Binyamin Ben-Eliezer was an Iraqi-born Israeli politician and general. He served as a member of the Knesset between 1984 and 2014, held several ministerial posts, including Minister of Industry and Labour. Ben-Eliezer was born in Basra in southern Iraq to an Iraqi-Jewish family, the son of Saleh and Farha Elazar, his name at birth was Fuad Elazar. He immigrated to Israel in 1950, he became a career soldier. He was married with five children; some of his granddaughters live in the United States. He was fluent in Hebrew and English. Ben-Eliezer was served in the Golani Brigade, he served in the Brigade as a squad leader. In 1956 he became an infantry officer after completing Officer Candidate School and return to the Golani Brigade, fought in the Sinai war. Ben-Eliezer served as a Commander of sayerert shaked in the Six-Day War and was wounded in the War of Attrition. In the Yom Kippur War he served as a brigade Executive officer. In 1977, he was appointed First Commanding Officer in Southern Lebanon, serving as the army liaison between the Lebanese Christian militias and Israel.
He was Military Governor of Judea and Samaria and was Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories from 1983 until 1984. He completed his military service with the rank of Brigadier General. After retiring from the army, Ben-Eliezer was a member of the Tami Party, a grouping of Israeli Jews of "Mizrahi" or Middle Eastern origin. Ben-Eliezer was first elected to the Knesset in 1984 on the Yahad list, which merged into the Alignment during his first term, he was re-elected in 1992, by which time the Alignment had become the Labor Party. In July 1992 he was appointed Minister of Construction in Yitzhak Rabin's government, he retained his seat in the 1996 elections, but lost his place in the cabinet as Labor went into opposition. Following Ehud Barak's victory in the 1999 Prime Minister election, Ben-Eliezer returned to the cabinet as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Communications. From October 2000 to 3 March 2001, he served as Minister of Housing and Construction. After Ariel Sharon's victory in the special election for Prime Minister in 2001, Ben-Eliezer was appointed Minister of Defense in the national unity government, served as Labor Party leader following Barak's resignation until Amram Mitzna was elected in 2002.
He left the post on 2 October 2002. Re-elected again in 2003, Ben-Eliezer served as Minister of National Infrastructure from 10 January 2005 until 23 November, when Labor left the government. In the Labor Party leadership election on 9 November 2005, he came third with 16.8% of the vote, behind Amir Peretz and Shimon Peres. He retained his seat again in the 2006 elections, was appointed Minister of National Infrastructure in Ehud Olmert's government. In March 2007, Ben-Eliezer was forced to cancel a trip to Egypt after being warned by Egyptian intelligence that he could be arrested, when Egyptian media and opposition implicated him in the'massacre' of 250 Egyptian POWs during the Six-Day War following an Israeli documentary. However, the allegations are disputed by both Binyamin Ben-Eliezer and the documentary film-maker Ran Edelist. Placed eighth on the party's list, he was re-elected again in the 2009 elections and appointed Minister of Industry and Labour, he resigned from the cabinet after Ehud Barak left the Labor Party to establish Independence in January 2011.
He contracted pneumonia in March 2011 and was put into a medically induced coma making a full recovery. He was re-elected in the 2013 elections, but resigned from the Knesset for health reasons in December 2014, was replaced by Raleb Majadele. Ben-Eliezer was a candidate to succeed Shimon Peres as President of Israel in 2014, but withdrew after allegations of corruption surfaced against him. Ben-Eliezer was considered a hawk on foreign policy and was one of the main architects of the invasion of Lebanon as well as a strong proponent for Operation Defensive Shield, he advocated halting peace talks with Palestinians until there was an end to violence against Israelis, although he believed once their leadership is able to put a stop to "terrorism" and abandon it as a political tool there should be "compromise" in final status talks with the Palestinian Authority. Ben-Eliezer warned in 2012: "So far Palestinians have kept quiet, but one day they will awake and the explosion will happen. People don't accept under military rule for 50 years."
On the afternoon of August 28, 2016, Binyamin died at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center from kidney disease. He was 80 years old. Iraqi Jews in Israel Binyamin Ben-Eliezer on the Knesset website Binyamin Ben-Eliezer Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Hebron is a Palestinian city located in the southern West Bank, 30 km south of Jerusalem. Nestled in the Judaean Mountains, it lies 930 meters above sea level; the largest city in the West Bank, the second largest in the Palestinian territories after Gaza, it has a population of 215,452 Palestinians, between 500 and 850 Jewish settlers concentrated in and around the old quarter. Jews and Muslims all venerate the city of Hebron for its association with Abraham – it includes the traditional burial site of the biblical Patriarchs and Matriarchs, within the Cave of the Patriarchs. Judaism ranks Hebron as the second-holiest city after Jerusalem, while some Muslims regard it as one of the four holy cities; the Hebron Protocol of 1997 divided the city into two sectors: H1, controlled by the Palestinian Authority and H2 20% of the city, administered by Israel. All security arrangements and travel permits for local residents are coordinated between the Palestinian Authority and Israel via military administration of the West Bank.
The Jewish settlers have their own governing municipal body, the Committee of the Jewish Community of Hebron. Hebron is a busy hub of West Bank trade, generating a third of the area's gross domestic product due to the sale of limestone from quarries in its area, it has a local reputation for its grapes, limestone, pottery workshops and glassblowing factories, is the location of the major dairy-product manufacturer, al-Juneidi. The old city of Hebron features narrow, winding streets, flat-roofed stone houses, old bazaars; the city is home to the Palestine Polytechnic University. Hebron is attached to cities of ad-Dhahiriya, Yatta, the surrounding villages with no borders. Hebron Governorate is the largest Palestinian governorate, with a population of 600,364 as of 2010; the name "Hebron" traces back to two Semitic roots, which coalesce in the form ḥbr, having reflexes in Hebrew and Amorite and denoting a range of meanings from "colleague", "unite" or "friend". In the proper name Hebron, the original sense may have been alliance.
The Arabic term derives from the Qur'anic epithet for Abraham, Khalil al-Rahman "Beloved of the Merciful" or "Friend of God". Arabic Al-Khalil thus translates the ancient Hebrew toponym Ḥebron, understood as ḥaber. Archaeological excavations reveal traces of strong fortifications dated to the Early Bronze Age, covering some 24–30 dunams centered around Tel Rumeida; the city flourished in the 17th–18th centuries BCE before being destroyed by fire, was resettled in the late Middle Bronze Age. This older Hebron was a Canaanite royal city. Abrahamic legend associates the city with the Hittites, it has been conjectured that Hebron might have been the capital of Shuwardata of Gath, an Indo-European contemporary of Jerusalem's regent, Abdi-Kheba, although the Hebron hills were devoid of settlements in the Late Bronze Age. The Abrahamic traditions associated with Hebron are nomadic, may reflect a Kenite element, since the nomadic Kenites are said to have long occupied the city, Heber is the name for a Kenite clan.
In the narrative of the Hebrew conquest, Hebron was one of two centres under Canaanite control and ruled by the three sons of Anak, or may reflect some Kenite and Kenizzite migration from the Negev to Hebron, since terms related to the Kenizzites appear to be close to Hurrian, which suggests that behind the Anakim legend lies some early Hurrian population. In Biblical lore they are represented as descendants of the Nephilim; the Book of Genesis mentions that it was called Kirjath-arba, or "city of four" referring to the four pairs or couples who were buried there, or four tribes, or four quarters, four hills, or a confederated settlement of four families. The story of Abraham's purchase of the Cave of the Patriarchs from the Hittites constitutes a seminal element in what was to become the Jewish attachment to the land in that it signified the first "real estate" of Israel long before the conquest under Joshua. In settling here, Abraham is described as making his first covenant, an alliance with two local Amorite clans who became his ba’alei brit or masters of the covenant.
The Hebron of the Bible was centered on what is now known as Tel Rumeida, while its ritual centre was located at Elonei Mamre. It is said to have been wrested from the Canaanites by either Joshua, said to have wiped out all of its previous inhabitants, "destroying everything that drew breath, as the Lord God of Israel had commanded", or the tribe of Judah as a whole, or Caleb the Judahite; the town itself, with some contiguous pasture land, is said to have been granted to the Levites of the clan of Kohath, while the fields of the city, as well as its surrounding villages were assigned to Caleb, who expels the three giants, Sheshai and Talmai, who ruled the city. The biblical narrative has King David called by God to relocate to Hebron and reign from there for some seven years, it is there that the elders of Israel come to him to make a covenant before Elohim and anoint him king of Israel. It was in Hebron again that Absalom has himself declared king and raises a revolt against his father David.
It became one of the principal centers of the Tribe of Judah and was classified as one of the six traditional Cities of Refuge. As is shown by the discovery at Lachish, the second most important Judean city after Jerusalem, of seals with the inscription lmlk Hebron, Hebron continued to constitute an important local economic centre, given i
Operation Defensive Shield
Operation "Defensive Shield" was a large-scale military operation conducted by the Israel Defense Forces in 2002 during the course of the Second Intifada. It was the largest military operation in the West Bank since the 1967 Six-Day War; the stated goal of the operation was to stop terrorist attacks. The spark that gave rise to the action was the March 27 suicide bombing during Passover Seder at the Park Hotel in the Israeli resort city of Netanya. Operation Defensive Shield began on March 29, 2002, with an incursion into Ramallah placing Yasser Arafat under siege in his Ramallah compound, followed by incursions into the six largest cities in the West Bank, their surrounding localities; the Israel Defense Forces invaded Tulkarm and Qalqilya on April 1, Bethlehem the next day and Nablus the next. From April 3–21, the period was characterized by strict curfews on civilian populations and restrictions of movement of international personnel, including at times prohibition of entry to humanitarian and medical personnel as well as human rights monitors and journalists.
In May 2002, the Israeli troops had pulled out of the Palestinian cities, but maintained cordons of troops around West Bank towns and villages, continued carrying out raids on Palestinian areas. The UN report on the subject says, "Combatants on both sides conducted themselves in ways that, at times, placed civilians in harm's way. Much of the fighting during Operation "Defensive Shield" occurred in areas populated by civilians and in many cases heavy weaponry was used." The Israeli–Palestinian conflict escalated during the Second Intifada. In January and February 2002, 71 people were killed on all sides during attacks from Palestinian terrorists and the Israeli army. March and April 2002 saw a dramatic increase in attacks against Israelis by Palestinian terrorist groups such as Hamas, Islamic Jihad and the Fatah-affiliated Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades. In addition to numerous shooting and grenade attacks, fifteen suicide bombings were carried out in March, an average of one suicide bombing every two days.
March 2002 became known in Israel as "Black March". The high rate of attacks disrupted daily life throughout Israel; the first wave of Israeli incursions took place between 14 March. Following nine attacks by Palestinian terrorists between March 2–5, the Israeli cabinet decided to massively expand its military activity against these groups. On March 5, while talking with reporters in the Knesset cafeteria, Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, pointing to the bloodiest week against Israelis since the start of the Second Intifada, explained the cabinet's decision: "The Palestinians must be hit, it must be painful.... We must cause them losses, victims, so that they feel a heavy price."Palestinian attacks continued, with suicide bombings on 9 March, 20 March, 21 March. Shooting and grenade attacks continued to occur in Israel and Israeli settlements. On 27 March, a suicide attack occurred in Netanya, where 30 people were killed in the Park Hotel while celebrating Passover; the event became known as the Passover massacre.
The following day, a Palestinian gunman infiltrated the Israeli settlement of Elon Moreh and killed four members of the same family. On March 29, the Israeli government announced Operation "Defensive Shield", terming it a large-scale counter-terrorist offensive; the Israel Defense Forces issued emergency call-up notices for 30,000 reserve soldiers, the largest call-up since the 1982 Lebanon War. The same day, two Israelis were stabbed in the Gaza settlement of Netzarim. Two suicide bombings occurred the next day, another one took place the day after that. Overall, in March 2002, some 130 Israelis including 100 noncombatants were killed in Palestinian attacks, while a total of 238 Palestinians including at least 83 noncombatants were killed in the same month by the IDF; the stated goals of the operation were "to catch and arrest terrorists and their dispatchers and those who finance and support them. The orders are clear: target and paralyze anyone who takes up weapons and tries to oppose our troops, resists them or endangers them—and to avoid harming the civilian population."
IDF officers noted that incursions would force Palestinian militants "to exert their energy by defending their homes in the camps instead of by plotting attacks on Israelis."The Palestinian attachment to the UN report on Operation "Defensive Shield" challenged the validity of the Israeli claim that it was targeting "terrorists," noting that, " the record shows that the nature of the actions taken, the amount of harm inflicted on the population and the practical results prove different political goals the Israeli occupying forces have targeted the Palestinian police and security forces, instead of'terrorists', have tried to destroy the Palestinian Authority and declared it an'enemy', instead of groups hostile to peace in the Middle East." Operation "Defensive Shield" was announced on March 29, but it is assumed preparations began nearly a month before. In early April, the IDF was conducting major military operations inside all Palestinian cities, but the majority of the fighting centered on Bethlehem, Jenin and Ramallah.
Over 20,000 Israeli reservists were activated during the conflict. According to Israeli authorities, Jeni
The 1st "Golani" Brigade is an Israeli regular service infantry brigade, subordinated to the 36th Division and traditionally associated with the Northern Command. It is one of the five regular service infantry brigades of the Israel Defense Forces, its symbol is a green olive tree against a yellow background, with its soldiers wearing a brown beret. It is one of the most decorated infantry units in the IDF; the brigade consists of five battalions, including two which it kept from its inception, one transferred from the Givati Brigade. The brigade was formed on February 22, 1948 during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, when the Levanoni Brigade in the Galilee split into the 1st Golani Brigade and the 2nd Carmeli Brigade, it has since participated in all of Israel's major wars and nearly all major operations, including the Suez Crisis, the Six-Day War, the War of Attrition, the Yom Kippur War, Operation Entebbe, the 1978 South Lebanon conflict, the 1982 and 2006 Lebanon Wars, various operations during the Palestinian intifadas.
Although the brigade is known for insubordination problems, three of its commanders, Mordechai Gur, Gabi Ashkenazi and Gadi Eizenkot, became IDF Chiefs of Staff with many more reaching the rank of aluf. As the end of the British Mandate of Palestine was fast approaching, the leadership of the Haganah drafted Plan Dalet for its subsequent organization and operations; the plan divided the fighting militia into six regional brigades – Levanoni in the north, Alexandroni in the Sharon region, Kiryati in the Tel Aviv area, Givati in the Shfela, Etzioni in the Jerusalem area. On February 28, 1948, the Levanoni Brigade was split into two—Carmeli in the northwest, Golani in the northeast. Golani's area of operations included much of the Lower Galilee and Jezreel Valley, the Jordan Valley and the Hula Valley, it extended to Bat Shlomo in the west. Major population centers included Safed, Beit She'an and Nazareth; the new brigade included five battalions, with its headquarters in Yavne'el: During the 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine, Golani participated in the battles for the mixed cities in the north, such as the Battle of Tiberias and battles in Safed in April–May 1948.
The 12th Battalion captured al-Shajara on May 6, 1948 and the 13th captured Beit She'an on May 12. After these operations, responsibility over the northeastern part of the brigade's sector, was handed over to the Oded Brigade and other forces. In December 1948, the 14th and 15th battalions were merged into the Mechanized Attack Battalion; the first Golani action following the Arab intervention in the 1948 war was the defense of the kibbutzim Degania Alef and Bet from the Syrian Army in the Battles of the Kinarot Valley. Units from the Barak Battalion, with Yiftach and Guard Corps reinforcements fended off a Syrian attack; the brigade was successful at repelling Iraqi forces at the Battle of Gesher to the south. After the Jordan Valley battles died out, Golani went on the offensive, attacking a number of Arab villages in its sector, mounting an offensive on Jenin together with the Carmeli Brigade on June 2, 1948; the attack succeeded, but Jenin was retaken by the Iraqi Army shortly after. During the Battles of the Ten Days between the first and second truces of the war, Golani managed to repel the Arab Liberation Army attack on Sejera from Lubya, helped capture Nazareth and Lubya in Operation Dekel.
Golani participated in Operation Hiram in October 1948, where at first it staged diversionary attacks from the south, afterwards went on to capture Eilabun, Mughar and other villages in the ALA First Yarmouk Battalion's zone. In December 1948, the brigade was transferred to the south in preparation for Operation Horev. Golani fought the Egyptians in the Gaza Strip, in Operation Assaf, the Battle of Hill 86 and battles around Rafah. In March 1949, the brigade was tasked with capturing Umm Rashrash with the 7th Armored Brigade. Golani advanced through the Arabah region in the east and arrived at the location two hours after the 7th; this was the last operation of the war. After the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the Golani Brigade participated in a number of reprisal raids in the first part of the 1950s. In 1951, a Syrian patrol entered the demilitarized zone near Tel Mutilla, was attacked by reservist IDF troops. Golani reinforced a reserve battalion and entered a battle that lasted five days, costing the brigade 40 dead and 72 wounded.
The battle caused a number of changes in the IDF doctrine and was a catalyst for the creation of Unit 101. On October 28, 1955, after a border incident with Egypt around the Auja al-Hafir demilitarized zone, Golani was tasked with leading Operation Volcano, an attack on the Egyptian army in the area and the largest military operation at the time since the 1948 war. In the Suez Crisis of 1956, the brigade's task was to capture the area around the city Rafah; the 51st Battalion of Givati, led the assault on the Rafah Junction. They were ordered to abandon their vehicles after reaching a minefield and coming under fire from Egyptian artillery, although the battalion's sappers created a way forward for a line of vehicles and the battalion captured the intended Egyptian positions; the 12th Battalion captured positions on the Rafah – Khan Yunis road, the 13th—positions south of Rafah. In early 1960, after a border incident on the backdrop of the Israeli–Syrian water dispute, Golani destroyed the abandoned village al-Tawafiq, which overlooked Tel Katzir and was used by the Syrians as a military base.
In March 1962, Golani launched Operation Swallow against the Syrians at Nuq
Immanuel spelled Emmanuel or Emanuel, is an Israeli settlement organized as a local council located in the West Bank. Immanuel was established in 1983. In 2017 it had a population of 3,440; the international community considers Immanuel along with all other Israeli settlements in the West Bank illegal under international law, but the Israeli government disputes this. According to ARIJ, in order to construct Immanuel, Israel confiscated land from two nearby Palestinian villages. Following its founding in 1983, Immanuel was declared a local council in 1985, it was named after the symbolic child's name in Isaiah 7:14. Its first head of council was Oded Alon. Immanuel's current head of council is Yeshayahu Ehrenreich. In the 1990s, Immanuel was undergoing a major expansion, but the Oslo Accords discouraged investors and construction firms from continuing to build; as a result, a major portion of present-day Immanuel consists of unfinished steel structures and concrete. Land value is extremely low four to six times lower than in central Israeli towns and cities.
While Immanuel has a modest light industrial area which provides work for Israelis and Palestinians, there are otherwise not many more local career opportunities that are not related to education or Torah study. The town is served by a public transportation route run by the Dan Bus Company; the international community considers Israeli settlements including Immanuel, to be in violation of the Fourth Geneva Convention's prohibition on the transfer of an occupying power's civilian population into occupied territory. Israel disputes that the Fourth Geneva Convention applies to the West Bank region as it had not been held by a sovereign nation prior to Israel taking control of it, the settlement population was not forcibly transferred but rather moved voluntarily; this view has been rejected by the International Court of Justice and the International Committee of the Red Cross. On December 12, 2001, members of the Hamas and Fatah movements detonated two roadside bombs on the commuter Dan bus line 189 as it slowed to a stop 70 meters from the entrance of the settlement.
Three terrorists began firing automatic weapons and threw hand-grenades at the bus as 11 people were killed and 26 others suffered injuries. In 2002, the town was again the site of an ambush attack by Palestinian militants in which 9 people were killed and 20 others injured. Two 20-kilo bombs were set off by Palestinians disguised as IDF officers at the entrance of the settlement, damaging a commuting bus from the city of Bnei Brak; the militants threw grenades at the bus and opened fire on the passengers and another vehicle behind the bus. In 2007, Immanuel became the site of a dispute over the alleged discrimination of students at the state-funded Beit Yaakov girls' school involving the segregation between Ashkenazi and Sephardi students; the Israeli Supreme Court unanimously ruled in 2009 that it considered the division as a form of prejudice which should be abolished. In 2016, Malka Leifer, a former high school principal facing 74 counts of alleged sex abuse of her pupils in Australia, has returned to live in Immanuel.
Her extradition has been delayed due to her alleged mental health issues. Official website Immanuel on YouTube
Tel Aviv is the second most populous city in Israel—after Jerusalem—and the most populous city in the conurbation of Gush Dan, Israel's largest metropolitan area. Located on the country's Mediterranean coastline and with a population of 443,939, it is the economic and technological center of the country. Tel Aviv is governed by the Tel Aviv-Yafo Municipality, headed by Mayor Ron Huldai, is home to many foreign embassies, it is ranked 25th in the Global Financial Centres Index. Tel Aviv has the third- or fourth-largest economy and the largest economy per capita in the Middle East; the city has the 31st highest cost of living in the world. Tel Aviv receives over 2.5 million international visitors annually. A "party capital" in the Middle East, it has 24-hour culture. Tel Aviv is home to Tel Aviv University, the largest university in the country with more than 30,000 students; the city was founded in 1909 by the Yishuv as a modern housing estate on the outskirts of the ancient port city of Jaffa part of the Jerusalem province of Ottoman Syria.
It was at first called'Ahuzat Bayit', a name changed the following year to'Tel Aviv'. Its name means "Ancient Hill of Spring". Other Jewish suburbs of Jaffa established outside Jaffa's Old City before Tel Aviv became part of Tel Aviv, the oldest among them being Neve Tzedek. Immigration by Jewish refugees meant that the growth of Tel Aviv soon outpaced that of Jaffa, which had a majority Arab population at the time. Tel Aviv and Jaffa were merged into a single municipality in 1950, two years after the Israeli Declaration of Independence, proclaimed in the city. Tel Aviv's White City, designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003, comprises the world's largest concentration of International Style buildings, including Bauhaus and other related modernist architectural styles. Tel Aviv is the Hebrew title of Theodor Herzl's Altneuland, translated from German by Nahum Sokolow. Sokolow had adopted the name of a Mesopotamian site near the city of Babylon mentioned in Ezekiel: "Then I came to them of the captivity at Tel Aviv, that lived by the river Chebar, to where they lived.
The name was chosen in 1910 from several suggestions, including "Herzliya". It was found fitting. Aviv is Hebrew for "spring", symbolizing renewal, tel is a man-made mound accumulating layers of civilization built one over the other and symbolizing the ancient. Although founded in 1909 as a small settlement on the sand dunes north of Jaffa, Tel Aviv was envisaged as a future city from the start, its founders hoped that in contrast to what they perceived as the squalid and unsanitary conditions of neighbouring Arab towns, Tel Aviv was to be a clean and modern city, inspired by the European cities of Warsaw and Odessa. The marketing pamphlets advocating for its establishment in 1906, wrote: In this city we will build the streets so they have roads and sidewalks and electric lights; every house will have water from wells that will flow through pipes as in every modern European city, sewerage pipes will be installed for the health of the city and its residents. Jaffa, now a part of Tel Aviv, was an important port city in the region for millennia.
Archaeological evidence shows signs of human settlement there starting in 7,500 BC. Its natural harbour has been used since the Bronze Age. By the time Tel Aviv was founded as a separate city during Ottoman rule of the region, Jaffa had been ruled by the Canaanites, Philistines, Assyrians, Persians, Ptolemies, Hasmoneans, Byzantines, the early Islamic caliphates, Crusaders and Mamluks before coming under Ottoman rule in 1515, it had been fought over numerous times. The city is mentioned in ancient Egyptian documents, as well as the Hebrew Bible. During the First Aliyah in the 1880s, when Jewish immigrants began arriving in the region in significant numbers, new neighborhoods were founded outside Jaffa on the current territory of Tel Aviv; the first was Neve Tzedek, founded by Mizrahi Jews due to overcrowding in Jaffa and built on lands owned by Aharon Chelouche. Other neighborhoods were Neve Shalom, Yafa Nof, Ohel Moshe, Kerem HaTeimanim, others. Once Tel Aviv received city status in the 1920s, those neighborhoods joined the newly formed municipality, now becoming separated from Jaffa.
The Second Aliyah led to further expansion. In 1906, a group of Jews, among them residents of Jaffa, followed the initiative of Akiva Aryeh Weiss and banded together to form the Ahuzat Bayit society; the society's goal was to form a "Hebrew urban centre in a healthy environment, planned according to the rules of aesthetics and modern hygiene." The urban planning for the new city was influenced by the Garden city movement. The first 60 plots were purchased in Kerem Djebali near Jaffa by Jacobus Kann, a Dutch citizen, who registered them in his name to circumvent the Turkish prohibition on Jewish land acquisition. Meir Dizengoff Tel Aviv's first mayor joined the Ahuzat Bayit society, his vision for Tel Aviv involved peaceful co-existence with Arabs. On 11 April 1909, 66 Jewish families gathered on a desolate sand dune to parcel out the land by lottery using seashells; this gathering is considered the official date of the establishment of Tel Aviv. The lottery was organised by president of the building society.
Weiss collected 120
Ehud Barak is an Israeli general and politician who served as the tenth Prime Minister from 1999 to 2001. He was leader of the Labor Party until January 2011, he held the posts of Minister of Defense and Deputy Prime Minister under Ehud Olmert and in Benjamin Netanyahu's second government from 2007 to 2013, as he retired from politics at the end of the tenure. A Rav Aluf in the Israel Defense Forces, Barak is the joint most decorated soldier in Israel's history, having taken part in many battles and combat mission. Following a decorated career, he was appointed Chief of General Staff in 1991, serving until 1995, he is a graduate in physics and economics from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Stanford University. Barak was born on 12 February 1942 in kibbutz Mishmar HaSharon in what was Mandatory Palestine, he is the eldest of four sons of Yisrael Mendel Brog. His paternal grandparents and Reuven Brog, were murdered in Pušalotas in the northern Lithuania in 1912, leaving his father orphaned at the age of two.
Barak's maternal grandparents and Shmuel Godin, died at the Treblinka extermination camp during the Holocaust. Ehud hebraized his family name from "Brog" to "Barak" in 1972, it was during his military service that he met Nava. They had three daughters together: Michal and Anat, he has grandchildren. Barak divorced Nava in August 2003. On 30 July 2007, Barak married Nili Priel in a small ceremony in his private residence. In his spare time, Barak enjoys reading works by writers such as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, he is a classical pianist, with many years of study behind him. Barak earned his bachelor's degree in physics and mathematics from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in 1968, his master's degree in engineering-economic systems in 1978 from Stanford University, in California. Barak joined the Israel Defense Forces in 1959, he served in the IDF for 35 years, rising to the position of Chief of the General Staff and the rank of Rav Aluf, the highest in the Israeli military. During his service as a commando in the elite Sayeret Matkal, Barak led several acclaimed operations, such as: "Operation Isotope", the mission to free the hostages on board the hijacked Sabena Flight 571 at Lod Airport in 1972.
These acclaimed operations, along with Operation Bayonet, led to the dismantling of Palestinian terrorist cell Black September. It has been alluded that Barak masterminded the Tunis Raid on 16 April 1988, in which PLO leader Abu Jihad was killed. During the Yom Kippur War, Barak commanded an improvised regiment of tanks which, among other things, helped rescue paratrooper battalion 890, commanded by Yitzhak Mordechai, suffering heavy losses in the Battle of the Chinese Farm, he went on the command the 401st armored brigade and the 611st "Pillar of Fire" and 252nd "Sinai" divisions, before his appointment to head the IDF's Planning Directorate. Barak served as head of Aman, the Military Intelligence Directorate, head of Central Command and Deputy Chief of the General Staff, he served as Chief of the General Staff between 1 April 1991 and 1 January 1995. During this period he implemented the first Oslo Accords and participated in the negotiations towards the Israel–Jordan peace treaty. Barak was awarded the Medal of Distinguished Service and four Chief of Staff citations for courage and operational excellence.
These five decorations make him the most decorated soldier in Israeli history. In 1992 he was awarded the Legion of Merit by the United States. In 2012, he was again awarded by the United States with the Department of Defense Medal for Distinguished Public Service. On 7 July 1995, Barak was appointed Minister of Internal Affairs by Yitzhak Rabin; when Shimon Peres formed a new government following Rabin's assassination in November 1995, Barak was made Minister of Foreign Affairs. He was elected to the Knesset on the Labor Party list in 1996, served as a member of the Knesset Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee. Following internal elections after Peres' defeat in the election for Prime Minister in 1996, Barak became the leader of the Labor Party. In the 1999 Prime Ministerial election, Barak beat Benjamin Netanyahu by a wide margin. However, he sparked controversy by deciding to form a coalition with the ultra-Orthodox party Shas, who had won an unprecedented 17 seats in the 120-seat Knesset.
Shas grudgingly agreed to Barak's terms that they eject their leader Aryeh Deri, a convicted felon, enact reform to "clean up" in-party corruption. Consequentially, the left wing Meretz party quit the coalition after they failed to agree on the powers to be given to a Shas deputy minister in the Ministry of Education. In 1999 Barak gave a campaign promise to end Israel's 22-year-long occupation of Southern Lebanon within a year. On 24 May 2000 Israel withdrew from Southern Lebanon. On 7 October, three Israeli soldiers were killed in a border raid by Hezbollah and their bodies were subsequently capt