Operation Board Games
Operation Board Games is a federal fraud investigation initiated by United States Attorney Patrick Fitzgerald in December 2003, in order to investigate suspected fraud and extortion activity by Illinois Governor Rod Blagojevich. The investigation's name is a reference to two governing bodies in Illinois: one board controlling the Teacher's Pension System, the second being the Health Facilities Planning Board. In summer 2006, Fitzgerald indicated that he was investigating allegations of "endemic hiring fraud" in state agencies under Blagojevich's control as part of the federal Operation Board Games probe; the effort was characterized at that time as locating "a number of credible witnesses" but Blagojevich was not accused of any unlawful activities. The May 2007 indictment of Chicago attorney Edward Vrdolyak for his "alleged involvement in a kickback scheme concerning the sale of a Chicago Gold Coast neighborhood building was another piece of the "Operation Board Games" investigation. A total of fifteen individuals have been indicted in the course of the investigation.
The thirteenth indictment, of William F. Cellini, Sr., the last one before Blagojevich and Harris, occurred in October 2008: A longtime political insider in Springfield was indicted today on federal corruption charges for conspiring with two Chicago businessmen and others to obtain political contributions for a certain public official by shaking down an investment firm, seeking a $220 million allocation from the state Teachers Retirement System The focus of the investigation was on Blagojevich, which led to the Rod Blagojevich corruption charges. Blagojevich was convicted on 17 of 20 counts on June 27, 2011. U. S. President Barack Obama is not accused of any wrongdoing nor a target or subject of the investigation, as Fitzgerald has emphasized to the media; the President-elect at the time was not mentioned in the initial indictment, other than the explanation that the vacated Senate seat in question was the one he held. His connections to another target in the investigation, Tony Rezko, indicted in September 2006 and convicted in June 2008, have attracted more attention, however.
The Obama family purchased a strip of land next to their Chicago house from Rezko's wife. The transaction was legal and at market prices, but occurred after Tony Rezko's initial criminal implications. Rod Blagojevich corruption charges Businessman and Political Fundraiser Antoin Rezko Indicted in Two Fraud Cases, Including Scheme to Extort Millions of Dollars from Firms Seeking Teachers' Pension Fund Investments
Glasser v. United States
Glasser v. United States, 315 U. S. 60, is a landmark U. S. Supreme Court decision on two issues of constitutional criminal procedure. Glasser was the first Supreme Court decision to hold that the Assistance of Counsel Clause of the Sixth Amendment required the reversal of a criminal defendant's conviction if his lawyer's representation of him was limited by a conflict of interest. Further, Glasser held that the exclusion of women from the jury pool violated the Impartial Jury Clause of the Sixth Amendment, but declined to reverse the other two convictions on this ground for technical reasons. Glasser is the first majority opinion of the Court to use the phrase "cross-section of the community." Glasser was the first jury discrimination case to invoke the Sixth Amendment. The facts of Glasser were unusual as well. According to a contemporary Chicago Tribune article, it was "the first time federal employees here have been charged with tampering with federal court justice." The five-week trial involved more than 100 witnesses, more than 4,000 transcript pages of testimony and argument, 228 exhibits.
All of the Court's prior jury pool discrimination cases had involved the exclusion of African-Americans and been litigated under the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause. The Court had come the closest to articulating a "fair cross-section of the community" doctrine in Smith v. Texas. There, the Court stated: "It is part of the established tradition in the use of juries as instruments of public justice that the jury be a body representative of the community."Daniel D. Glasser and Norton I. Kretske were Assistant United States Attorneys in the Northern District of Illinois, specializing in liquor and revenue offenses. Glasser and Kretske solicited bribes from defendants under indictment, or soon to be indicted. Glasser and six other assistants resigned on April 7, 1939, during the tenure of U. S. Attorney William Joseph Campbell. According to Campbell: "Mr. Glasser has the best record of convictions of any one in this office and his conviction record in alcohol cases is the best in the entire country.
Since I have been in office, Mr. Glasser lost only one, he hasn't lost a jury case in three and a half years." U. S. Attorney Campbell presented the case to the grand jury personally. Glasser, Alfred E. Roth, Anthony Horton, Louis Kaplan were indicted in the United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois on two counts of a bribery conspiracy on September 29, 1939. Glasser and Kretske were former Assistant U. S. Attorneys. Horton was an African-American bail bondsman; the allegations were that the prosecutors either agreed to recommend the dismissal of charges or ensured that the grand jury would not return an indictment. The maximum authorized sentence under the charges was two years a $10,000 fine. All five made bail of $1,500 each; the trial began on February 6, 1940 before Judge Patrick Thomas Stone, of the Western District of Wisconsin, sitting by designation. The prosecution's opening statement was delivered by Martin Ward, the chief of the criminal division. Defense attorney William Scott Stewart's opening statement argued that Glasser and Kretske were set up by E.
C. Yellowly, the head of the alcohol tax unit. Stewart was the leader of a "battery of high priced defense counsel."The government's first witness, U. S. Attorneys' Office clerk Gordon Morgan testified that Glasser had suggested that Sidney S. Eckstone be appointed foreperson of a grand jury that returned only eight out of twenty indictments and that Glasser and Eckstone had conferred frequently. Another prosecution witness, illegal distillery landlord William F. Workman, testified that Capone-affiliated Louis Schiavone had posted $1,000,000 in bail bonds. On the sixth day of trial, alcohol tax agent Patrick Donoghue testified that, in a case that Donoghue had investigated, Glasser persuaded a grand jury to reverse itself after returning an indictment by placing the matter on the pending call indefinitely. Another government witness, bootlegging handyman Ralph Sharp testified that he had paid Kretske $250 in order for Kretske, as prosecutor, to recommend that the charges against him be dismissed.
Frank Hodorowicz, another bootlegger turned government witness, testified that he had paid Kretske $1,300 to recommend the dismissal of two cases and was convicted in the third case after he refused to pay $1,000. After he was indicted the third time, he testified, Glasser declined to intervene on his behalf, saying: "You're going to jail for five years. For all the money in the world I couldn't help you; this isn't an ordinary case. Agents are in town from Washington."Still another, Walter Kwiatkowski, testified that he paid Horton $600 to have the case against him dropped where Glasser was acting as prosecutor. And another, Victor Raubunas, testified that he twice paid bribes to Kretske in cases that Glasser was handling. Mae and Anthony Jurkas, two small-time bootleggers, testified that Glasser declined to prosecute them in exchange for the name of their bootlegging boss. Bootlegger Nicholas Abosketes and his accountant William Brantman testified that Abosketes transferred $3,000 to Brantman, paid to Kretske.
Alexander Campbell, an Assistant U. S. Attorney from India
Glenview is an affluent village located in Cook County, United States 15 miles northwest of the Chicago Loop, 3.5 miles from the City of Chicago's far northwest border. Glenview, along with nearby towns Mount Prospect, Park Ridge, Des Plaines and Morton Grove make up the major outskirt suburbs neighboring the city's Far Northwest Side; as of the 2010 United States Census, the village population was 44,692. The current population is estimated to be 47,475; the current village President is Jim Patterson. Glenview is located at 42°4′46″N 87°48′56″W. According to the 2010 census, Glenview has a total area of 13.992 square miles, of which 13.95 square miles is land and 0.042 square miles is water. Glenview Creek drains the southeastern corner of the village, emptying into the Middle Fork of the North Branch of the Chicago River north of Old Orchard Road and just west of Harms Road. Addresses in the Glenview city limits have their own numbering system. However, a small portion of Glenview at the northwestern corner of Milwaukee Avenue and Greenwood Road have postal addresses the follow the Chicago numbering system.
While unincorporated areas that have Glenview postal addresses doesn't use both Glenview's nor Chicago's numbering system. As of the 2010 census, there were 44,692 people, 16,783 households residing in the village; the population density was 3,203.7 people per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 77.2% White, 2.0% African American, 0.1% Native American, 13.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.5% other, 1.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7% of the population. There were 16,783 households, of which 33.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.9% were headed by married couples living together, 7.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.7% were non-families. 24.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 14.6% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.15. In the village, the population was spread out with 24.6% under the age of 18, 5.5% from 18 to 24, 19.2% from 25 to 44, 31.0% from 45 to 64, 19.7% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 41.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.2 males. For the period 2009-11, the estimated median annual income for a household in the village was $90,037, the median income for a family was $119,089; the per capita income was $50,615. 4.1% of the population and 2.6% of families were below the poverty line. The entire Northfield Township was known as the town of Northfield. There were different names for various areas within the community; the Post Office demanded that an official name be selected, whereupon a special meeting of the villagers was called. Various names were suggested such as Rugenville, Glendale, Glen Hollow, Oak View, Glenview; the name Glenview won the majority vote on May 7, 1895. The village was incorporated in 1899. Much of the Glenview area remained farmland but after World War II, developers such as Tom Sullivan began to give the township its current suburban appearance. "The Park" is one of the oldest neighborhoods in the village.
Located near the center of Glenview, just south of the Glen development, The Park was established as home to a religious society in 1894 by Hugh Burnham, the first village president and nephew of architect Daniel Burnham. This religious society is based on the writings of Emanuel Swedenborg a scientist and theologian who lived and wrote in the 1700s. In the late 1890s through the turn of the century, New Church members purchased 40 acres of land and built their houses in an oval surrounding a common park area where the church and school were built. Architect Swain Nelson, one of the designers of Lincoln Park, designed the neighborhood; as part of the New Church service mission to be universally accepted as a guidepost for kindness and character, the Glenview New Church Schools are open to many students beyond the congregation and the church has been updated and expanded to accommodate a much larger Sunday service. Despite its new open focus and broadening congregation, the original church in the center and many of the surrounding buildings remain the same today as they were in 1900.
Naval Air Station Glenview was a major facility in Glenview for many years. It was the host for a number of squadrons, including the Coast Guard air/sea rescue helicopter service for Chicago/Lake Michigan and a squadron of P-3 Orions which had the mission of East Coast antisubmarine warfare; the rationale for basing the squadron there was that so many reserve staff were in the central United States, it was convenient to base the facility near the staff. As a 1−2 hour checklist had to be executed before scanning the seas, there was little dead time in the flight to the coast; the base consisted of 1 million cubic yards of concrete, 1.5 miles of runways and 108 U. S. Navy buildings; the only two buildings that are left from the naval airstation are the chapel. The rest has been renovated into "The Glen Town Center", a shopping center. In 1995, the base was closed as part of the Base Realignment and Closure military restructuring process; the land was deeded back to Glenview by the U. S. Department of Defense.
A reuse plan was completed by the Village of Glenview in 1995 and updated into a master plan by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill in 1998. The village assumed the role of Master
The judiciary is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state. The judiciary can be thought of as the mechanism for the resolution of disputes. Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the judiciary does not make statutory law or enforce law, but rather interprets law and applies it to the facts of each case. However, in some countries the judiciary does make common law, setting precedent for other courts to follow; this branch of the state is tasked with ensuring equal justice under law. In many jurisdictions the judicial branch has the power to change laws through the process of judicial review. Courts with judicial review power may annul the laws and rules of the state when it finds them incompatible with a higher norm, such as primary legislation, the provisions of the constitution or international law. Judges constitute a critical force for interpretation and implementation of a constitution, thus de facto in common law countries creating the body of constitutional law.
For a people to establish and keep the'Rule of Law' as the operative norm in social constructs great care must be taken in the election or appointment of unbiased and thoughtful legal scholars whose loyalty to an oath of office is without reproach. If law is to govern and find acceptance courts must exercise fidelity to justice which means affording those subject to its jurisdictional scope the greatest presumption of inherent cultural relevance within this framework. In the US during recent decades the judiciary became active in economic issues related with economic rights established by constitution because "economics may provide insight into questions that bear on the proper legal interpretation". Since many countries with transitional political and economic systems continue treating their constitutions as abstract legal documents disengaged from the economic policy of the state, practice of judicial review of economic acts of executive and legislative branches have begun to grow. In the 1980s, the Supreme Court of India for a decade had been encouraging public interest litigation on behalf of the poor and oppressed by using a broad interpretation of several articles of the Indian Constitution.
Budget of the judiciary in many transitional and developing countries is completely controlled by the executive. This undermines the separation of powers, as it creates a critical financial dependence of the judiciary; the proper national wealth distribution including the government spending on the judiciary is subject of the constitutional economics. It is important to distinguish between the two methods of corruption of the judiciary: the state, the private; the term "judiciary" is used to refer collectively to the personnel, such as judges and other adjudicators, who form the core of a judiciary, as well as the staffs who keep the system running smoothly. In some countries and jurisdictions, judiciary branch is expanded to include additional public legal professionals and institutions such as prosecutors, state lawyers, public notaries, judicial police service and legal aid officers; these institutions are sometimes governed by the same judicial administration that governs courts, in some cases the administration of the judicial branch is the administering authority for private legal professions such as lawyers and private "notary" offices.
After the French Revolution, lawmakers stopped interpretation of law by judges, the legislature was the only body permitted to interpret the law. In civil law juridictors at present, judges interpret the law to about the same extent as in common law jurisdictions – however it is different from the common law tradition which directly recognizes the limited power to make law. For instance, in France, the jurisprudence constante of the Court of Cassation or the Council of State is equivalent in practice with case law. However, the Louisiana Supreme Court notes the principal difference between the two legal doctrines: a single court decision can provide sufficient foundation for the common law doctrine of stare decisis, however, "a series of adjudicated cases, all in accord, form the basis for jurisprudence constante." Moreover, the Louisiana Court of Appeals has explicitly noted that jurisprudence constante is a secondary source of law, which cannot be authoritative and does not rise to the level of stare decisis.
In common law jurisdictions, courts interpret law. They make law based upon prior case law in areas where the legislature has not made law. For instance, the tort of negligence is not derived from statute law in most common law jurisdictions; the term common law refers to this kind of law. In civil law jurisdictions, courts interpret the law, but are prohibited from creating law, thus do not issue rulings more general than the actual case to be judged. Jurisprudence plays a similar role to case law. In the United States court system, the Supreme Court is the final authority on the interpretation of the federal Constitution and all statutes and regulations created pursuant to it, as well as the constitutionality of the various state laws. State courts, which try 98 % of litigation, may have organization.
Burton v. United States
Burton v. United States is the name of two appeals to the Supreme Court of the United States by Senator Joseph R. Burton following his conviction for compensated representation of a party in a proceeding in which the United States was interested: Burton v. United States, 196 U. S. 283 and Burton v. United States, 202 U. S. 344. Burton was convicted of acting as counsel to Rialto Grain and Securities Company in the United States Postmaster General's investigation of Rialto for mail fraud. On Burton's first appeal, the Supreme Court reversed his convictions because venue and vicinage could not be proper in the Eastern District of Missouri on the sole ground that Burton's bank sent the check to St. Louis after he cashed it. Further, the Court cited the prejudicial refusal of jury instructions. After Burton was retried and convicted, the Court affirmed, inter alia, on the ground that the agreement between Burton and Rialto had occurred in St. Louis. Burton was the first defendant convicted under § 1782 of the Revised Statutes, 40 years after its 1864 enactment.
Burton and his supporters argued that he was selectively prosecuted, on the orders of President Theodore Roosevelt, for political reasons. Burton became the first member of the United States Senate to be convicted of public corruption, in fact the first member of the Senate to be convicted of any crime; the next year, Senator John H. Mitchell was convicted under the same statute for his role in the Oregon land fraud scandal. In 1872, Congress created the crime of mail fraud. Rev. Stat. § 3929 authorized the United States Postmaster General, "upon evidence satisfactory to him" that mail fraud was being committed, to instruct the post master at the fraudster's local post office to return registered mail addressed to the fraudster to the sender with the word "Fraudulent" written or stamped on the envelope. In 1895, this authority was extended to all mail. Further, Rev. Stat. § 4041 authorized the Postmaster to bar suspected fraudsters from cashing postal money orders. The Rialto Grain and Securities Company, whose principal place of business was in St. Louis, was under investigation by the Postmaster for mail fraud.
The Postmaster had received two complaints and forwarded them for investigation on November 7, 1902. State courts were investigating complaints from investors against Rialto. Hugh C. Dennis, the President of Rialto, other officers had been criminally indicted, but none had been convicted; as of Burton's indictment, Dennis had been once acquitted in federal court and four indictments were pending against him in state courts. For a time, Rialto's offices had been closed due to a judicial attachment by its creditors; that same month—while the two were in Illinois, en route from St. Louis to Chicago—former state judge Thomas B. Harlan, the general counsel of Rialto, arranged to hire Senator Joseph R. Burton, a lawyer, to appear before the Postmaster as counsel for Rialto in connection with these investigations for a monthly salary of $500; when the general counsel returned to St. Louis on November 18, he communicated Burton's offer to Rialto and Rialto accepted. Rialto notified Burton of its acceptance by telegram to him in Washington that same day.
Burton informed Rialto by mail that he had learned of the two complaints from the Postmaster, arranged for himself to be notified of any future complaints, arranged to represent Rialto in a hearing before the Postmaster before any sanctions would issue. Burton continued to represent Rialto before the Postmaster, draw his monthly salary, for five months. Burton's intervention was successful, the Postmaster's investigation was ceased without the entry of a fraud order. Rialto paid Burton by monthly checks for the first four months. Burton received the first check on November 22. Burton indorsed and deposited the checks at Riggs National Bank in Washington, D. C. which in turn sent the checks to Rialto's bank, the Commonwealth Trust Company in St. Louis, for payment; the last $500 was paid in cash to Burton in person, at Rialto's office in St. Louis, on March 26, 1903, after which Burton's representation of Rialto terminated. A federal grand jury in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri was investigating the Brooks Brokerage Company, with which Dennis, the President of Rialto, was associated.
Witnesses against Burton at the grand jury included Chief Post Office Inspector William E. Cochran, W. B. Mehaney, the Vice President of Rialto. About two weeks before Burton's indictment, the grand jury came into possession of the checks from Rialto to Burton. Burton was indicted on January 24, 1904, in the Eastern District of Missouri, on nine counts of violating Rev. Stat. § 1782. Section 1782 provided, in relevant part: No Senator... after his election and during his continuance in office... shall receive or agree to receive any compensation whatever, directly or indirectly, for any services rendered, or to be rendered, to any person, either by himself or another, in relation to any proceeding... controversy... or other matter or thing in which the United States is a party, or directly or indirectly interested, before any Department... whatever. Every person offending against this section shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, shall be imprisoned not more than two years, fined not more than ten thousand dollars, shall, moreover, by conviction therefor, be rendered forever thereafter incapable of holding any office of honor, trust, or profit under the Government of the United States.
The first and second counts of the indictment pertained to the receipt of the final cash payment from Rialto with reference to two separate interests of the United States. The third count pertained to receipt
Cook County, Illinois
Cook County is a county in the U. S. state of Illinois. It is the second-most populous county in the United States after California; as of 2017, the population was 5,211,263. Its county seat is Chicago, the largest city in Illinois and the third-most populous city in the United States. More than 40% of all residents of Illinois live in Cook County. Cook County's population is larger than that of 28 individual U. S. states, the combined populations of the seven smallest states. There are 135 incorporated municipalities or wholly within Cook County, the largest of, Chicago, home to 54% of the population of the county; that part of the county which lies outside the Chicago city limits is divided into 29 townships. Geographically, the county is the sixth-largest in Illinois by land area, it shares the state's Lake Michigan shoreline with Lake County. Including its lake area, the county has a total area of 1,635 square miles, the largest county in Illinois, of which 945 square miles is land and 690 square miles is water.
Land-use in Cook County is urban and densely populated. Cook County is included in the Chicago–Naperville–Elgin, IL–IN–WI Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is surrounded by. Cook County was created on January 15, 1831, out of Putnam County by an act of the Illinois General Assembly, it was the 54th county established in Illinois and was named after Daniel Cook, one of the earliest and youngest statesmen in Illinois history. He served as the second U. S. Representative from Illinois and the state's first Attorney General. In 1839, DuPage County was carved out of Cook County; the government of Cook County is composed of the Board of Commissioners, other elected officials such as the Sheriff, State's Attorney, Board of Review, Assessor, Circuit Court judges, Circuit Court Clerk, as well as numerous other officers and entities. Cook County is the only home rule county in Illinois; the Cook County Code is the codification of Cook County's local ordinances. Cook County's current County Board president is Toni Preckwinkle.
The Circuit Court of Cook County, an Illinois state court of general jurisdiction is funded, in part, by Cook County, accepts more than 1.2 million cases each year for filing. The Cook County Department of Corrections known as the Cook County Jail, is the largest single-site jail in the nation; the Cook County Juvenile Detention Center, under the authority of the Chief Judge of the court, is the first juvenile center in the nation and one of the largest in the nation. The Cook County Law Library is the second-largest county law library in the nation. In the 1980s, Cook County was ground zero to an extensive FBI investigation called Operation Greylord. Ninety-two officials were indicted, including 17 judges, 48 lawyers, 8 policemen, 10 deputy sheriffs, 8 court officials, a state legislator; the Bureau of Health Services administers the county's public health services and is the third-largest public health system in the nation. Three hospitals are part of this system: Jr.. Hospital of Cook County, Provident Hospital, Oak Forest Hospital of Cook County, along with over 30 clinics.
The Cook County Department of Transportation is responsible for the design and maintenance of roadways in the county. These thoroughfares are composed of major and minor arterials, with a few local roads. Although the County Department of Transportation was instrumental in designing many of the expressways in the county, today they are under the jurisdiction of the state; the Cook County Forest Preserves, organized in 1915, is a separate, independent taxing body, but the Cook County Board of Commissioners acts as its Board of Commissioners. The district is a belt of 69,000 acres of forest reservations surrounding the city of Chicago; the Brookfield Zoo and the Chicago Botanic Garden are located in the forest preserves. Cook County is the fifth-largest employer in Chicago. In March 2008, the County Board increased the sales tax by one percent to 1.75 percent. This followed a quarter-cent increase in mass transit taxes. In Chicago, the rate increased to 10.25 percent, the steepest nominal rate of any major metropolitan area in America.
In Evanston, sales tax reached Oak Lawn residents pay 9.5 percent. On July 22, 2008, the Cook County board voted against Cook County Commissioner's proposal to repeal the tax increase. In 2016, Cook County joined Chicago in adopting a $13 hourly minimum wage. Cook County Board chairman John Daley called the wage hike "the moral and right thing to do." In June 2017, nearly 75 home rule municipalities passed measures opting themselves out of the increase. The county has more Democratic Party members than any other Illinois county and it is one of the most Democratic counties in the United States. Since 1932, the majority of its voters have only supported a Republican candidate in a Presidential election three times, all during national Republican landslides–Dwight Eisenhower over native son Adlai Stevenson II in 1952 and 1956, Richard Nixon over George McGovern in 1972. Since the closest a Republican has come to carrying the county was in 1984, when Ronald Reagan won 48.4 percent of the county's vote.
The 1970 Illinois Constitution allows the party controlling the state legislature to redraw voting districts. The Democrats won complete control of state government in 2003. S. House of Repre