Jersey City, New Jersey
Jersey City is the second most populous city in the U. S. state of New Jersey, after Newark. It is the seat of Hudson County as well as the county's largest city; as of 2017, the Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program calculated that Jersey City's population was 270,753, with the largest population increase of any municipality in New Jersey since 2010, an increase of about 9.4% from the 2010 United States Census, when the city's population was at 247,597. Ranking the city the 75th-most-populous in the nation. Part of the New York metropolitan area, Jersey City is bounded on the east by the Hudson River and Upper New York Bay and on the west by the Hackensack River and Newark Bay. A port of entry, with 30.7 miles of waterfront and extensive rail infrastructure and connectivity, the city is an important transportation terminus and distribution and manufacturing center for the Port of New York and New Jersey. Jersey City shares significant mass transit connections with Manhattan. Redevelopment of the Jersey City waterfront has made the city one of the largest centers of banking and finance in the United States and has led to the district being nicknamed Wall Street West.
After a peak population of 316,715 measured in the 1930 Census, the city's population saw a half-century-long decline to a nadir of 223,532 in the 1980 Census. Since the city's population has rebounded, with the 2010 population reflecting an increase of 7,542 from the 240,055 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 11,518 from the 228,537 counted in the 1990 Census; the land comprising what is now Jersey City was inhabited by a collection of tribes. In 1609, Henry Hudson, seeking an alternate route to East Asia, anchored his small vessel Halve Maen at Sandy Hook, Harsimus Cove and Weehawken Cove, elsewhere along what was named the North River. After spending nine days surveying the area and meeting its inhabitants, he sailed as far north as Albany. By 1621, the Dutch West India Company was organized to manage this new territory and in June 1623, New Netherland became a Dutch province, with headquarters in New Amsterdam. Michael Reyniersz Pauw received a land grant as patroon on the condition that he would establish a settlement of not fewer than fifty persons within four years.
He purchased the land from the Lenape. This grant is dated November 22, 1630 and is the earliest known conveyance for what are now Hoboken and Jersey City. Pauw, was an absentee landlord who neglected to populate the area and was obliged to sell his holdings back to the Company in 1633; that year, a house was built at Communipaw for Jan Evertsen Bout, superintendent of the colony, named Pavonia. Shortly after, another house was built at Harsimus Cove and became the home of Cornelius Van Vorst, who had succeeded Bout as superintendent, whose family would become influential in the development of the city. Relations with the Lenape deteriorated, in part because of the colonialist's mismanagement and misunderstanding of the indigenous people, led to series of raids and reprisals and the virtual destruction of the settlement on the west bank. During Kieft's War eighty Lenapes were killed by the Dutch in a massacre at Pavonia on the night of February 25, 1643. Scattered communities of farmsteads characterized the Dutch settlements at Pavonia: Communipaw, Paulus Hook, Hoebuck and other lands "behind Kill van Kull".
The first village established on what is now Bergen Square in 1660, is considered to be the oldest town in what would become the state of New Jersey. The flag of the city is a variation on the Prince's Flag from the Netherlands. Among the oldest surviving houses in Jersey City are the Newkirk House, the Van Vorst Farmhouse, the Van Wagenen House. During the American Revolutionary War, the area was in the hands of the British who controlled New York. In the Battle of Paulus Hook Major Light Horse Harry Lee attacked a British fortification on August 19, 1779. After this war, Alexander Hamilton and other prominent New Yorkers and New Jerseyeans attempted to develop the area that would become historic downtown Jersey City and laid out the city squares and streets that still characterize the neighborhood, giving them names seen in Lower Manhattan or after war heroes. During the 19th century, former slaves reached Jersey City on one of the four routes of the Underground Railroad that led to the city.
The City of Jersey was incorporated by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on January 28, 1820, from portions of Bergen Township, while the area was still a part of Bergen County. The city was reincorporated on January 23, 1829, again on February 22, 1838, at which time it became independent of North Bergen and was given its present name. On February 22, 1840, it became part of the newly created Hudson County. Soon after the Civil War, the idea arose of uniting all of the towns of Hudson County east of the Hackensack River into one municipality. A bill was approved by the state legislature on April 2, 1869, with a special election to be held October 5, 1869. An element of the bill provide. While a majority of the voters across the county approved the merger, the only municipalities that had approved the consolidation plan and that adjoined Jersey City were Hudson City and Bergen City; the consolidation began on March 17, 1870, taking effect on May 3, 1870. Three years the present outline of Jersey City was completed when Greenville agreed to m
Federal Bureau of Investigation
The Federal Bureau of Investigation is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, its principal federal law enforcement agency. Operating under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Justice, the FBI is a member of the U. S. Intelligence Community and reports to both the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence. A leading U. S. counter-terrorism, counterintelligence, criminal investigative organization, the FBI has jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crimes. Although many of the FBI's functions are unique, its activities in support of national security are comparable to those of the British MI5 and the Russian FSB. Unlike the Central Intelligence Agency, which has no law enforcement authority and is focused on intelligence collection abroad, the FBI is a domestic agency, maintaining 56 field offices in major cities throughout the United States, more than 400 resident agencies in smaller cities and areas across the nation.
At an FBI field office, a senior-level FBI officer concurrently serves as the representative of the Director of National Intelligence. Despite its domestic focus, the FBI maintains a significant international footprint, operating 60 Legal Attache offices and 15 sub-offices in U. S. consulates across the globe. These foreign offices exist for the purpose of coordination with foreign security services and do not conduct unilateral operations in the host countries; the FBI can and does at times carry out secret activities overseas, just as the CIA has a limited domestic function. The FBI was established in 1908 as the Bureau of the BOI or BI for short, its name was changed to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1935. The FBI headquarters is the J. Edgar Hoover Building, located in Washington, D. C. In the fiscal year 2016, the Bureau's total budget was $8.7 billion. The FBI's main goal is to protect and defend the United States, to uphold and enforce the criminal laws of the United States, to provide leadership and criminal justice services to federal, state and international agencies and partners.
The FBI's top priorities are: Protect the United States from terrorist attacks Protect the United States against foreign intelligence operations and espionage Protect the United States against cyber-based attacks and high-technology crimes Combat public corruption at all levels Protect civil rights, Combat transnational/national criminal organizations and enterprises Combat major white-collar crime Combat significant violent crime Support federal, state and international partners Upgrade technology to enable, further, the successful performances of its missions as stated above In 1896, the National Bureau of Criminal Identification was founded, which provided agencies across the country with information to identify known criminals. The 1901 assassination of President William McKinley created a perception that America was under threat from anarchists; the Departments of Justice and Labor had been keeping records on anarchists for years, but President Theodore Roosevelt wanted more power to monitor them.
The Justice Department had been tasked with the regulation of interstate commerce since 1887, though it lacked the staff to do so. It had made little effort to relieve its staff shortage until the Oregon land fraud scandal at the turn of the 20th Century. President Roosevelt instructed Attorney General Charles Bonaparte to organize an autonomous investigative service that would report only to the Attorney General. Bonaparte reached out to other agencies, including the U. S. Secret Service, for personnel, investigators in particular. On May 27, 1908, the Congress forbade this use of Treasury employees by the Justice Department, citing fears that the new agency would serve as a secret police department. Again at Roosevelt's urging, Bonaparte moved to organize a formal Bureau of Investigation, which would have its own staff of special agents; the Bureau of Investigation was created on July 26, 1908, after the Congress had adjourned for the summer. Attorney General Bonaparte, using Department of Justice expense funds, hired thirty-four people, including some veterans of the Secret Service, to work for a new investigative agency.
Its first "Chief" was Stanley Finch. Bonaparte notified the Congress of these actions in December 1908; the bureau's first official task was visiting and making surveys of the houses of prostitution in preparation for enforcing the "White Slave Traffic Act," or Mann Act, passed on June 25, 1910. In 1932, the bureau was renamed the United States Bureau of Investigation; the following year it was linked to the Bureau of Prohibition and rechristened the Division of Investigation before becoming an independent service within the Department of Justice in 1935. In the same year, its name was changed from the Division of Investigation to the present-day Federal Bureau of Investigation, or FBI. J. Edgar Hoover served as FBI Director from 1924 to 1972, a combined 48 years with the BOI, DOI, FBI, he was chiefly responsible for creating the Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory, or the FBI Laboratory, which opened in 1932, as part of his work to professionalize investigations by the government. Hoover was involved in most major cases and projects that the FBI handled during his tenure.
But as detailed below, his proved to be a controversial tenure as Bureau Director in its years. After Hoover's death, the Congress passed legislation that limited the tenure of future FBI Directors to ten years. Early homicide investigations of the new age
Hazlet, New Jersey
Hazlet is a township in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 20,334, reflecting a decline of 1,044 from the 21,378 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn declined by 598 from the 21,976 counted in the 1990 Census. Hazlet is part of the Bayshore Regional Strategic Plan, an effort by nine municipalities in northern Monmouth County to reinvigorate the area's economy by emphasizing the traditional downtowns, dense residential neighborhoods, maritime history, the natural environment of the Raritan Bayshore coastline. What is now Hazlet Township was incorporated as Raritan Township by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 25, 1848, from portions of Middletown Township. Portions of the township were taken to form Holmdel Township, Matawan Township, Keyport and Union Beach; the township was renamed "Hazlet Township" as of November 28, 1967, based on the results of a referendum held on November 7, 1967. Hazlet derives its name from Dr. John Hazlett, who had an estate in Raritan Township near the Keyport-Holmdel Turnpike, now Holmdel Road.
Hazlet was the site of the last drive-in movie theater in New Jersey, the Route 35 Drive-In, which closed in 1991, until the Delsea Drive-In in Vineland reopened in 2004. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 5.675 square miles, including 5.557 square miles of land and 0.118 square miles of water. Hazlet Township is 37 miles south of Manhattan and 56 miles northeast of Philadelphia. Unincorporated communities located or within Hazlet include Centerville, North Centerville, South Keyport, Tiltons Corner, Van Marters Corner and West Keansburg; the township borders Aberdeen Township, Holmdel Township, Keyport, Middletown Township and Union Beach. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 20,334 people, 7,140 households, 5,526.360 families residing in the township. The population density was 3,659.4 per square mile. There were 7,417 housing units at an average density of 1,334.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 91.93% White, 1.48% Black or African American, 0.07% Native American, 3.40% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 1.58% from other races, 1.51% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.87% of the population. There were 7,140 households out of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.0% were married couples living together, 10.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.6% were non-families. 19.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.82 and the average family size was 3.26. In the township, the population was spread out with 22.7% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 23.9% from 25 to 44, 31.0% from 45 to 64, 14.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42.3 years. For every 100 females there were 92.4 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 89.3 males. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $89,415 and the median family income was $102,743. Males had a median income of $71,710 versus $53,371 for females; the per capita income for the township was $33,051.
About 1.2% of families and 2.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.3% of those under age 18 and 6.0% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 21,378 people, 7,244 households, 5,802 families residing in the township; the population density was 3,802.3 people per square mile. There were 7,406 housing units at an average density of 1,317.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 93.17% White, 1.10% African American, 0.06% Native American, 3.39% Asian, 1.13% from other races, 1.15% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.87% of the population. There were 7,244 households out of which 37.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 67.2% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 19.9% were non-families. 17.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.92 and the average family size was 3.32.
In the township the population was spread out with 25.5% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 29.2% from 25 to 44, 25.0% from 45 to 64, 13.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.1 males. The median income for a household in the township was $65,697, the median income for a family was $71,361. Males had a median income of $51,776 versus $32,439 for females; the per capita income for the township was $25,262. About 2.3% of families and 3.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.6% of those under age 18 and 6.6% of those age 65 or over. Hazlet is governed under the Township form of New Jersey municipal government; the five-member Township Committee is elected directly by the voters at-large in partisan elections to serve three-year terms of office on a staggered basis, with either one or two seats coming up for election each year as part of the November general election in a three-year cycle
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Israel the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west and Egypt to the southwest; the country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition. Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age; the Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Judah was conquered by the Babylonian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces.
The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, expulsion of Jewish population and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina. Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187; the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman Syria and British Mandate Palestine.
In 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, rejected by Arab leaders; the following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, since the Six-Day War in 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip, it extended its laws to the Golan East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is the world's longest military occupation in modern times. Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have been signed.
In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a democratic state. The country has a liberal democracy, with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, universal suffrage; the prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. Israel is a developed country and an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member, with the 32nd-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2017; the country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. Israel has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. Furthermore, Israel ranked 11th in the UN's 2018 World Happiness Report. Upon independence in 1948, the country formally adopted the name "State of Israel" after other proposed historical and religious names including Eretz Israel and Judea, were considered but rejected.
In the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term "Israeli" to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have been used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel and the entire Jewish people respectively; the name "Israel" in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was given the name after he wrestled with the angel of the Lord. Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting 430 years, until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob, led the Israelites back into Canaan during the "Exodus"; the earliest known archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith.
Under British Mandate, the whole region was known as Palestine (Hebre
Neptune Township, New Jersey
Neptune Township is a township in Monmouth County, New Jersey, in the United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 27,935, reflecting an increase of 245 from the 27,690 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn declined by 458 from the 28,148 counted in the 1990 Census. Neptune was incorporated as a township by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 26, 1879, from portions of Ocean Township. Portions of the township were taken to form Bradley Beach and Ocean Grove; the township was named for Neptune, the Roman water deity, its location on the Atlantic Ocean. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 8.672 square miles, including 8.182 square miles of land and 0.490 square miles of water. Ocean Grove and Shark River Hills are census-designated places and unincorporated communities located within Neptune Township. Other unincorporated communities and place names located or within the township include Bradley Park, the Gables, Green Grove, Hamilton Mills, Mid-Town, Seaview Island, The Observatory, West Grove, West Neptune and Whitesville.
Neptune Township stretches from the Atlantic Ocean west to the Garden State Parkway. The southern border is the Shark River estuary, the northern border is with Asbury Park and Ocean Township. Neptune Township is a diverse community, both in terms of population and landscape, extending from the seaside community of Ocean Grove, a national historic site, to Mid-town, undergoing a municipal-led revitalization, to the riverside residential community of Shark River Hills, to the open spaces of Shark River Park and the commercial corridor on Route 66 in the west; the township borders the Monmouth County communities of Asbury Park, Avon-by-the-Sea, Bradley Beach, Neptune City, Ocean Township, Tinton Falls and Wall Township. Deal Lake covers 158 acres and is overseen by the Deal Lake Commission, established in 1974. Seven municipalities border the lake, accounting for 27 miles of shoreline including Allenhurst, Asbury Park, Interlaken, Loch Arbour and Ocean Township; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 27,935 people, 11,201 households, 6,843.811 families residing in the township.
The population density was 3,414.3 per square mile. There were 12,991 housing units at an average density of 1,587.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 53.18% White, 38.56% Black or African American, 0.34% Native American, 2.26% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 2.51% from other races, 3.12% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.33% of the population. There were 11,201 households out of which 23.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.6% were married couples living together, 16.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.9% were non-families. 31.8% of all households were made up of individuals, 11.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.13. In the township, the population was spread out with 20.6% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 24.8% from 25 to 44, 30.4% from 45 to 64, 16.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42.7 years.
For every 100 females there were 87.2 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 83.5 males. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $58,630 and the median family income was $74,422. Males had a median income of $56,743 versus $43,853 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $30,656. About 8.1% of families and 10.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.7% of those under age 18 and 6.7% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 27,690 people, 10,907 households, 6,805 families residing in the township; the population density was 3,366.8 people per square mile. There were 12,217 housing units at an average density of 1,485.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 55.92% White, 38.16% African American, 0.17% Native American, 1.17% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.98% from other races, 2.56% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.55% of the population.
There were 10,907 households out of which 26.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.6% were married couples living together, 15.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.6% were non-families. 31.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 3.14. In the township the population was spread out with 23.1% under the age of 18, 6.7% from 18 to 24, 29.7% from 25 to 44, 23.8% from 45 to 64, 16.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.0 males. The median income for a household in the township was $46,250, the median income for a family was $57,735. Males had a median income of $42,920 versus $31,057 for females; the per capita income for the township was $22,569. About 7.6% of families and 11.7% of the population were b
Ridgefield, New Jersey
Ridgefield is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 11,032, reflecting an increase of 202 from the 10,830 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 834 from the 9,996 counted in the 1990 Census. Ridgefield was incorporated as a borough by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on May 26, 1892, from portions of Ridgefield Township; the borough was named for the area's terrain. At the time of European colonization, the area was home to the Hackensack tribe of the Lenape Native Americans, who maintained a large settlement to the north on Overpeck Creek, their name is an exonym taken from the territory and is translated as place of stony ground which describes the diminishing Hudson Palisades as they descend into the Meadowlands becoming the ridgefield, part of Hackensack River flood plain. In 1642, Myndert Myndertsen received a patroonship as part of the New Netherland colony for much the land in the Hackensack and Passaic valleys.
He called his settlement Achter Kol, or rear mountain pass, which refers to its accessibility to the interior behind the Palisades. Spared in the conflicts that begin with the Pavonia Massacre, the nascent colony was abandoned. In 1655, sachem of the Hackensack, deeded a large tract nearby to Sara Kiersted, who had learned the native language and was instrumental in negotiations between Native Americans and the settlers. In 1668, much of the land between Overpeck Creek and the Hudson River was purchased by Samuel Edsall, soon became known as the English Neighborhood, despite the fact most of the settlers were of Dutch and Huguenot origin; the opening of the West Shore Railroad and Erie Railroad's Northern Branch in the mid 19th century brought suburbanization to the region, in Ridgefield, significant industry and manufacturing. Grantwood was an artist's colony established in 1913 by Man Ray, Alfred Kreymborg and Samuel Halpert and became known as the "Others" group of artists; the colony consisted of a number of clapboard shacks on a bluff.
To this day the names of the streets in this part of the town — Sketch Place, Studio Road and Art Lane — pay homage to Grantwood's history. Kreymborg moved to Ridgefield and launched Others: A Magazine of the New Verse with Skipwith Cannell, Wallace Stevens, William Carlos Williams in 1915; the initial 118 miles of the New Jersey Turnpike were completed in 1952, with the original northern terminus at an interchange connecting to Route 46 in Ridgefield. An additional four-mile stretch of road connecting the Turnpike from Ridgefield to Interstate 80 in Teaneck and from there to the George Washington Bridge was completed in 1964; the western spur was added in the 1970s, with its two spurs re-connecting in the western side of the borough. In the 1970s, the area came under the auspices of the Hackensack Meadowlands Development Commission, meant to set parameters and balance development in the ecologically sensitive region; some parts of the low-lying areas, including Skeetkill Creek Marsh, have been set apart as nature reserves and extension of system that connects to the Overpeck Reserve and Overpeck County Park.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 2.854 square miles, including 2.551 square miles of land and 0.303 square miles of water. The borough is informally divided into three sections based on the geographical contour of the land; the first section is known as Ridgefield, lies in the valley on both the east and west sides and on the first hill. The second section is known as Morsemere, is located in the northern part of the borough; the third section is Ridgefield Heights, on the second hill at the extreme eastern part of the borough, running north and south. Morsemere was named by a real estate development company in honor of Samuel F. B. Morse, inventor of the telegraph and Morse code. During the middle of the 19th century, Morse owned vast tracts of land in the Ridgefield section of the borough. Ridgefield's telephone exchange was Morsemere 6; the borough shares borders with Carlstadt, Cliffside Park, Fort Lee, Little Ferry, Palisades Park, Ridgefield Park and South Hackensack in Bergen County and North Bergen in Hudson County.
Undercliff Junction is an unincorporated community located within Ridgefield. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 11,032 people, 3,905 households, 2,995.135 families residing in the borough. The population density was 4,323.7 per square mile. There were 4,145 housing units at an average density of 1,624.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 62.31% White, 1.20% Black or African American, 0.18% Native American, 29.06% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 4.66% from other races, 2.57% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 21.41% of the population. Korean Americans accounted for 25.7% of the population. There were 3,905 households out of which 33.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.9% were married couples living together, 13.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.3% were non-families. 19.9% of all households were made up of individuals, 9.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.82 and the average family size was 3.25.
Same-sex couples headed 31 households in 2010, an increase from the 24 counted in 2000. In the borough, the population was spread out with 21.6% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 30.3% from 45 to 64, 14.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41.5 years. For every 100 females there were 92.0 male