Operation Gladio is the codename for clandestine "stay-behind" operations of armed resistance, planned by the Western Union, subsequently by NATO, for a potential Warsaw Pact invasion and conquest in Europe. Although Gladio refers to the Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind organizations, "Operation Gladio" is used as an informal name for all of them. Stay-behind operations were prepared in many NATO member countries, some neutral countries; the role of the CIA in Gladio—the extent of its activities during the Cold War era and any responsibility for terrorist attacks perpetrated in Italy during the "Years of Lead" —are the subject of debate. Switzerland and Belgium have had parliamentary inquiries into the matter; the word gladio is the Italian form of gladius, a type of Roman shortsword. Following the fall of France in 1940, Winston Churchill created the Special Operations Executive to both assist resistance movements and itself carry out sabotage and subversive operations in occupied Europe.
It was revealed half a century that SOE was complemented by a stay-behind organisation in Britain, created in extreme secrecy, to prepare for a possible invasion by Nazi Germany. A network of resistance fighters was formed across Britain and arms caches were established; the network was recruited, from the 5th Battalion of the Scots Guards. The network, which became known as the Auxiliary Units, was headed by Major Colin Gubbins – an expert in guerrilla warfare; the units were trained, in part, by "Mad Mike" Calvert, a Royal Engineers officer who specialised in demolition by explosives and covert raiding operations. To the extent that they were publicly visible, the Auxiliary Units were disguised as Home Guard units, under GHQ Home Forces; the network was disbanded in 1944. While David Lampe published a book on the Auxiliary Units in 1968, their existence did not become known by the public until reporters such as David Pallister of The Guardian revived interest in them during the 1990s. After World War II, the UK and the US decided to create "stay-behind" paramilitary organizations, with the official aim of countering a possible Soviet invasion through sabotage and guerrilla warfare behind enemy lines.
Arms caches were hidden, escape routes prepared, loyal members recruited, whether in Italy or in other European countries. Its clandestine "cells" were to stay behind in enemy-controlled territory and to act as resistance movements, conducting sabotage, guerrilla warfare and assassinations; the stay-behind armies were created with the involvement of former SOE officers. Following Giulio Andreotti's October 1990 revelations, General Sir John Hackett, former commander-in-chief of the British Army on the Rhine, declared on November 16, 1990, that a contingency plan involving "stay behind and resistance in depth" was drawn up after the war; the same week, Sir Anthony Farrar-Hockley, former commander-in-chief of NATO's Forces in Northern Europe from 1979 to 1982, declared to The Guardian that a secret arms network was established in Britain after the war. Hackett had written in 1978 a novel, The Third World War: August 1985, a fictionalized scenario of a Soviet Army invasion of West Germany in 1985.
The novel was followed in 1982 by The Third World War: The Untold Story, which elaborated on the original. Farrar-Hockley had aroused controversy in 1983 when he became involved in trying to organise a campaign for a new Home Guard against a potential Soviet invasion. Operating in all of NATO and in some neutral countries such as Spain before its 1982 admission to NATO, Gladio was first coordinated by the Clandestine Committee of the Western Union, founded in 1948. After the creation of NATO in 1949, the CCWU was integrated into the "Clandestine Planning Committee", founded in 1951 and overseen by the SHAPE, transferred to Belgium after France's official withdrawal from the NATO military organization – but not from NATO –, not followed by the dissolution of the French stay-behind paramilitary movements. Historian Daniele Ganser claims that: Next to the CPC, a second secret army command center, labeled Allied Clandestine Committee, was set up in 1957 on the orders of NATO's Supreme Allied Commander in Europe.
This military structure provided for significant US leverage over the secret stay-behind networks in Western Europe as the SACEUR, throughout NATO's history, has traditionally been a US General who reports to the Pentagon in Washington and is based in NATO's Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe in Mons, Belgium. The ACC's duties included elaborating on the directives of the network, developing its clandestine capability, organizing bases in Britain and the United States. In wartime, it was to plan stay-behind operations in conjunction with SHAPE. According to former CIA director William Colby, it was'a major program'. Coordinated by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, were run by the European military secret services in close cooperation with the US Central Intelligence Agency and the British foreign secret service Secret Intelligence Service. Trained together with US Green Berets and British Special Air Service, these clandestine NATO soldiers, with access to underground arms caches, prepared to fight against a potential Soviet invasion and occupation of Western Europe, as well as the coming to power of communist parties.
The clandestine international networ
The SCINEMA International Science Film Festival is an Australian film festival celebrating international science-related drama and documentary films. The festival was founded with the aim of forging links between the arts. SCINEMA accepts entries from all over the world, it is a program of Australia's Science Channel, operated by The Royal Institution of Australia. Founded in 2000 by Rebecca Scott and Damian Harris, the first festival in 2001 played only in Canberra and was well attended, with some sold-out performances. Hosted by CSIRO, the festival grew over the 2000s. After a brief hiatus, SCINEMA found a new home with the Royal Institution of Australia; the 2016 Festival received over 1,300 submissions from over 80 countries, premiered in cities around Australia on 18 June 2016. The festival hosts a community screening program as part of National Science Week, where community groups and schools can register to run their own screening program. In 2016 over 240 events were held around Australia, with a screening held on the Davis Station in Antarctica.
In 2017, over 37,000 people participated in the festival, screened at 317 events around Australia. One reviewer said of the festival "The most noticeable thing about the films is that and individually, they are less explicitly about science and more about us; these are human stories about how we engage with the world — with the things in it, with each other." SCINEMA Film Festival "Scinema's Journey" article in the Age
Tzannis Tzannetakis was a Greek politician, Prime Minister of Greece during the political crisis of 1989. Tzannetakis was born in Gytheio in the region of Mani in 1928, he served as a military officer but resigned on 22 April 1967, the day after the military coup d'état which brought the dictatorship of Georgios Papadopoulos to power. He was imprisoned by the military junta from 1969 to 1971 for his resistance activity; when democracy was restored in 1974, Tzannetakis joined the New Democracy party of Constantine Karamanlis. From 1974-77 he served as General Secretary of the Ministry of Tourism, he was elected to the Greek Parliament in 1977 and served as Minister for Public Works in the government of Georgios Rallis. The June 1989 Greek legislative election left the PASOK party of Andreas Papandreou in the minority, following a series of government scandals. New Democracy, now led by Constantine Mitsotakis, could not form a government despite its significant lead in the popular vote, because of changes to Greek electoral law that PASOK had voted into effect before the elections.
The result was the formation of the first coalition government since the fall of the Greek dictatorship in 1974 and the first government to include the Communist left since 1944. The government was based on an alliance between ND and the Coalition of Forces of the Left and Progress, which included the Communist Party of Greece, with a mandate to conduct a clean-up after the scandals; the agreement was for a short-term government which would last only until the process of parliamentary investigation of those Members of Parliament accused of involvement in the scandals had been completed. Tzannetakis was a compromise candidate for Prime Minister, given that the left refused to accept Mitsotakis in this role. In contrast, Tzannetakis was acceptable to the left because of his credentials from the anti-Junta resistance. In addition to the premiership, Tzannetakis retained the portfolios of Foreign Affairs and of Tourism; the formation of a government bringing together the Greek right and the communist left was regarded as symbolising national reconciliation after the 1940s civil war.
One of the government's acts was to burn all the secret police files held on Greek citizens during the post-Civil War period. The parliamentary investigation into the scandals concluded with the lifting of the parliamentary immunity of several former government ministers, including former Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou himself, their referral to the justice system; this was the first time that a former Greek Prime Minister had been referred for trial. The Tzannetakis government abolished the state monopoly on TV broadcasting and allowed private TV stations to function for the first time. In accordance with the initial agreement among the coalition partners, the government resigned in October. Yiannis Grivas formed a caretaker government until fresh elections could be held. New Democracy won these elections too, but once more could not form a government, despite tallying 46% of the vote, with PASOK coming second with 40%. In November an "ecumenical government", headed by Xenophon Zolotas, with the participation of all three political parties was formed, again with an agreement for a short-term mandate to last until the election of the President of the Republic, due the following March.
In the Zolotas government, Tzannis Tzannetakis served as Minister for National Defence. In the election of April 1990, for the third consecutive time within a year, New Democracy won, this time with an more significant lead of 8% over PASOK, securing the party a one-seat majority. In the Mitsotakis government, Tzannetakis became Deputy Prime Minister, a post he held until the government fell in 1993, he remained a Member of the Greek Parliament until September 2007, when he announced his intention to retire from political activity. Tzannetakis died in an Athens hospital on 1 April 2010