Tomb of the Unknown Soldier
The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier refers to a monument dedicated to the services of an unknown soldier and to the common memories of all soldiers killed in any war. Such tombs can be found in many nations and are high-profile national monuments. Throughout history, many soldiers have died in war with their remains being unidentified. Following World War I, a movement arose to commemorate these soldiers with a single tomb, containing the body of one such unidentified soldier, it is a tomb for unknown people. During the First World War, the British and French armies who were allies during the war jointly decided to bury soldiers themselves. In the UK, under the Imperial War Graves Commission, the Reverend David Railton had seen a grave marked by a rough cross while serving in the British Army as a chaplain on the Western Front, which bore the pencil-written legend "An Unknown British Soldier", he suggested the creation at a national level of a symbolic funeral and burial of an "Unknown Warrior", proposing that the grave should in the UK include a national monument in the form of what is but not in this particular case, a headstone.
The idea received the support of the Dean of Westminster, Prime Minister David Lloyd George, from King George V, responding to a wave of public support. At the same time, a similar concern grew in France. In November 1916, a local officer of Le Souvenir français proposed the idea of burying "an ignored soldier" in the Panthéon. A formal bill was presented in Parliament in November 1918; the decision was voted into law on September 1919. The United Kingdom and France conducted services connected with their'monumental' graves on Armistice Day 1920. In the UK, the Tomb of the Unknown Warrior was created at Westminster Abbey, while in France La tombe du soldat inconnu was placed in the Arc de Triomphe; the idea of a symbolic Tomb of the Unknown Soldier spread to other countries. In 1921, the United States unveiled its own Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, Portugal its Túmulo do Soldado Desconhecido, Italy its La tomba del Milite Ignoto. Other nations have created their own tombs. In Chile and Ukraine, second'unknown tombs' were unveiled to commemorate The Unknown Sailor.
The Tombs of the Unknown Soldiers contain the remains of a dead soldier, unidentified. These remains are considered impossible to be identified, so serve as a symbol for all of a country's unknown dead wherever they fell in the war being remembered; the anonymity of the entombed soldier is the key symbolism of the monument. At least one unknown has been identified by DNA analysis; this was an airman from the Vietnam War. Tombs of the Unknown Soldiers from around the world and various wars include the following: World War I memorials Copernicus Organization, World Veterans Federation, "Tombs of the Unknown Soldier in Central and Eastern Europe" by Prof. Michał Chilczuk, Working Group on Central and Eastern Europe, SCEA Vivaboo.com, "Tomb of the Unknown Soldier Around The World"
North Korea the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, with Pyongyang the capital and the largest city in the country. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. To the north and northwest, the country is bordered by China and by Russia along the Amnok and Tumen rivers. North Korea, like its southern counterpart, claims to be the legitimate government of the entire peninsula and adjacent islands. In 1910, Korea was annexed by Imperial Japan. After the Japanese surrender at the end of World War II in 1945, Korea was divided into two zones, with the north occupied by the Soviet Union and the south occupied by the United States. Negotiations on reunification failed, in 1948, separate governments were formed: the socialist Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the north, the capitalist Republic of Korea in the south.
An invasion initiated by North Korea led to the Korean War. The Korean Armistice Agreement brought about a ceasefire. North Korea describes itself as a "self-reliant" socialist state, formally holds elections, though said elections have been described by outside observers as sham elections. Outside observers generally view North Korea as a Stalinist totalitarian dictatorship noting the elaborate cult of personality around Kim Il-sung and his family; the Workers' Party of Korea, led by a member of the ruling family, holds power in the state and leads the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland of which all political officers are required to be members. Juche, an ideology of national self-reliance, was introduced into the constitution in 1972; the means of production are owned by the state through state-run enterprises and collectivized farms. Most services such as healthcare, education and food production are subsidized or state-funded. From 1994 to 1998, North Korea suffered a famine that resulted in the deaths of between 240,000 and 420,000 people, the population continues to suffer malnutrition.
North Korea follows "military-first" policy. It is the country with the highest number of military and paramilitary personnel, with a total of 9,495,000 active and paramilitary personnel, or 37% of its population, its active duty army of 1.21 million is the fourth largest in the world, after China, the United States and India. It possesses nuclear weapons; the UN inquiry into human rights in North Korea concluded that, "The gravity and nature of these violations reveal a state that does not have any parallel in the contemporary world". The North Korean regime denies most allegations, accusing international organizations of fabricating human rights abuses as part of a smear campaign with the covert intention of undermining the state, although they admit that there are human rights issues relating to living conditions which the regime is attempting to correct. In addition to being a member of the United Nations since 1991, the sovereign state is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, G77 and the ASEAN Regional Forum.
The name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel. After the division of the country into North and South Korea, the two sides used different terms to refer to Korea: Chosun or Joseon in North Korea, Hanguk in South Korea. In 1948, North Korea adopted Democratic People's Republic of Korea as its new legal name. In the wider world, because the government controls the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, it is called North Korea to distinguish it from South Korea, called the Republic of Korea in English. Both governments consider themselves to be the legitimate government of the whole of Korea. For this reason, the people do not consider themselves as'North Koreans' but as Koreans in the same divided country as their compatriots in the South and foreign visitors are discouraged from using the former term.
After the First Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War, Korea was occupied by Japan from 1910 to 1945. Japan tried to suppress Korean traditions and culture and ran the economy for its own benefit. Korean resistance groups known as Dongnipgun operated along the Sino-Korean border, fighting guerrilla warfare against Japanese forces; some of them took part in parts of South East Asia. One of the guerrilla leaders was the communist Kim Il-sung, who became the first leader of North Korea. At the end of World War II in 1945, the Korean Peninsula was divided into two zones along the 38th parallel, with the northern half of the peninsula occupied by the Soviet Union and the southern half by the United States; the drawing of the division was assigned to two American officers, diplomat Dean Rusk and Army officer Charles Bone
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Pathé News was a producer of newsreels and documentaries from 1910 until 1970 in the United Kingdom. Its founder, Charles Pathé, was a pioneer of moving pictures in the silent era; the Pathé News archive is known today as British Pathé. Its collection of news film and movies is digitised and available online, its roots lie in 1896 Paris, when Société Pathé Frères was founded by Charles Pathé and his brothers, who pioneered the development of the moving image. Charles Pathé adopted the national emblem of the cockerel, as the trademark for his company. After the company, now called Compagnie Générale des Éstablissements Pathé Frère Phonographes & Cinématographes, invented the cinema newsreel with Pathé-Journal. French Pathé began its newsreel in 1908 and opened a newsreel office in Wardour Street, London in 1910; the newsreels were shown in the cinema and were silent until 1928. At first they ran for about four minutes, were issued biweekly. Though during the early days the camera shots were taken from a stationary position, the Pathé newsreels captured events such as Franz Reichelt's fatal parachute jump from the Eiffel Tower, suffragette Emily Davison's fatal injury by a racehorse at the 1913 Epsom Derby.
During the First World War, the cinema newsreels were called the Pathé Animated Gazettes, for the first time this provided newspapers with competition. After 1918, British Pathé started producing a series of cinemazines, in which the newsreels were much longer and more comprehensive. By 1930, British Pathé was covering news, sport and women's issues through programmes including the Pathétone Weekly, the Pathé Pictorial, the Gazette and Eve’s Film Review. In 1927, the company sold British Pathé to First National. Pathé changed hands again in 1933. In 1958, it was sold again to Warner Bros. and became Warner-Pathé. Pathé stopped producing the cinema newsreel in February 1970 as they could no longer compete with television. During the newsreels' run, the narrators included Bob Danvers-Walker, Dwight Weist, Dan Donaldson, André Baruch, Clem McCarthy, among others; the library itself was sold with Associated British Picture to EMI Films and others, including The Cannon Group and the Daily Mail and General Trust, before relaunching in its own right in 2009.
The feature film division is now part of StudioCanal, is not to be confused with Pathé, the French company and original parent of British Pathé. In 2002 funded by the UK National Lottery, the entire archive was digitised; the British Pathé archive now holds over 3,500 hours of filmed history, 90,000 individual items and 12 million stills. On February 7, 2009, British Pathé launched a YouTube channel of its newsreel archive. From March 2010, British Pathé relaunched its archive as an online entertainment site, making Pathé News a service for the public as well as the broadcasting industry. In May 2010 The Guardian was given access to the British Pathé archive, hosting topical videos on its website. In November 2010 the Daily Mail gave its readers free DVDs of the seven-part British Pathé series A Year To Remember: The War Years; the series comprised seven discs, each focusing on a different year from 1939–1945. In May 2012 British Pathé won the FOCAL International Award for Footage Library of the Year.
In April 2014 British Pathé uploaded the entire collection of 85,000 historic films to its YouTube channel as part of a drive to make the archive more accessible to viewers all over the world. British Pathé produced a number of programmes and series as well as newsreels, such as Pathé Eve and Astra Gazette. In 2010 BBC Four reversioned the 1950s Pathé series Time To Remember, narrated by the actor Stanley Holloway, broadcast it as a thematic 12-part series. British Pathé has been known under the following names: C. G. P. C. First National-Pathé, Associated British-Pathé, Warner-Pathé, British Pathé News, British Pathé; the British and American newsreel companies separated in 1921. In 1947, the film assets of the successor companies of Pathé News, Inc. were purchased by Warner Bros. from RKO Radio Pictures, which had acquired them in 1931. Warners, as had RKO before them, continued to produce the theatrical newsreel Pathé News, its title changing from RKO-Pathe News to Warner-Pathe News. Warners produced a series of 38 theatrical short subjects, 81 issues of the News Magazine of the Screen series, which added to the Pathé film properties and are now part of the company's extensive film library.
Producer/editor Robert Youngson was responsible for these series, won two Academy Awards for them. In 1956, Warner Bros. discontinued the production of the theatrical newsreel and sold the Pathé News film library, the 38 theatrical short subjects, the Pathé News Magazine of the Screen, the crowing rooster trade mark and the copyrights and other properties to Studio Films, Inc.—shortly thereafter named Pathé Pictures, Inc.—which subsequently relinquished the name and film properties of both companies to Pathé News, Inc. Other U. S. newsreel series included Paramount News, Fox Movietone News, Hearst Metrotone News/News of the Day, Universal Newsreel, The March of Time. Oliver G Pike – filmmaker for British Pathé Official website British Pathé History British Pathé's channel on YouTube "News Magazine of the Screen". Internet Archive. "News o
Soviet Union in the Korean War
Though not belligerent during the Korean War, the Soviet Union played a significant, covert role in the conflict. It provided material and medical services, as well as Soviet pilots and aircraft, most notably MiG 15 fighter jets, to aid the North Korean-Chinese forces against the United Nations Forces; the Soviet 25th Army took part in the Soviet advance into northern Korea after World War II had ended, was headquartered at Pyongyang for a period. Like the American forces in the south, Soviet troops remained in Korea after the end of the war to rebuild the country. Soviet soldiers were instrumental in the creation and early development of the North Korean People's Army and Korean People's Air Force, as well as for stabilizing the early years of the Northern regime; the Shineuiju Air Force Academy was founded under Soviet leadership on 25 October 1945 in order to train new pilots. Because at the time the war broke out in 1950, the Communist Soviet Union and their allies were locked into a "Cold War" with capitalist countries, both sides felt that the Korean War carried the potential to further destabilize the precarious relations between both sides, while offering possible advantages.
As American and UN soldiers were deployed in the war on the South Korean side, it was assured that Soviet forces could not engage in open and direct hostilities against the South without provoking conflicts with other UN countries. Instead, the Soviet Union was compelled to conceal its participation in the conflict so as to minimize the risk of escalating the "Cold War" into a "Hot War" with NATO and the United States and its allies elsewhere, which could have led to a nuclear war. By denying its participation, the Soviets prevented the Korean War from escalating. Participation on the North Korean side was contrary to the UN Security Council Resolution 84 by which the Soviet Union was technically bound. Along with several "Eastern Block" countries, the Soviet Union sent over 20 doctors to Korea to aid Communist forces there, similar to Indian, Norwegian and Swedish medical detachments in Southern Korea who did not have military force engaged, but offered humanitarian support instead. Soviet military aid was instrumental to equipping both the North Korean and Chinese forces fighting in Korea.
The Soviet PPSh-41 submachine gun was supplied to both countries' armies, as was the T-34/85 medium tank, of great importance during the initial offensives by the Communist side when no US armour or anti-tank rockets could penetrate its heavy sloped armour. Soviet material aid was fundamental for the air forces of both North Korea and China. By April 1950, the Soviet Union had provided 63 of the North Korean Air Force's 178 aircraft, which until September 1950 proved effective against minimal South Korean air defenses An important area in which Soviet intervention was key in the Korean War was in the air-war. Soviet innovation in aircraft design, as well as the experience of many of its pilots following the Second World War meant that the'new' states of China and North Korea were dependent on Soviet help in this area. Both the Chinese and North Korean air forces were structured and equipped along Soviet lines because of the help that the Soviet Union had given them in their first years. In October 1950, the Chinese air force comprised only two fighter divisions, one bomber regiment, one attack aircraft regiment and was much in its infancy.
The Chinese committed several Air Regiments to Korea, these were equipped with the Soviet-supplied MiG 15 fighters, however lack of training meant that the Chinese high command was anxious for Soviet pilots, some of whom were in China tasked with training the pilots for the Chinese air force. Frustrated by the quality and shortage of Chinese pilots, in April 1951, Stalin took the decision to involve Soviet airforce pilots in the war, flying under the markings of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force or North Korean Peoples' Army Air Force. In addition to the known MiG-15 force of 64th Fighter Corps, there were significant anti-aircraft gun and technical units despatched to Korea as part of the same unit. Aleksandr Smorchkov Nikolay Ivanov Semyon Fedorets Yevgeny Pepelyayev Sergei Kramarenko Soviet pilots were active in Korea from April 1951. In order to hide this direct Soviet intervention, precautions were taken to disguise their involvement, open knowledge of which would have been a major diplomatic embarrassment for the USSR.
Soviet pilots wore Chinese uniforms when flying, whilst rules were prescribed to stop Soviet pilots flying near the coast or front lines and from speaking Russian on the aircraft radio. All aircraft flown carried North Korean markings; when not flying, for reasons of ethnicity, on the ground Soviet pilots'played' the roles of Soviet commercial travellers rather than Chinese or North Korean soldiers. Soviet pilots flying MiG-15 jets participated in battles around the Yalu River Valley on the Chinese-Korean border in the area known as "Mig Alley" and in operations against UN "trainbusting" attacks in Northern Korea, with considerable success; the lack of a shared language between Soviet and North Korean pilots led to incidences of friendly fire as other MiG fighters were mistaken f
The Turkish Brigade was a Turkish Army Infantry Brigade that served with the United Nations Command during the Korean War between 1950 and 1953. Attached to the U. S. 25th Infantry Division, the Turkish Brigade fought in several actions and was awarded Unit Citations from Korea and the United States after fighting in the Kunuri Battle. The Turkish Brigade developed a reputation for its fighting ability, stubborn defense, commitment to mission, bravery. On 29 June 1950 the Republic of Turkey replied to the United Nations Resolution 83 requesting military aid to South Korea, following the attack by North Korea on 25 June; the cable stated: "Turkey is ready to meet his responsibilities." On 25 July 1950 Turkey decided to send a brigade of 5,000 troops comprising three infantry battalions, an artillery battalion and auxiliary units, to fight under UN Command against North Korea and subsequently the People's Republic of China. Turkey was the second country to answer the UN call, after the United States.
Three different Turkish Brigades served in the Korean War. The core of the 1st Turkish Brigade was the 241st Infantry Regiment based at Ayaş, supplemented with volunteers to raise it to brigade level. Brigadier General Tahsin Yazıcı, a veteran of the Gallipoli Campaign, commanded the 1st Brigade; the 1st Turkish Brigade consisted of three battalions, commanded by Major Imadettin Kuranel, Major Mithat Ulunu, Major Lutfu Bilgon. The Turkish Armed Forces Command was a regimental combat team with three infantry battalions, along with supporting artillery and engineers, it was the only brigade-sized unit attached permanently to a U. S. division throughout the Korean War. Brigadier General Tahsin Yazici was regarded in the Turkish military establishment, he stepped down a rank in order to command the first contingent of Turks in the Korean War. While there were cultural and religious differences between Turkish and American troops, both were disciplined forces capable of adapting. However, there was a language barrier, more difficult to overcome.
General Yazici did not speak English, Americans had overlooked the difficulty the language barrier would present. The brigade had a full turnover after a period of one year's service. During the service of the 3rd Brigade in 1953, the Korean Armistice was signed. Thereafter, Turkey continued maintaining forces at full brigade level for another seven years, in accordance with United Nations agreements. Kenan Evren, the seventh President of the Republic of Turkey, served in the Brigade from 1958 until 1959; the advance party of the Turkish Brigade arrived in Pusan on 12 October 1950. The main body arrived five days October 17 from the eastern Mediterranean port of Iskenderun and the brigade went into bivouac near Taegu where it underwent training and received U. S. equipment. The brigade was attached to the U. S. 25th Infantry Division. United Nations Forces Commander in Chief, General Douglas MacArthur, described the Turkish Brigade's contribution to the war: "The military situation in Korea is being followed with concern by the whole American public.
But in these concerned days, the heroism shown by the Turks has given hope to the American nation. It has inculcated them with courage; the American public appreciates the value of the services rendered by the Turkish Brigade and knows that because of them the Eighth American Army could withdraw without disarray. The American public understands that the United Nations Forces in Korea were saved from encirclement and from falling into the hands of the communists by the heroism shown by the Turks."The Turkish Brigade, between November 1950 and July 1953, fought in the following battles: Battle of Kunuri Kumyangjang-Ni 22–23 April 1951. On 26 November 1950, a column of retreating ROK soldiers of the ROK 6th and 7th Divisions from Tokchon was attacked by a battalion of Turks who were the first to arrive at Wawon, after the Turks mistook the Koreans for Chinese. One hundred twenty-five South Koreans were taken prisoner and some were killed by the Turks; because of false intelligence, the Turks were expecting to encounter with Chinese somewhere on the road.
The event was wrongly reported in American and European media as a Turkish victory over the Chinese and after news leaked out about the truth to the Americans, no efforts were made by the media to fix the story. The next day on 27 November, east of Wawon, leading Turkish party was ambushed by Chinese and suffered a major defeat, with heavy casualties suffered by the Turks. Survivors of the leading Turkish party appeared in the zone of the American 38th Infantry north and northwest of the Wawon road the next day; the Turks lost most of their equipment and artillery and sustained casualties of up to 1,000 dead or wounded after fighting with the Chinese forces with superior numbers around the Kaechon and Kunu-ri area, the Tokchon-Kunu-ri road. Although the Turkish Brigade was cut off when they were encircled by Chinese regiments, they were still be able to breach the Chinese trap and rejoin the US 2nd Infantry Division. Delay of Chinese troops advance after meeting with heavy Turkish resistance, helped United Nations forces to withdraw without suffering many casualties and reassemble in December.
After Battle of Wawon, Turks were sent to assist the South Korean ROK II Corps. In December, General Tahsin Yazici and fifteen Turkish officers and men of his command were decorated by General Walton Walker with Silver Star and Bronze Star medals for their bravery against Chinese during Battle of Wawon; the Turkish Brigade
South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n