that the prevailing view is that Palestinian identity originated in the early decades of the 20th century, when an embryonic desire among Palestinians for self-government in the face of generalized fears that Zionism would lead to a Jewish state and the dispossession of the Arab majority crystallised among most editors and Muslim, of local newspapers.
"Palestinian" was used to refer to the nationalist concept of a Palestinian people by Palestinian Arabs in a limited way until World War I. After the creation of the State of Israel, the exodus of 1948 and more so after the exodus of 1967, the term came to signify not only a place of origin but the sense of a shared past and future in the form of a Palestinian state. Modern Palestinian identity now encompasses the heritage of all ages from biblical times up to the Ottoman period. Founded in 1964, the Palestine Liberation Organization is an umbrella organization for groups that represent the Palestinian people before international states; the Palestinian National Authority established in 1994 as a result of the Oslo Accords, is an interim administrative body nominally responsible for governance in Palestinian population centers in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Since 1978, the United Nations has observed an annual International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People. According to Perry Anderson, it is estimated that half of the population in the Palestinian territories are refugees and that they have collectively suffered US$300 billion in property losses due to Israeli confiscations, at 2008–09 prices.
The Greek toponym Palaistínē, with which the Arabic Filastin is cognate, first occurs in the work of the 5th century BCE Greek historian Herodotus, where it denotes the coastal land from Phoenicia down to Egypt. Herodotus employs the term as an ethnonym, as when he speaks of the'Syrians of Palestine' or'Palestinian-Syrians', an ethnically amorphous group he distinguishes from the Phoenicians. Herodotus makes other inhabitants of Palestine; the Greek word reflects an ancient Eastern Mediterranean-Near Eastern word, used either as a toponym or ethnonym. In Ancient Egyptian Peleset/Purusati has been conjectured to refer to the "Sea Peoples" the Philistines. Among Semitic languages, Akkadian Palaštu is used of 7th-century Philistia and its, by four city states. Biblical Hebrew's cognate word Plištim, is translated Philistines. Syria Palestina continued to be used by historians and geographers and others to refer to the area between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, as in the writings of Philo and Pliny the Elder.
After the Romans adopted the term as the official administrative name for the region in the 2nd century CE, "Palestine" as a stand-alone term came into widespread use, printed on coins, in inscriptions and in rabbinic texts. The Arabic word Filastin has been used to refer to the region since the time of the earliest medieval Arab geographers, it appears to have been used as an Arabic adjectival noun in the region since as early as the 7th century CE. The Arabic newspaper Falasteen, published in Jaffa by Issa and Yusef al-Issa, addressed its readers as "Palestinians". During the Mandatory Palestine period, the term "Palestinian" was used to refer to all people residing there, regardless of religion or ethnicity, those granted citizenship by the British Mandatory authorities were granted "Palestinian citizenship". Other examples include the use of the term Palestine Regiment to refer to the Jewish Infantry Brigade Group of the British Army during World War II, the term "Palestinian Talmud", an alternative nam
The Security Service known as MI5, is the United Kingdom's domestic counter-intelligence and security agency and is part of its intelligence machinery alongside the Secret Intelligence Service, Government Communications Headquarters and Defence Intelligence. MI5 is directed by the Joint Intelligence Committee, the service is bound by the Security Service Act 1989; the service is directed to protect British parliamentary democracy and economic interests, counter terrorism and espionage within the UK. Within the civil service community the service is colloquially known as Box 500; the service has had a national headquarters at Thames House on Millbank in London since 1995, drawing together personnel from a number of locations into a single HQ facility: Thames House houses the Joint Terrorism Analysis Centre, a subordinate organisation to the Security Service. The service has offices across the United Kingdom including an HQ in Northern Ireland. Details of the northern operations centre in Greater Manchester were revealed by the firm who built it.
The Security Service comes under the authority of the Home Secretary within the Cabinet. The service is headed by a Director General at the grade of a Permanent Secretary of the British Civil Service, directly supported by an internal security organisation, legal advisory branch and information services branch; the Deputy Director General is responsible for the operational activity of the service, being responsible for four branches. The service is directed by the Joint Intelligence Committee for intelligence operational priorities, it liaises with SIS, GCHQ, DIS, a number of other bodies within the British government and industrial base. It is overseen by the Intelligence and Security Committee of Members of Parliament, who are directly appointed by the Prime Minister, by the Interception of Communications Commissioner, by the Intelligence Services Commissioner. Judicial oversight of the service's conduct is exercised by the Investigatory Powers Tribunal. Operations of the service are required to be proportionate and compliant with British legislation including the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000, the Data Protection Act 1998, various other items of legislation.
Information held by the service is exempt from disclosure under section 23 of the Freedom of Information Act 2000. All employees of the service are bound by the Official Secrets Act. In certain circumstances employees can be authorised to carry out activity, which would otherwise be criminal, within the UK; the current Director General is Andrew Parker, who succeeded Jonathan Evans on 22 April 2013. The service marked its centenary in 2009 by publishing an official history, written by Christopher Andrew, Professor of Modern and Contemporary History at Cambridge University; the Security Service is derived from the Secret Service Bureau, founded in 1909 and concentrating on the activities of the Imperial German government as a joint initiative of the Admiralty and the War Office. The Bureau was split into naval and army sections which, over time, specialised in foreign target espionage and internal counter-espionage activities respectively; this specialisation was a result of the Admiralty intelligence requirements related to the maritime strength of the Imperial German Navy.
This specialisation was formalised prior to 1914 and the beginning of World War I, with the two sections undergoing a number of administrative changes and the home section becoming Directorate of Military Intelligence Section 5, the name by which it is still known in popular culture. The founding head of the Army section was Vernon Kell of the South Staffordshire Regiment, who remained in that role until the early part of the Second World War, its role was quite restricted. With a small staff and working in conjunction with the Special Branch of the Metropolitan Police, the service was responsible for overall direction and the identification of foreign agents, whilst Special Branch provided the manpower for the investigation of their affairs and interrogation. On the day after the declaration of World War I, the Home Secretary, Reginald McKenna, announced that "within the last twenty-four hours no fewer than twenty-one spies, or suspected spies, have been arrested in various places all over the country, chiefly in important military or naval centres, some of them long known to the authorities to be spies", a reference to arrests directed by the service.
These arrests have provoked recent historical controversy. According to the official history of MI5, the actual number of agents identified was 22 and Kell had started sending out letters to local police forces on 29 July giving them advance warning of arrests to be made as soon as war was declared. Portsmouth Constabulary jumped the gun and arrested one on 3 August, not all of the 22 were in custody by the time that McKenna made his speech, but the official history regards the incident as a devastating blow to Imperial Germany which deprived them of their entire spy ring, upset the Kaiser; this view has been challenged by Nicholas Hiley. In 2006 his article "Entering the Lists" was published in the journal Intelligence and National Security outlining the products of his research into opened files
The Brandenburgers were members of the Brandenburg German special forces unit during World War II. The unit was formed by and operated as an extension of the military's intelligence organ, the Abwehr. Members of this unit took part in seizing operationally important targets by way of sabotage and infiltration. Being foreign German nationals who were convinced Nazi volunteers, constituent members had lived abroad and were proficient in foreign languages as well as being familiar with the way of life in the area of operations where they were deployed; the Brandenburg Division was subordinated to the army groups in individual commands and operated throughout Eastern Europe, in southern Africa, the Middle East and in the Caucasus. In the course of the war, parts of the special unit were used in the fight against partisans in Yugoslavia before the Division, in the last months of the war, was reclassified and merged into one of the Panzergrenadier divisions, they committed various atrocities in the course of their operations.
The unit was the brainchild of Hauptmann Theodor von Hippel, after having his idea rejected by the Reichswehr, approached Admiral Wilhelm Canaris, commander of the German Intelligence Service, the Abwehr. Hippel proposed that small units, trained in sabotage and fluent in foreign languages, could operate behind enemy lines and wreak havoc with the enemy's command and logistical tails. Canaris was at first against the proposal as he viewed such measures similar to what the Bolsheviks had done and was suspicious of Hippel's motives. Still determined to form the unit, Hippel looked to his section chief, Helmuth Groscurth, who supported the unit's formation and the two men conferred on the matter on 27 September 1939. Just a few days after their meeting, the Army General Staff put forth a directive authorizing the creation of "a company of saboteurs for the West." As part of the Abwehr's 2nd Department, Hippel was tasked with creating the unit. The unit Hippel assembled was named the Deutsche Kompagnie later on 25 October it became the Baulehr-kompagnie 800 and again on 10 January 1940, the unit was called the Bau-Lehr-Battalion z.b.
V. 800. Training for the men in the Brandenburg Division ranged from five to seven months and included course instruction on reconnaissance, hand-to-hand combat, marksmanship in both German and Allied weapons, conventional infantry tactics, other specialized training. Brandenburg units were deployed as small commando outfits to penetrate into enemy territory and conduct both sabotage and anti-sabotage operations. Despite their demonstrated successes while incurring minimum casualties, many traditionally minded German officers still found their use abhorrent. Most of the personnel were fluent in other languages, which allowed them, for example, to penetrate the Netherlands in 1940 disguised as Dutch barge crews. In 1941, they preceded the invasion of Yugoslavia undercover as Serbian workers. Before Operation Barbarossa began, they were operating in the Soviet Union as Soviet workers and Red Army soldiers and adorned themselves in Arab garments to conduct surveillance on Allied warships traversing between the Straits of Gibraltar and North Africa ahead of the Wehrmacht deployment there.
Correspondingly, Department II of the Abwehr, under which the Brandenburgers were subsumed, had a distinct sub-component for army and air force operations. Many of the Brandenburgers were misfits who could hardly be characterized as conventional soldiers, due in large part to the nature of their operations, they would mingle with enemy soldiers, secretly countermand orders, redirect military convoys, disrupt communications—all the while collecting intelligence along the way. Ahead of the primary invasion forces in the USSR, operatives from the Brandenburg Division seized bridges and strategically important installations in clandestine missions lasting for weeks before they linked up with advancing forces; the predecessor formation to the Brandenburg Division was the Battalion Ebbinghaus, which originated before the invasion of Poland in 1939. Colonel Erwin von Lahousen from within Department II of the Abwehr, put together small K-Trupps, which consisted of Polish-speaking Silesians and ethnic Germans, whose job it was to occupy key positions and hold them until the arrival of regular Wehrmacht units.
The first members of the "K-Trupps" were German nationals. These men were civilians who had never served in the army but were trained by the "Abwehr" and were led by army officers. After the Polish campaign, this changed. Despite their seeming lack of prior experience, the demands placed on these newly formed commandos were high, it was mandatory. They were expected to be agile, capable of improvising, endowed with initiative and team spirit competent in foreign languages and in their dealings with foreign nationals, capable of the most demanding physical performance; the early guiding principle that required members of the Division Brandenburg to be volunteers ended with their increasing use and integration with the regular army. The night before the Invasion of Poland in September 1939, small groups of German special forces dressed in civilian clothes crossed the Polish border to seize key strategic points before dawn on the day of the invasion; this made them the first special
The Arab Legion was the regular army of Transjordan and Jordan in the early part of the 20th century. In October 1920, after taking over the Transjordan region, the United Kingdom formed a unit of 150 men called the "Mobile Force", under the command of Captain Frederick Gerard Peake, to defend the territory against both internal and external threats; the Mobile Force was based in Zarqa. 80% of its men were drawn from the local Chechen community. It was expanded to 1,000 men, recruiting Arabs who had served in the Ottoman Army. On 22 October 1923, the police were merged with the Reserve Mobile Force, still under Peake, now an employee of the Emirate of Transjordan; the new force was named Al Jeish al Arabi but was always known in English as the Arab Legion. The Arab Legion was commanded by British officers; the Legion was formed as a police force to keep order among the tribes of Transjordan and to guard the important Jerusalem–Amman road. On 1 April 1926, the Transjordan Frontier Force was formed from cadre drawn from the Arab Legion.
It consisted of only 150 men and most of them were stationed along Transjordan's roads. During this time the Arab Legion was reduced to 900 men and was stripped of its machine guns and communications troops. In 1939, John Bagot Glubb, better known as "Glubb Pasha", became the Legion's commander, with Major General Abdul Qadir Pasha Al Jundi as his deputy commander. Together they transformed it into the best-trained Arab army. During World War II, the Arab Legion took part in the British war effort against pro-Axis forces in the Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre. By the force had grown to 1,600 men; the Legion, part of Iraqforce, contributed in the Anglo-Iraqi War and in the Syria-Lebanon campaign, two decisive early victories for the Allies. The top three officers representing the Legion who participated in the Victory March were Major General Abdul Qadir Pasha el Jundi, O. B. E. Colonel Bahjat Bey Tabbara, Lieutenant Colonel Ahmed Sudqui Bey, M. B. E; the Arab Legion participated in the 1948 Arab–Israeli war.
With a total strength of just over 6,000, the Arab Legion's military contingent consisted of 4,500 men in four single battalion-sized regiments, each with their own armored car squadrons, seven independent companies plus support troops. The regiments were organized into two brigades. 1st Brigade contained 3rd Regiments while 3rd brigade contained 2nd and 4th Regiments. There were two artillery batteries with four 25-pounders each. On 9 February 1948 the Transjordan Frontier Force was disbanded with members being absorbed back into the Arab Legion. Although headed by Glubb, now a Lieutenant General, command in the field was by Brigadier Norman Lash; the Legion was withdrawn from Palestine to Transjordanian territory, under instruction from the United Nations, prior to the end of the British Mandate. With the commencement of hostilities the Legion re-entered Palestine with 1st Brigade heading to Nablus and 2nd Brigade heading to Ramallah; the Arab Legion entered Palestine with other Arab Forces on May 15, 1948 using the Allenby, now King Hussein, bridge as they were advancing to cover the approaches from Jenin, in the north to Alaffoula and from Al-Majame'a bridge on the Jordan River to Bissan Alaffoula.
There was considerable embarrassment from the UK government that British officers were employed in the Legion during the conflict and all of them, including a brigade commander, were ordered to return to Transjordan. This led to the bizarre spectacle of British officers leaving their units to return to Transjordan, only to sneak back across the border and rejoin the Arab Legion. Without exception all of the British officers returned to their units. One British MP called for Glubb Pasha to be imprisoned for serving in a foreign army without the King's permission. Units of the Arab Legion were engaged in several battles with the Jewish forces, including the following: Attacking Ben Shemen convoy at Beit Nabala – 14 December 1947 Battle of Neve Yaakov settlement – 18 April 1948 Attacking kibutz Gesher on 27–28 April 1948 Occupation of Latrun Tegart fort on 17 May 1948, the Battles of Latrun from 20 May to 18 July 1948. Battle for Jerusalem and Siege of Jerusalem from 17 May to 18 July 1948, Attacking and capturing Gezer on 10 June 1948, Tarqumiya on 24 October 1948.
By the end of the war in 1949, the Arab Legion consisted of over 10,000 men manning a 100-mile front, which expanded to a 400-mile front following the withdrawal of Iraqi forces. On September 11, 1956, an Israeli force in what the IDF termed one of its retribution operations, Operation Jehonathan, raided Jordanian territory at Al-Rahwa, Hebron Sector, attacking the police station and clashing with a unit from the Legion's Desert Force. Over twenty soldiers and policemen were killed; the Legion stayed out of the 1956 Suez Crisis. On 1 March 1956, the Legion was renamed as the Arab Army. In Israel, the Hebrew term "Ligioner", i.e. "Legionary" was still informally used for Jordanian soldiers for many years afterwards at the time of the 1967 war and its aftermath. Colonel Frederick Peake – 22 October 1923 – 21 March 1939 Lieutenant Colonel Ernest Stafford 2nd IC—1924–1931. Lieutenant General John Glubb, KCB, CMG, DSO, OBE, MC – 21 March 1939 – 1 March 1956 Major General Abdul Qadir Pasha Al Jundi, O.
B. E. - 1-25 March 1956Note: "Pasha" is a Turkish honorary title, one of various ranks, is equivalent to the British title of "Lord". Bey is equivalent to a knighthood or "Sir". Dupuy, Trevor N, Elusive Victory, The Arab-Israeli Wars, 1947–1974, Hero Farndale, Sir Martin
1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine
The 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine came to be known as "The Great Revolt", was a nationalist uprising by Palestinian Arabs in Mandatory Palestine against the British administration of the Palestine Mandate, demanding Arab independence and the end of the policy of open-ended Jewish immigration and land purchases with the stated goal of establishing a "Jewish National Home". The dissent was directly influenced by the Qassamite rebellion, following the killing of Sheikh Izz ad-Din al-Qassam in 1935, as well as the declaration by Hajj Amin al-Husseini of 16 May 1936 as'Palestine Day' and calling for a General Strike; the revolt was branded by many in the Jewish Yishuv as "immoral and terroristic" comparing it to fascism and nazism. Ben Gurion however described Arab causes as fear of growing Jewish economic power, opposition to mass Jewish immigration and fear of the English identification with Zionism; the general strike lasted from April to October 1936. The revolt consisted of two distinct phases.
The first phase was directed by the urban and elitist Higher Arab Committee and was focused on strikes and other forms of political protest. By October 1936, this phase had been defeated by the British civil administration using a combination of political concessions, international diplomacy and the threat of martial law; the second phase, which began late in 1937, was a violent and peasant-led resistance movement provoked by British repression in 1936 that targeted British forces. During this phase, the rebellion was brutally suppressed by the British Army and the Palestine Police Force using repressive measures that were intended to intimidate the Arab population and undermine popular support for the revolt. During this phase, a more dominant role on the Arab side was taken by the Nashashibi clan, whose NDP party withdrew from the rebel Arab Higher Committee, led by the radical faction of Amin al-Husseini, instead sided with the British – dispatching "Fasail al-Salam" in coordination with the British Army against nationalist and Jihadist Arab "Fasail" units.
According to official British figures covering the whole revolt, the army and police killed more than 2,000 Arabs in combat, 108 were hanged, 961 died because of what they described as "gang and terrorist activities". In an analysis of the British statistics, Walid Khalidi estimates 19,792 casualties for the Arabs, with 5,032 dead: 3,832 killed by the British and 1,200 dead because of "terrorism", 14,760 wounded. Over ten percent of the adult male Palestinian Arab population between 20 and 60 was killed, imprisoned or exiled. Estimates of the number of Palestinian Jews killed range from 91 to several hundred; the Arab revolt in Mandatory Palestine was unsuccessful, its consequences affected the outcome of the 1948 Palestine war. It caused the British Mandate to give crucial support to pre-state Zionist militias like the Haganah, whereas on the Palestinian Arab side, the revolt forced the flight into exile of the main Palestinian Arab leader of the period, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem – Haj Amin al-Husseini.
In 1930 Sheikh Izz ad-Din al-Qassam organized and established the Black Hand, an anti-Zionist and anti-British militant organization. He recruited and arranged military training for peasants and by 1935 he had enlisted between 200 and 800 men, they were engaged in a campaign of vandalizing trees planted by farmers and British-constructed rail lines. In November 1935, two of his men engaged in a firefight with the Palestine Police patrol hunting fruit thieves and a policeman was killed. Following the incident, the police launched a manhunt and surrounded al-Qassam in a cave near Ya'bad. In the ensuing battle, al-Qassam was killed; the death of al-Qassam generated widespread outrage among Palestinian Arabs. Huge crowds accompanied Qassam's body to his grave in Haifa; the dissent in Palestine was influenced by the discovery in October 1935 at the port of Jaffa of a large arms shipment destined for the Haganah, sparking Arab fears of a Jewish military takeover of Palestine, Jewish immigration peaked in 1935, just months before Palestinian Arabs began a full-scale, nationwide revolt.
In the four years between 1933 and 1936 more than 164,000 Jewish immigrants arrived in Palestine, between 1931 and 1936 the Jewish population more than doubled from 175,000 to 370,000 people, increasing the Jewish population share from 17% to 27%, bringing about a significant deterioration in relations between Palestinian Arabs and Jews. The uprising began with the 1936 Anabta shooting, a 15 April 1936 roadblock that stopped a convoy of trucks on the Nablus to Tulkarm road during which the assailants shot two Jewish drivers, Israel Khazan, killed and Zvi Dannenberg, who died five days later; the next day members of the militant Jewish faction, the Irgun and killed two Arab workers sleeping in a hut near Petah Tikva in a revenge attack. The funeral for Khazan in Tel Aviv on 17 April attracted a huge crowd, some Jews beat up Arab bystanders and destroyed property; this was followed by the Bloody Day in Jaffa, in which an Arab mob rampaged through a residential area killing Jews and destroying property.
An Arab general strike and revolt ensued that lasted until October 1936. During the summer of that year, thousands of Jewish-farmed acres and orchards were destroyed, Jewish civilians were attacked and murdered, some Jewish communities, such as those in Beisan and Acre, fled to safer areas. Economic factors played a major role in the outbreak of the Arab revolt. Palestine's fellahin, the country's peasant farmers, comprised over two-thirds of the indigenous Arab population