Air Battle of South Korea
The Air Battle of South Korea was an air campaign early in the Korean War occurring from June 25 to July 20, 1950, over South Korea between the air forces of North Korea and the United Nations, including the countries of South Korea, the United States and the United Kingdom. The month-long fight for air supremacy over the country saw several small engagements over airfields in Seoul and Taejon and ended in victory for the UN air force, able to destroy the small North Korean People's Air Force. Main Article: Initial Phase of Korean WarOn the morning of June 25, 1950, ten divisions of the North Korean People's Army launched a full-scale invasion of the nation's neighbor to the south, the Republic of Korea; the force of 89,000 men moved in six columns, catching the Republic of Korea Army by surprise, resulting in a rout. The smaller South Korean army suffered from widespread lack of organization and equipment, was unprepared for war; the numerically superior North Korean forces destroyed isolated resistance from the 38,000 South Korean soldiers on the front before it began moving south.
To prevent South Korea's collapse the United Nations Security Council voted to send military forces. The United States' Seventh Fleet dispatched Task Force 77, led by the fleet carrier USS Valley Forge. By June 27, the naval and air forces moving to Korea had authorization to attack North Korean targets with the goal of helping repel the North Korean invasion of the country. With the US forces accepting the North Korean attack as an act of war, it became imperative to evacuate civilians and American diplomats from Korea, as the forces of the north and south were battling across the peninsula. On June 27 the South Koreans were losing the First Battle of Seoul. Most of South Korea's forces retreated in the face of the invasion; the North Koreans would capture the city the next day forcing the South Korean government and its shattered army to retreat further south. In the meantime, US naval and air forces were evacuating US diplomats, military dependents, civilians by ship and air transport, hoping to get American civilians out of the country "by any means."
Civilians were being gathered at Suwon Airfield and Kimpo Airfield near Seoul, before moving to Inchon and out of the country. These airlifts and convoys were being escorted by aircraft from the United States, operating its aircraft from bases in Japan; the United States Air Force had 1,172 aircraft in the Pacific region at the time of the outbreak of the Korean War, including hundreds of F-80 Shooting Stars as well as numerous F-82 Twin Mustangs, B-26 Invaders, B-29 Superfortresses, among others. Hundreds of aircraft were available to be mustered against the North Korean invasion, many of them the newest jet engine-powered fighter aircraft; the aircraft could fulfill a variety of missions and were well equipped, well armed and out of reach of North Korean attack, with many bases safely in Japan. Additionally, the Fleet Air Arm of the United Kingdom, the Royal Australian Air Force of Australia provided assistance as 800 Naval Air Squadron, 802 Naval Air Squadron, No. 77 Squadron RAAF were dispatched to provide additional support for ground operations.
The combined airpower had about 33,975 personnel. The North Korean People's Air Force consisted of only 132 aircraft and 2,000 personnel, of whom only 80 were pilots and most poorly trained; the two Koreas had small air forces of their own, with the North Koreans' 132 aircraft organized into the KPAF 1st Air Division. At the early phase in the war, these aircraft were used boldly to the North Koreans' advantage. Aware of their air superiority over the Republic of Korea Air Force and not expecting UN intervention, they anticipated light resistance in the air. In all, the KPAF had 2,000 personnel. At the June 25 outbreak of the war, the US aircraft in Japan began moving to the closest bases to the Korean Peninsula, Itazuke Air Base and Ashiya Air Base. MacArthur ordered. North Korean aircraft first met US aircraft in combat during the Battle of Suwon Airfield, in which seven of the 13 North Korean aircraft were destroyed; the North Korean Lavochkin La-7 and Ilyushin Il-10 aircraft were outmatched by the superior North American F-82 Twin Mustang and F-80C Shooting Star aircraft, which had better-trained pilots.
The planes of the 8th Fighter Wing, which were attempting to defend Suwon to allow evacuation of UN civilians encountered repeated harassing attacks from North Korean aircraft operating out of Heijo Airfield in Pyongyang. Heijo was the KPAF's main base, but in the first few days in the war the US aircraft only had authorization to defend themselves if attacked, they could not conduct offensive operations into North Korea. During the day on June 29, the KPAF returned to attack Suwon, six sorties of North Korean aircraft strafed the airfield during the morning, but each time were driven off by American F-80s, in the course of these attacks Lieutenant William T. Norris and Lieutenant Roy W. Marsh each shot down a North Korean aircraft; the North Koreans were able to destroy a single C-54 Skymaster parked at the airfield. The sorties culminated in a battle above Suwon in the midst of a conference of US military leaders in the town. Leaders including Lieutenant General George E. Stratemeyer and General of the Army Douglas MacArthur witnessed the final sortie of the day, in which four North Korean aircraft attacked four P-51 Mustang aircraft over the town.
The four P-51s succeeded in shooting down all four of the North Korean aircraft, with Lieutenant Orrin R. Fox scoring two kills and Lieutenants Richard J. Burns, Ha
1st Commonwealth Division
The 1st Commonwealth Division was the name given, after July 1951, to Commonwealth land forces in the Korean War. The division was a multinational unit, part of British Commonwealth Forces Korea, whilst British and Canadian Army units formed the bulk of the division, Australian infantry, New Zealand artillery and an Indian medical unit were a part of the division; as with the US "KATUSA" programme, numerous South Korean troops were seconded to the Commonwealth division to make up numbers under a programme known as "KATCOM". The unit was preceded by the 27th British Commonwealth Brigade, the initial parent formation of Commonwealth army units in Korea, which arrived in Korea in August 1950, its two British Infantry battalions were joined by the 3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment in September, by the 2nd Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry, in February 1951. The brigade was subsequently re-constituted as 28th Commonwealth Brigade in April 1951. In November 1950 the brigade was joined by 29th Independent Infantry Brigade, in May 1951 by 25th Canadian Infantry Brigade.
In July 1951 these units were combined to form 1st Commonwealth Division. The Division was made up of 58% British forces, 22% Canadian forces, 14% Australian forces, 5% New Zealander forces, 1% Indian forces; the 1st Commonwealth Division was part of the US I Corps, which included the US 1st Cavalry Division, the US 3rd and 25th Infantry Divisions, the ROK 1st Division. The division occupied the strategically important sector of front on the Jamestown Line, stretching from the Kimpo peninsula on the Yellow Sea coast to a point east of Kumhwa about 6.3 miles, just 30 miles from the South Korean capital, Seoul. It was deactivated in 1954 as part of the demobilisation of forces in Korea in the aftermath of the war, being reduced to a Commonwealth Brigade Group, from May 1956 until its final withdrawal in August 1957 to a Commonwealth Contingent of battalion strength. Commanding officers Major General James Cassels, 28 July 1951 – 7 September 1952 Major General Michael West, 7 September 1952 – 1953 Major General Horatius Murray, 1953 – 1954 Divisional Commander Royal Artillery Brigadier William Pike, July 1951 – 1952 Brigadier G. Gregson, 1952 Divisional Commander Royal Engineers Colonel ECW Myers, RE Divisional Commander Royal Signals Lt Col AC Atkinson, Royal Sigs Divisional Commander Royal Army Service Corps Lt Col MGM Crosby, RASC Assistant Director Medical Services Col G Anderton, RAMC Divisional Commander Royal Army Ordnance Corps Lt Col MR Maclean, RAOC Lt Col GJH Atkinson, RNZAOC Divisional Commander Royal Army Electrical and Mechanical Engineers Lt Col HG Good, REME Headquarters and Headquarters Company 1st Commonwealth Division Divisional troops Signals 1st Commonwealth Division Signals, July 1951 – July 1953 Artillery 45th Field Regiment, Royal Artillery, July–November 1951, 25 pdr 11th Battery, Royal Artillery, July–November 1951, 4.2 inch mortars 170th Light Battery, Royal Artillery, July–November 1951, 4.2 inch mortars 14th Field Regiment, Royal Artillery, November 1951 – December 1952, 25 pdr 120th Light AA Battery, Royal Artillery, October 1951 – December 1952, 4.2 inch mortars 42nd Light AA Battery, Royal Artillery, November 1951 – February 1952, 4.2 inch mortars 61st Light Field Regiment, January 1952 – July 1953, 4.2 inch mortars 20th Field Regiment, Royal Artillery, December 1952 – July 1953, 25 pdr 16th Field Regiment, Royal New Zealand Artillery, July 1951 – July 1953, 25 pdr 42nd Field Regiment, Royal Artillery, December 1953–, 25 pdr 2nd Regiment, Royal Canadian Horse Artillery, July 1951 – May 1952, 25 pdr 1st Regiment, Royal Canadian Horse Artillery, May 1952 – April 1953, 25 pdr 81st Field Regiment, Royal Canadian Artillery, April 1953 – July 1953, 25 pdr 74th Medium Battery, Royal Artillery, March–November 1953, 5.5 inch medium guns 1903 Independent Air Observation Post Flight, Royal Artillery, July 1951 – July 1953 Engineers 28th Field Engineer Regiment, Royal Engineers, July 1951 – July 1953 64th Field Park Squadron, Royal Engineers, July 1951 – July 1953 Armour 8th King's Royal Irish Hussars, July 1951 – December 1951, Centurion tank C Squadron, 7th Royal Tank Regiment, July 1951 – October 1951, Centurion tank 5th Royal Inniskilling Dragoon Guards, December 1951 – December 1952, Centurion tank 1st Royal Tank Regiment, December 1952 – December 1953, Centurion tank 5th Royal Tank Regiment, December 1953–, Centurion tank C Squadron, Lord Strathcona's Horse, May 1951 – June 1952, M4 Sherman tank B Squadron, Lord Strathcona's Horse, June 1952 – May 1953, M4 Sherman tank A Squadron, Lord Strathcona's Horse, December 1953–, M4 Sherman tank Medical 60th Indian Field Ambulance, November 1950 – August 1953 26th Field Ambulance, RAMC, December 1950– No 25 Field Ambulance, RCAMC, May 1951 – April 1952 No 25 Canadian Field Dressing Station, July 1951– No 37 Field Ambulance, RCAMC, April 1952 – May 1953 No 38 Field Ambulance, RCAMC, May 1953– LogisticsOrdnance No 25 Canadian Infantry Brigade Group Ordnance Company, May 1951 - Jan 1952 28th Commonwealth Infantry Brigade Ordnance Field Park, 24th British Infantry Brigade Group Ordnance Field Park, 1st Commonwealth Division, Stores Distribution Detachment.
Workshops 10th Infantry Workshops, REME 11th Infantry Workshops, REME 16th Infantry Workshops, REME 25 Canadian Support Workshop, RCEME, May 1951 – Jan 1952 191 Infantry Workshop, RCEME, May 1951 – Apr 1955 40 Canadian Infantry Workshop, RCEME, Apr 1953 – Dec 1953 42 Infantry Workshop, RCEME, Mar 1955 – Feb 1955 1st Commonwealth Division, Tank Workshop 1st Commonwealth Division, Signal
Battle of Pusan Perimeter
The Battle of Pusan Perimeter was a large-scale battle between United Nations and North Korean forces lasting from August 4 to September 18, 1950. It was one of the first major engagements of the Korean War. An army of 140,000 UN troops, having been pushed to the brink of defeat, were rallied to make a final stand against the invading North Korean army, 98,000 men strong. UN forces, having been defeated by the advancing North Koreans, were forced back to the "Pusan Perimeter", a 140-mile defensive line around an area on the southeastern tip of the Korean Peninsula that included the port of Pusan; the UN troops, consisting of forces from the Republic of Korea, United States and United Kingdom mounted a last stand around the perimeter, fighting off repeated North Korean attacks for six weeks as they were engaged around the cities of Taegu, P'ohang, the Naktong River. The massive North Korean assaults were unsuccessful in forcing the United Nations troops back further from the perimeter, despite two major pushes in August and September.
North Korean troops, hampered by supply shortages and massive losses, continually staged attacks on UN forces in an attempt to penetrate the perimeter and collapse the line. However, the UN used the port to amass an overwhelming advantage in troops and logistics, its navy and air forces remained unchallenged by the North Koreans during the fight. After six weeks, the North Korean force collapsed and retreated in defeat after the UN force launched a counterattack at Inchon on September 15; the battle would be the furthest the North Korean troops would advance in the war, as subsequent fighting ground the war into a stalemate. Following the outbreak of the Korean War, the United Nations decided to commit troops in support of the Republic of Korea, invaded by the neighboring Democratic People's Republic of Korea; the United States subsequently sent ground forces to the Korean peninsula with the goal of fighting back the North Korean invasion and to prevent South Korea from collapsing. However, US forces in the Far East had been decreasing since the end of World War II, five years earlier, at the time the closest forces were the 24th Infantry Division of the Eighth United States Army, headquartered in Japan.
The division was understrength, most of its equipment was antiquated due to reductions in military spending. Regardless, the 24th Infantry Division was ordered into South Korea; the Korean People's Army, 89,000 men strong, had advanced into South Korea in six columns, catching the Republic of Korea Army by surprise and routing it. The smaller ROKA suffered from widespread lack of organization and equipment, was unprepared for war. Numerically superior, KPA forces destroyed isolated resistance from the 38,000 ROKA soldiers on the front before moving south. Most of South Korea's forces retreated in the face of the advance. By June 28, the KPA had captured South Korea's capital of Seoul, forcing the government and its shattered forces to retreat further south. Though it was pushed back, South Korean forces increased their resistance further south, hoping to delay KPA units as much as possible. North and South Korean units sparred for control of several cities, inflicting heavy casualties on one another.
The ROKA defended Yongdok fiercely before being forced back, managed to repel North Korean forces in the Battle of Andong. Outnumbered and under-equipped US forces—committed in piecemeal fashion as as they could be deployed—were defeated and pushed south; the 24th Division, the first US division committed, took heavy losses in the Battle of Taejon in mid-July, which they were driven from after heavy fighting. Elements of the 3rd Battalion, 29th Infantry Regiment, newly arrived in the country, were wiped out at Hadong in a coordinated ambush by KPA forces on July 27, leaving open a pass to the Pusan area. Soon after, Chinju to the west was taken, pushing back the 19th Infantry Regiment and leaving open routes to Pusan. US units were subsequently able to defeat and push back the KPA on the flank in the Battle of the Notch on August 2. Suffering mounting losses, the KPA force on the west flank withdrew for several days to re-equip and receive reinforcements; this granted both sides several days of reprieve to prepare for the attack on the Pusan Perimeter.
The KPA forces were organized into a mechanized combined arms force of ten divisions numbering some 90,000 well-trained and well-equipped troops in July, with hundreds of T-34 tanks. However, defensive actions by US and South Korean forces had delayed the North Koreans in their invasion of South Korea, costing them 58,000 of their troops and a large number of tanks. In order to recoup these losses, the North Koreans had to rely on less-experienced replacements and conscripts, many of whom had been taken from the conquered regions of South Korea. During the course of the battle, the North Koreans raised a total of 13 infantry divisions and one armored division to the fight at Pusan Perimeter; the UN forces were organized under the command of the United States Army. The Eighth United States Army served as the headquarters component for the UN forces, was headquartered at Taegu. Under it were three weak US divisions; these forces occupied the western segment of the perimeter, along the Naktong River.
The ROKA, a force of 58,000, was organized into five divisions.
Second Battle of Naktong Bulge
The Second Battle of Naktong Bulge was an engagement between United Nations and North Korean forces early in the Korean War from September 1 to September 15, 1950, along the Naktong River in South Korea. It was a part of the Battle of Pusan Perimeter, was one of several large engagements fought simultaneously; the battle ended in a victory for the United Nations after large numbers of United States and Republic of Korea troops repelled a strong North Korean attack. After the First Battle of Naktong Bulge, the US Army's 2nd Infantry Division was moved to defend the Naktong River line; the division, untried in combat, was struck with a strong attack by several divisions of the North Korean People's Army which crossed the river and struck all along the division's line. The force of the attack split the US 2nd Infantry Division in half, the North Koreans were able to penetrate to Yongsan, promoting a fight there; the urgency of the threat to Pusan Perimeter prompted the US Marine Corps 1st Provisional Marine Brigade to be brought in to reinforce the US Army troops.
In two weeks of heavy fighting, the US forces were able to force the North Koreans out of the Naktong Bulge region. The North Koreans were further repulsed after the UN counterattack at Inchon, which culminated in the virtual destruction of the North Korean army. From the outbreak of the Korean War and the invasion of South Korea by the North, the North Korean People's Army had enjoyed superiority in both manpower and equipment over both the Republic of Korea Army and the United Nations forces dispatched to South Korea to prevent it from collapsing; the North Korean strategy was to aggressively pursue UN and ROK forces on all avenues of approach south and to engage them aggressively, attacking from the front and initiating a double envelopment of both flanks of the unit, which allowed the North Koreans to surround and cut off the opposing force, which would be forced to retreat in disarray leaving behind much of its equipment. From their initial June 25 offensive to fights in July and early August, the North Koreans used this strategy to defeat any UN force and push it south.
However, when the UN forces, under the Eighth United States Army, established the Pusan Perimeter in August, the UN troops held a continuous line along the peninsula which North Korean troops could not flank, their advantages in numbers decreased daily as the superior UN logistical system brought in more troops and supplies to the UN army. When the North Koreans approached the Pusan Perimeter on August 5, they attempted the same frontal assault technique on the four main avenues of approach into the perimeter. Throughout August, the NK 6th Division, the NK 7th Division engaged the US 25th Infantry Division at the Battle of Masan repelling a UN counteroffensive before countering with battles at Komam-ni and Battle Mountain; these attacks stalled as UN forces, well equipped and with plenty of reserves repelled North Korean attacks. North of Masan, the NK 4th Division and the US 24th Infantry Division sparred in the Naktong Bulge area. In the First Battle of Naktong Bulge, the North Korean division was unable to hold its bridgehead across the river as large numbers of US reserve forces were brought in to repel it, on August 19, the NK 4th Division was forced back across the river with 50 percent casualties.
In the Taegu region, five North Korean divisions were repulsed by three UN divisions in several attempts to attack the city during the Battle of Taegu. Heavy fighting took place at the Battle of the Bowling Alley where the NK 13th Division was completely destroyed in the attack. On the east coast, three more North Korean divisions were repulsed by the South Koreans at P'ohang-dong during the Battle of P'ohang-dong. All along the front, the North Korean troops were reeling from these defeats, the first time in the war their strategies were not working. In planning its new offensive, the North Korean command decided any attempt to flank the UN force was impossible due to the support of the UN navy. Instead, they opted to use frontal attack to breach the perimeter and collapse it as the only hope of achieving success in the battle. Fed by intelligence from the Soviet Union the North Koreans were aware the UN forces were building up along the Pusan Perimeter and that it must conduct an offensive soon or it could not win the battle.
A secondary objective was to destroy the UN and ROK units in that city. As part of this mission, the North Korean units would first cut the supply lines to Taegu. On August 20, the North Korean commands distributed operations orders to their subordinate units; the North Koreans called for a simultaneous five-prong attack against the UN lines. These attacks would overwhelm the UN defenders and allow the North Koreans to break through the lines in at least one place to force the UN forces back. Five battle groupings were ordered; the center attack called for the NK 9th Division, NK 4th Division, NK 2nd Division, NK 10th Division break through the US 2nd Infantry Division at the Naktong Bulge to Miryang and Yongsan. During the North Koreans' September 1 offensive, the US 25th Infantry Division's US 35th Infantry Regiment was engaged in the Battle of Nam River north of Masan. On the 35th Regiment's right flank, just north of the confluence of the Nam River and the Naktong River, was the US 9th Infantry Regiment, US 2nd Infantry Division.
There, in the southernmost part of the 2nd Infantry Division zone, the 9th Infantry Regiment held a sector more than 20,000 yards long, including the bulge area of the Naktong where the First Battle of Naktong Bulge had taken place earlier in August. Each US infantry company on the river line here had a front of 3,000 feet to 4,000 feet
25th Canadian Infantry Brigade
The 25th Canadian Infantry Brigade was Canada's primary combat-formation intending to be sent as part of the British Commonwealth Forces Korea. Composed of three infantry battalions and two armoured squadrons, several individual units rotated through the brigade. Although a full brigade had been trained and armed by 1951, the success of the Inchon Landing meant that only 2nd Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry was sent; however and North Korean forces subjected Canadian forces to fierce fighting throughout April 1951. 2PPCLI earned a Presidential Unit Citation for their actions during the Battle of Kapyong while serving with the 27th Commonwealth Brigade. It had detached from the 25th Brigade in order to leave for Korea in advance of the formation, would rejoin its Canadian brigade group; when North Korea invaded their southern neighbour on 25 June 1950, the UN Security Council authorized member-nations to "...furnish such assistance to the Republic of Korea as may be necessary to repel the armed attack and to restore international peace and security in the area".
Although the United States sent immediate military aid to South Korea, Canada did not prepare to send ground forces to the country. On 7 August 1950, Canada's government authorized the creation of the "Canadian Army Special Force", it was to comprise an armoured regiment, the 2nd Battalions of each of Canada's permanent-force infantry regiments – Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry, Royal Canadian Regiment, Royal 22e Régiment – placed under the overall command of Brigadier General J. M. Rockingham. Due to the massive success of the Inchon Landings, only the 2nd Battalion of Princess Patricia's was sent to Yokohama, onto Korea. By the time the transports arrived in Japan, the situation had changed significantly. China had sent substantial forces to the aid of North Korea, pushing UN-forces back into South Korea; as a result, the PPCLI was sent directly to the front lines, located near Seoul, in mid–February. The first contact made with North Korean and Chinese forces came at the end of that month.
In early March, United Nations forces initiated a counteroffensive against Chinese forces, while the Canadians moved into the Kapyong Valley near the 38th Parallel. In April 1951, the Chinese People's Liberation Army launched a series of massive offensives across the Korean front, with the intention of recapturing Seoul. American and South Korean forces began to retreat, with Canadian and Australian forces holding Kapyong Valley, preventing Chinese forces from overwhelming the UN in Korea. 25th Canadian Infantry Brigade Brigade HQ 2nd Battalion, The Royal Canadian Regiment 2nd Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry 2nd Battalion, Royal 22e Régiment C Squadron, Lord Strathcona's Horse 2nd Regiment, Royal Canadian Horse Artillery 57th Independent Field Squadron, Royal Canadian Engineers 25th Canadian Infantry Brigade Signal Troop No. 25 Canadian Infantry Brigade Ordnance Company No. 25 Canadian Field Ambulance No. 54 Canadian Transport Company and No. 38 Canadian Mobile Ambulance CompanyNote: The 2nd Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry, was deployed in 1950.
The brigade was deployed to Korea deployed in 1951 made up of the units listed here. Units were rotated; the Korean War Veterans' Associate maintains a complete list of Canadian units both before and after the armistice. United Nations Memorial Cemetery, in Busan, where 378 Canadian soldiers are buried. Berton, Pierre. Marching As to War. Anchor Canada. ISBN 0-385-25819-4 Zuehlke, Mark; the Canadian Military Atlas. Stoddart. ISBN 0-7737-3289-6. Canadian Order of Battle in Korea, kvacanada.com
Battle of Taegu
The Battle of Taegu was an engagement between UN and North Korean forces early in the Korean War, with fighting continuing from August 5–20, 1950 around the city of Taegu, South Korea. It was a part of the Battle of Pusan Perimeter, was one of several large engagements fought simultaneously; the battle ended in a victory for the United Nations after their forces were able to drive off an offensive by North Korean divisions attempting to cross the Naktong River and assault the city. Five North Korean army divisions massed around the city preparing to cross the Naktong River and assault it from the north and west. Defending the city were the 1st Cavalry Division and the ROK II Corps. In a series of engagements, each of the North Korean divisions attempted to cross the Naktong and attack the defending forces; the success of these attacks varied by region, but attacks in the 1st Cavalry Division sector were repulsed and the attacks in the South Korean sector were more successful. During the battle, North Korean troops were able to surprise US troops on Hill 303 and capture them.
Late in the battle, these troops were machine gunned in the Hill 303 massacre. Despite these setbacks, the UN forces were successful in driving most of the North Koreans off, but the decisive battle to secure the city would occur during the Battle of the Bowling Alley. Following the invasion of the Republic of Korea by its northern neighbor, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the outbreak of the Korean War on June 25, 1950, the United Nations Security Council voted to send armed forces to defend South Korea; the United States, a permanent member of the Security Council deployed armed forces to southeastern South Korea because of their immediate availability from their bases in Japan and Okinawa, where the military occupation of Japan was still in effect. Countries such as Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom all contributed naval ships in support of the United Nations action; the goal of American armed forces was to support the remnants of the South Korean army in fighting back the North Korean invasion to prevent the complete collapse of the South Korean Army and of the South Korean Government.
However, the Supreme United Nations military commander in the area, General Douglas MacArthur, after an inspection trip to South Korea, realised U. S. Army ground forces would need to be committed. At the time of the North Korean invasion, the closest American ground force was the 24th Infantry Division, based in Japan; this division had fewer than its normal contingent of soldiers, most of its equipment was rather old due to the U. S. Congress's reductions in military spending. In any case, the 24th Infantry Division was the only part of the U. S. Army, available to reinforce South Korea. Thus, the 24th Infantry Division was the first American armed force sent to South Korea with the mission to blunt the advance of the North Korean Army and to set up a defensive perimeter around Pusan with the aid of Air Force, U. S. Navy, Marine Corps aviation forces. MacArthur decided to have his American and South Korean troops to dig in around Pusan and hold on until he could assemble a powerful force to make an amphibious counterattack at Inchon on the northwestern coast of South Korea, near Seoul on in 1950.
The 24th Infantry Division, along with its South Korean allies, was hence nearly alone for several weeks while the Americans and South Koreans held out inside the Pusan Perimeter and awaited reinforcements and counterattacks against the North Koreans. Among the American units that reinforced the Pusan Perimeter as soon as they could arrive were the U. S. 1st Cavalry Division, the 7th Infantry Division, the 25th Infantry Divisions, along with other units of the U. S. Eighth Army that provided logistical and intelligence support. Advance units of the 24th Infantry Division were badly defeated in the Battle of Osan on July 5 in the first encounter between American and North Korean troops. For the first month after the defeat at Osan, the 24th Infantry were pushed back and forced southeastward by larger numbers of North Korean troops equipped with rugged Soviet-made T-34 tanks; the troops of the 24th Infantry were systematically pushed southeast in the Battle of Chochiwon, the Battle of Chonan, the Battle of Pyongtaek, as well as in smaller engagements.
The 24th Infantry made a desperate stand against the North Koreans in the Battle of Taejon, where it was badly battered, but it delayed the North Korean advance until July 20. By that time, the Eighth Army's force of combat troops were equal in numbers to North Korean forces attacking the Pusan Perimeter, with new U. N. forces arriving from America, New Zealand, etc. nearly every day. With the city of Taejon captured, the KPA began surrounding the Pusan Perimeter on the north and the west in an attempt to crush it; the 4th and 6th KPA Infantry Divisions advanced south in a wide flanking maneuver. These two KPA divisions attempted to turn the American's and South Korean's left flank in order to capture Pusan from the southwest, but they became dispersed in the process, they were exposed to repeated air attacks from the U. S. Air Force and the U. S. Navy; the North Koreans attacked the U. S. troops with superior numbers at first, with the rugged T-34 tanks, but despite local defeats, the U. N. troops, with the help of aviation and naval units were able to extend the Pusan Perimeter all the way south to the East China Sea and to blunt all North Korean attacks toward Pusan.
American air supremacy over the Pusan Perimeter was a significan
29th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)
The 29th Infantry Brigade was an infantry brigade unit of the British Army. It was raised in 1914 and saw service during the First and Second World Wars and the Korean War; the 29th Brigade was formed in August 1914 as part of the 10th Division, of the first wave of Kitchener's Army. The division and brigade transferred to Lemnos in July 1915 in preparation for the Gallipoli landings; the 29th Infantry Brigade landed at Anzac Cove on August 6/7 of the same year, participating in the Battle of Chunuk Bair. The 10th Division was withdrawn from Gallipoli to Salonika at the end of September 1915, elements of the division participating in actions at Karajakois and Kosturino. In early September 1917, the Division was withdrawn to Egypt and took part in the Palestine Campaign where it fought in the third Battle of Gaza; the division moved back to Cairo at the end of the war. In the Second World War, the Cairo Brigade was renamed as the 29th Infantry Brigade on 20 September 1939. In October 1939, it was redesignated as the 22nd Infantry Brigade.
On 14 July 1940, a new 29th Independent Infantry Brigade Group, under the command of Brigadier Oliver Leese, was formed in the United Kingdom from Regular Army infantry battalions. It was successively under command of XII Corps, the West Sussex County Division, IV Corps and South Eastern Command before passing to War Office Control in May 1941; the brigade, under the command of Brigadier Frank Festing, led the invasion of Madagascar by Force 121 on 5 May 1942. It left Madagascar for two weeks in East Africa in late August 1942 and departed on 16 October 1942 for South Africa. After two months, the brigade departed for India, arriving on 26 January 1943, came under the command of Frank Festing's 36th Indian Infantry Division, where it was trained in amphibious assault operations, it entered Burma on 12 February 1944. It remained in 36 Division, redesignated as the British 36th Infantry Division on 1 September 1944, for the rest of the Burma Campaign, returning to India in June 1944 before flying into North Burma in August 1944 and advancing south to Mandalay.
Throughout its time in the 36th Division, it was commanded by Brigadier Hugh Stockwell. The 29th Brigade returned to India in May 1945. Recognised battles: North Arakan 1 January – 12 June 1944 Mandalay 12/13 February – 21 March 1945 Rangoon Road 1 April – 6 May 1945 The 29th Brigade was back in existence by 1949, was re-mustered after the outbreak of the Korean War as 29th Independent Infantry Brigade to reinforce the United Nations war effort; when it arrived in Korea, in December 1950, it comprised the 1st Battalion, Royal Northumberland Fusiliers, 1st Battalion, the Gloucestershire Regiment, 1st Battalion, the Royal Ulster Rifles, 8th King's Royal Irish Hussars, C Squadron, 7th Royal Tank Regiment, 45 Field Regiment RA, 11 LAA Battery RA, 170 Mortar Battery RA, plus supporting units. It incorporated elements from non-British forces, including the Belgian United Nations Command; the brigade saw action during the third Battle for Seoul in late December 1950 and the Chinese Spring Offensive in April 1951.
In July 1951, it was re-organized as 29th British Infantry Brigade and absorbed into the 1st Commonwealth Division, the brigade finished its tour of duty in November 1951. 1914–19185th Battalion, Royal Irish Regiment 6th Battalion, Royal Irish Rifles 5th Battalion, Connaught Rangers 6th Battalion, Prince of Wales's Leinster Regiment 10th Battalion, Hampshire Regiment 1st Battalion, Prince of Wales' Leinster Regiment 29th Machine Gun Company 29th Trench Mortar Battery 1st Battalion, 54th Sikhs 1st Battalion, 101st Grenadiers 2nd Battalion, 151st Sikh Infantry 19391st Battalion, Buffs 2nd Battalion, Scots Guards1940–19451st Battalion, Royal Scots Fusiliers 2nd Battalion, East Lancashire Regiment 2nd Battalion, Royal Welch Fusiliers 2nd Battalion, South Lancashire Regiment 29th Independent Brigade Group Anti-tank Company 204th Anti-tank Battery, Royal Artillery 17th Field Regiment, Royal Artillery "E" Company, 5th Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders 16 August 1940 – 11 June 1941) 29th Independent Brigade Group Machine Gun Company Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders 29th Independent Brigade Group Reconnaissance Company 29th Independent Brigade Group Machine Gun Company Royal Northumberland Fusiliers "B" SS Squadron Royal Armoured Corps 455th Independent Light Battery, Royal Artillery "D" Company, 2nd Manchester Regiment 17 October 1943 – 16 June 1944) 236th Field Company, Royal Engineers 29th Independent Brigade Group Company, Royal Army Service Corps 1 August 1940 – 5 May 1941) 154th Field Ambulance, Royal Army Medical Corps 29th Independent Brigade Group Workshop, Royal Army Ordnance Corps 29th Independent Brigade Group Ordnance Field Park, Royal Army Ordnance Corps 29th Independent Brigade Group Provost Section, Royal Military Police (18 July 1940 – 15 January 194