Walton Harris Walker was a United States Army four-star general who served as a commander in World War I, World War II, the Korean War, where he commanded the Eighth United States Army before dying in a jeep accident. He received two Distinguished Service Crosses for extraordinary heroism in World War II and the Korean War. Walker was born in Belton, Texas, on December 3, 1889, his parents and Lydia Walker were both college graduates whose fathers had been officers in the Confederate Army. His father, a merchant, taught him how to hunt and shoot, he graduated from the Wedemeyer Academy, a school which operated in Belton from 1886 to 1911. From a young age, he hoped to be a general, he attended the Virginia Military Institute in preparation for his education at the United States Military Academy at West Point. He entered the Academy on June 15, 1907, but resigned on October 7, 1907, he reentered the Academy on March 3, 1908 and was commissioned a second lieutenant of Infantry on June 12, 1912. As a lieutenant, he served at Illinois.
He was a member of the 1914 VeraCruz expedition under Brigadier General Frederick Funston. S.-Mexican border in 1916, he developed a close friendship with Dwight Eisenhower. He was promoted to captain on May 15, 1917, he served at Camp Funston, from May to December 1917, Fort Sam Houston with the 13th Machine Gun Battalion from December 1917 to April 1918. During World War I, Walker deployed to France with the 13th Machine Gun Company, 5th Machine Gun Battalion, 5th Division in April 1918, served as company commander and battalion commander to July 1919, he was awarded two Silver Stars for gallantry in action. After the war, Walker rotated through a variety of assignments at Camp Benning and Fort Sill and served as a company commander and instructor at West Point from August 1923 to June 1925, he attended the Command and General Staff School at Fort Leavenworth, from September 1925 to June 1926. He served at Fort Monroe, from June 1926 to July 1930, he next commanded the 2nd Battalion, 15th Infantry at Camp Burrowes and American Barracks, China, from September 1930 to March 1933.
He served as post executive officer and brigade executive officer with the 5th Infantry Brigade, 3rd Division, from August 1936 to June 1937. Walker served as a staff officer in the War Plans Division with the General Staff Corps in Washington, D. C. from August 1937 to April 1941. He next served as commanding officer of the 36th Infantry Regiment, activated April 15, 1941, as the 36th Infantry and assigned to the 3rd Armored Division, to June 1941; when Marshall assigned George Patton to organize America's armored forces, Walker lobbied Marshall for a post as one of Patton's subordinate commanders, gaining promotion to brigadier general in the process. Promoted to major general in 1942, he was awarded a Silver Star for gallantry in action on July 7, 1944. Walker's XX Corps played a role in Patton's dash across France in August and early September 1944, earning the sobriquet "Ghost Corps" for the speed of its advance, he received the Distinguished Service Cross for extraordinary heroism on August 23, 1944.
Walker's troops saw heavy fighting in France and Germany during the remainder of the war at Metz, the Battle of the Bulge, in the invasion of Germany. In the spring of 1945, XX Corps liberated Buchenwald concentration camp pushed south and east reaching Linz, Austria by May. Walker received his third star at this time. Walker received the unconditional surrender of Generaloberst Lothar Rendulic, commander of German Army Group South, on 7 May 1945. In May 1945, Walker returned to the United States, he was given command of the 8th Service Command, headquartered in Dallas, from May 1945 to May 1946. He was assigned as the commander of the 6th Service Command and the Fifth Army, headquartered in Chicago, from May 1946 to September 1948, became commanding general of the U. S. Eighth Army, the American occupation force in Japan. Walker was ordered by General Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Allied Commander in Japan, to restore the peacetime Eighth Army to combat-ready condition. At the end of World War II in 1945, Korea was divided into North Korea and South Korea, with North Korea becoming a communist state after 1946, known as the Democratic People's Republic, followed by South Korea becoming the Republic of Korea.
China became the communist People's Republic of China in 1949. In 1950, the Soviet Union backed North Korea while the United States backed South Korea, China allied with the Soviet Union in what was to become the first military action of the Cold War. Shortly after 75,000 North Korean troops with tanks invaded South Korea on June 25, 1950, American air and sea forces were ordered by President Harry S. Truman to give South Korean troops support; the U. S. Eighth Army was ordered to intervene and drive the invaders back across the 38th parallel, the border between the two countries. With only four equipped and poorly trained d
Chung Il-kwon was a South Korean politician and soldier. A general in the Republic of Korea Army, he served as Foreign Minister 1963 to 1964, Prime Minister from 1964 to 1970, he was an ally of President Park Chung-hee. His pen name was Chungsa Chung was born in Ussuriysk in Primorsky Krai, where his father worked as an interpreter for the Imperial Russian Army. After the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, his father moved the family to Kyongwon County, North Hamgyong province in Korea. However, in 1930, the family relocated to what is now Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in Manchuria, where Chung grew up in extreme poverty; because he was raised in Korea when it was still occupied by the Japanese, he was given the name of Ikken Nakashima. Due to his excellent grades in school, Chung won a place at the Manchukuo Imperial Army academy in Mukden, from which he graduated in September 1937. Again, his performance was regarded as excellent, he was sent on to attend the 55th class of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy in Tokyo, where he specialized in cavalry operations.
He assumed the Japanese name Nakajima Ikken. During the Pacific War, he served in the Manchukuo Imperial Army as a military police captain. Following the Soviet invasion of Manchuria at the end of World War II, he was captured by Soviet forces and interrogated by the KGB. Chung graduated from the first class of the Korea Military Academy in 1946 and was commissioned into the South Korean army, he was in Hawaii undergoing military training at the start of the Korean War. He arrived in Korea on June 30, was promoted to major general and replaced General Chae Byeong Deok as commander of the Republic of Korea Army. Serving as a tactical commander and major general in the Korean War, Chun Il Kwon, organized the South Korean soldiers at Inchon, his initial responsibilities included regrouping the routed Korean military forces and coordinating their efforts with the United Nations command. He was the commander of all ROK forces in Pusan from July–August, which would place him at the attack of Inchon.
This was known for leaving him a well-known war hero. He returned to the United States for additional training in July 1951 following the National Defense Corps Incident and the Geochang massacre. However, on his return in July 1952 he was demoted by President Syngman Rhee to a divisional command and sent to a front-line combat unit. Three months he was promoted to deputy commander of the IX Corps commanding front line UN forces in numerous offensives and counteroffensives. Three months after this, he was again promoted to command the Korean II Corps, which he held until the end of the war. After retiring in 1957, he served as South Korea's ambassador to Turkey. In 1960, he was appointed ambassador to France, served as ambassador to the United States from 1960 to 1961 and 1962 to 1963. From 1963 to 1964 Chung served as Foreign Minister of South Korea and was Prime minister of South Korea from 1964 to 1970. During his time as an ambassador, he took the time to study political science and international relations at prestigious universities such as Oxford and Harvard.
From 1971, Chung served as a member of the National Assembly from the Democratic Republican Party for three consecutive terms. He served as chairman in the ninth National Assembly of 1973–1979. In March 1991, Chung received treatment for lymph cancer in Hawaii. Although he continued political activities in 1992 for the Democratic Republican Party in 1993 in support of Kim Young-sam during the 1992 Korean presidential election, he was re-hospitalized in Hawaii in January 1994 due to cancer, died there, he was buried at the Seoul National Cemetery. Survived by his four children and his wife, Park Hye-Soo, after his death in Hawaii. Malaysia: Honorary Grand Commander of the Order of the Defender of the Realm War and Ceasefire Chung Il-kwon's Memoir Chang Myon Kim Jong-pil Korean War Paik Sun-yup Park Chung-hee Chung Il-kwon Chung Il-kwon list of Prime ministrer of South Korea Chung Il-kwon 역대 주미 대사관 대사
Battle of Chumonchin Chan
The Battle of Chumonchin Chan or the Action of 2 July 1950 was the battle fought between surface combatants during the main phase of the Korean War. It began. On 2 July 1950, USS Juneau, HMS Black Swan, HMS Jamaica were sailing along the coast of the Sea of Japan when they encountered four North Korean torpedo and gunboats that had just finished escorting a flotilla of ten ammunition ships up the coast; the North Korean torpedo boats began an attack on the allied ships. Before their torpedoes could be fired however, they were met with a salvo of gunfire from the United Nations ships which destroyed three of the torpedo boats; the surviving North Korean craft fled. In July, Juneau encountered the same ammunition ships and destroyed them. Naval Battles of the Korean War. Archived 2 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine
Battle of Osan
The Battle of Osan was the first engagement between United States and North Korean forces during the Korean War, on July 5, 1950. Task Force Smith, a U. S. task force of 400 infantry supported by an artillery battery, was moved to Osan, south of the South Korean capital Seoul, ordered to fight as a rearguard to delay advancing North Korean forces while additional U. S. troops arrived in the country to form a stronger defensive line to the south. The task force lacked both anti-tank guns and effective infantry anti-tank weapons, having been equipped with obsolescent 2.36-in. Rocket launchers and a few 57 mm recoilless rifles. Aside from a limited number of HEAT shells for the unit's 105-mm howitzers, crew-served weapons capable of defeating the T-34 Soviet tank had not been distributed to U. S. Army forces in Korea. A North Korean tank column equipped with ex-Soviet T-34/85 tanks overran the task force in the first encounter and continued its advance south. After the North Korean tank column had breached U.
S. lines the Task Force opened fire on a force of some 5,000 North Korean infantry approaching its position, temporarily holding up the North Korean advance. North Korean troops flanked and overwhelmed American positions and the remnants of the task force retreated in disorder. On the night of June 25, 1950, ten divisions of the North Korean People's Army launched a full-scale invasion of the nation's neighbor to the south, the Republic of Korea; the force of 89,000 men moved in six columns, catching the Republic of Korea Armed Forces by surprise, resulting in a rout. The smaller South Korean army suffered from widespread lack of organization and equipment, was unprepared for war; the numerically superior North Korean forces destroyed isolated resistance from the 38,000 South Korean soldiers on the front before it began moving south. Most of South Korea's forces retreated in the face of the invasion; the North Koreans had captured South Korea's capital of Seoul by June 28, forcing the government and its shattered army to retreat further south.
To prevent South Korea's collapse the United Nations Security Council voted to send military forces. The United States' Seventh Fleet dispatched Task Force 77, led by the fleet carrier USS Valley Forge. Although the navies blockaded North Korea and launched aircraft to delay the North Korean forces these efforts alone did not stop the North Korean Army juggernaut on its southern advance. U. S. President Harry S. Truman ordered ground troops into the country to supplement the air support; the strength of U. S. forces in the Far East, had declined since the end of World War II five years earlier and the closest unit was the 24th Infantry Division of the Eighth United States Army, headquartered in Japan. Cuts in U. S. military spending meant. Division commander, Major General William F. Dean determined that the 21st Infantry Regiment was the most combat-ready of the 24th Infantry Division's three regiments. Dean decided to send the 21st Infantry's 1st Battalion from the formation because its commander, Lieutenant Colonel Charles Bradford Smith, was the most experienced leading man, having experience at the Battle of Guadalcanal during World War II.
C-54 Skymaster transport aircraft airlifted one battalion from the division garrison under Smith's command into Korea. The battalion deployed to block advancing North Korean forces, performing a holding action while the rest of the division could be moved to South Korea by sea; when you get to Pusan, head for Taejon. We want to stop the North Koreans as far from Pusan. Block the main road as far north as possible. Make contact with General Church. If you can't find him, go to Taejon and beyond if you can. Sorry I can't give you more information --. Good luck, God bless you and your men! The first units of the 24th Infantry Division left Itazuke Air Base in Japan on June 30. Task Force Smith, named for its commander, consisted of 406 men of the 1st Battalion, 21st Infantry Regiment, as well as 134 men of A Battery, 52nd Field Artillery Battalion under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Miller O. Perry; the forces were both poorly equipped and understrength: 1st Battalion, 21st Infantry had only two companies of infantry, as opposed to the regulation three for a U.
S. Army battalion; the battalion had half of the required number of troops in its headquarters company, half of a communications platoon, half of a heavy weapons platoon, armed with six obsolescent M9A1 Bazooka rocket launchers, two 75mm recoilless rifles, two 4.2 inch mortars, four 60mm mortars. Much of this equipment was drawn from the rest of the understrength 21st. A Battery, which formed the entire artillery support for the task force, was armed with six 105mm howitzers; these howitzers were equipped with 1,200 high explosive rounds, but these were incapable of penetrating tank armor. Only six high explosive anti-tank rounds were issued to the battery, all of them allocated to the number six howitzer sited forward of the main battery emplacement. A Battery had four.50 calibre M2 Browning heavy machine guns. Most of the soldiers of the task force were teenagers with no combat experience and only eight weeks of basic training. Only one third of the officers in the task force had combat experience from World War II, only one in six enlisted soldiers had combat experience.
Many of them volunteered to join the task force. The soldiers were each equipped with two days of C-rations. By July 1, Task Force Smith had arrived in South Korea and established a headquarters in Taej
Battle of Masan
The Battle of Masan was an engagement between United Nations and North Korean forces, which took place early in the Korean War between August 5 and September 19, 1950, in the vicinity of Masan and the Naktong River in South Korea. It was part of the Battle of Pusan Perimeter, was one of several large engagements fought simultaneously; the battle ended in a victory for the UN after large numbers of United States and Republic of Korea troops were able to repel the repeated attacks of two North Korean divisions. Operating as the extreme southern flank of the Pusan Perimeter, the US Army's 25th Infantry Division placed its regiments around the South Korean city of Masan, with the US 24th Infantry Regiment and 5th Regimental Combat Team based in Haman and nearby Sobuk-san, the US 35th Infantry Regiment based along the Nam River to the west of the city. Throughout the six-week battle, the Korean People's Army 6th and 7th Divisions attacked the 25th Division's regiments in an attempt to break through the UN forces and attack Pusan.
An initial UN counteroffensive out of Masan proved ineffective in stopping the North Koreans from advancing. In the subsequent fight, the 35th Infantry was able to repel the North Koreans at the Battle of Nam River and were regarded for these actions. However, the 24th Infantry performed poorly at the battles of Blue Mountain and Haman, forcing the 25th Division to muster reserves to counter the North Korean gains against the 24th; the UN units were able to defeat and repel the North Koreans including through a coordinated offensive across the entire perimeter. In delaying and pushing back the North Koreans, the 25th Infantry Division was able to buy time for the buildup of UN forces to in the Pusan Perimeter and the mounting of the counterattack at Inchon. Following the 25 June 1950 invasion of the Republic of Korea by its northern neighbor, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the United Nations decided to commit troops to the conflict on behalf of South Korea; the United States, a member of the UN, subsequently committed ground forces to the Korean peninsula with the goal of fighting back the North Korean invasion and preventing South Korea from collapsing.
However, US forces in the Far East had been decreasing since the end of World War II, five years earlier, at the time the closest forces were the 24th Infantry Division, headquartered in Japan. The division was understrength, most of its equipment was antiquated due to reductions in military spending. Regardless, the 24th Division was ordered to South Korea; the 24th Infantry Division was the first US unit sent into Korea with the mission to take the initial "shock" of North Korean advances, delaying much larger North Korean units to buy time to allow reinforcements to arrive. The division was alone for several weeks as it attempted to delay the North Koreans, making time for the 1st Cavalry and the 7th and 25th Infantry Divisions, along with other Eighth Army supporting units, to move into position. Advance elements of the 24th Infantry Division were badly defeated in the Battle of Osan on July 5, the first encounter between American and North Korean forces. For the first month after that defeat, the 24th Infantry Division was defeated and forced south by superior North Korean numbers and equipment in engagements around Chochiwon and Pyongtaek.
The division made a final stand in the Battle of Taejon, where it was nearly destroyed, but delayed North Korean forces until July 20. By that time, the Eighth Army's force of combat troops were equal to North Korean forces attacking the region, with new UN units arriving every day. With Taejon captured, North Korean forces began surrounding the Pusan Perimeter in an attempt to envelop it; the KPA 4th and 6th Infantry Divisions advanced south in a wide flanking maneuver. The two divisions attempted to envelop the UN's left flank, but became spread out in the process, they advanced on UN positions with armor and superior numbers pushing back U. S. and South Korean forces. American forces halted the North Korean advance in a series of engagements in the southern section of the country. Forces of the 3rd Battalion, 29th Infantry Regiment, newly arrived in the country, were wiped out at Hadong in a coordinated ambush by North Korean forces on July 27, opening a pass to the Pusan area. Soon after, North Korean forces took Chinju to the west, pushing back the US 19th Infantry Regiment and leaving routes to the Pusan open for more North Korean attacks.
US formations were subsequently able to defeat and push back the North Koreans on the flank in the Battle of the Notch on August 2. Suffering mounting losses, the KPA force in the west withdrew for several days to re-equip and receive reinforcements; this granted both sides a reprieve to prepare for the attack on the Pusan Perimeter. Lieutenant General Walton Walker and the Eighth Army began preparing a counteroffensive, the first conducted by the UN in the war, for August, it would kick off with an attack by the US reserve units in the Masan area to secure Chinju from the KPA 6th Division, followed by a larger general push to the Kum River in the middle of the month. One of his goals was to break up a suspected massing of North Korean troops near the Taegu area by forcing the diversion of some North Korean units southward. On August 6, the Eighth Army issued the operational directive for the attack by Task Force Kean, named for the US 25th Infantry Division commander, Major General William B. Kean.
Task Force Kean consisted of the 25th Division, less the 27th Infantry Regiment and a field artillery battalion, with the 5th Regimental Combat Team and the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade attached. Together this represented a force of about 20,000 men; the plan of a
Battle of P'ohang-dong
The Battle of P'ohang-dong was an engagement between the United Nations and North Korean forces early in the Korean War, with fighting continuing from 5–20 August 1950 around the town of P'ohang-dong, South Korea. It was a part of the Battle of Pusan Perimeter, was one of several large engagements fought simultaneously; the battle ended in a victory for the United Nations after their forces were able to drive off an attempted offensive by three North Korean divisions in the mountainous eastern coast of the country. Forces of the South Korean Republic of Korea Army, supported by the United States Navy and United States Air Force, defended the eastern coast of the country as a part of the Pusan Perimeter; when several divisions of the North Korean People's Army crossed through mountainous terrain to push the UN forces back, a complicated battle ensued in the rugged terrain around P'ohang-dong, which contained the vital supply line to the main UN force at Taegu. For two weeks North Korean and South Korean ground units fought in several bloody back-and-forth battles and retaking ground in which neither side was able to gain the upper hand.
Following the breakdown of the North Korean supply lines and amidst mounting casualties, the exhausted North Korean troops were forced to retreat. The battle was a turning point in the war for North Korean forces, which had seen previous victories owing to superior numbers and equipment, but the distances and demands exacted on them at P'ohang-dong rendered their supply lines untenable. Following the invasion of the Republic of Korea by its northern neighbor, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the subsequent outbreak of the Korean War on 25 June 1950, the United Nations decided to enter the conflict on behalf of South Korea; the United States—a member of the UN—subsequently committed ground forces to the Korean peninsula with the goal of fighting back the North Korean invasion and to prevent South Korea from collapsing. However, U. S. forces in the Far East had been decreasing since the end of World War II five years earlier, at the time the closest forces were the 24th Infantry Division, headquartered in Japan.
Advance elements of the 24th were badly defeated in the Battle of Osan on 5 July, the first encounter between American and North Korean forces. For the first month after the defeat of Task Force Smith, 24th Infantry was defeated and forced south by superior North Korean numbers and equipment; the regiments of the 24th Infantry were systematically pushed south in engagements around Chochiwon and Pyongtaek. The 24th made a final stand in the Battle of Taejon, where it was completely destroyed but delayed North Korean forces until July 20. By that time the 8th Army′s force of combat troops were equal to North Korean forces attacking the region, with new UN units arriving every day. While the 24th Infantry Division was fighting on the Korean western front, the 5th and 12th North Korean Infantry Divisions advanced on the eastern front; the North Korean army, 89,000 men strong, had advanced into South Korea in six columns, catching the Republic of Korea Army by surprise, resulting in a complete rout.
The smaller South Korean army suffered from widespread lack of organization and equipment, it was unprepared for war. Numerically superior, North Korean forces destroyed isolated resistance from the 38,000 South Korean soldiers on the front before it began moving south. With Taejon captured, North Korean forces began surrounding the Pusan Perimeter from all sides in an attempt to envelop it; the 4th and 6th North Korean Infantry Divisions advanced south in a wide flanking maneuver. The two divisions attempted to envelop the UN′s left flank, but became spread out in the process. At the same time the NK 5th and 12th Divisions pressured the South Koreans on the right flank, they advanced on UN positions with armor and superior numbers defeating U. S. and South Korean forces and forcing them further south. On 21 July the NK 12th Division was ordered by the II North Korean Corps to capture P'ohang-dong by 26 July. Though they were pushed back, South Korean forces on the right flank increased their resistance further south, hoping to delay North Korean units as much as possible.
North and South Korean units sparred for control of several cities, inflicting heavy casualties on one another. The Republic of Korea Army forces defended Yongdok fiercely before being pushed back, they performed well in the Battle of Andong, forcing the NK 12th Division to delay its attacks on P'ohang-dong until early August. The South Korean forces had undergone significant reorganization, after receiving a large number of recruits by 26 July, the South Korean Army had reached an effective strength of 85,871 men. Along the South Korean front of the perimeter, on the eastern corridor, the terrain made moving through the area difficult. A major road ran from Taegu 50 mi east to P'ohang-dong on Korea's east coast; the only major north-south road intersecting this line moves south from Andong through Yongch'on, midway between Taegu and P'ohang-dong. The only other natural entry through the line lies at the town of An'gang-ni, 12 mi west of P'ohang-dong, situated near a valley through the natural rugged terrain to the major rail hub of Kyongju, a staging area for moving supplies to Taegu.
Gen. Walton Walker—commanding the 8th Army—chose not to reinforce the area, as he felt the terrain made meaningful attack impossible, preferring to respond to attack with reinforcements from the transportation routes and air cover from Yonil Airfield, south of P'ohang-dong. With the exception of the valley between Taegu and P'ohong-dong, the terrain along the line was roug
Battle of the Bowling Alley
In the Battle of the Bowling Alley, United Nations forces defeated North Korean forces early in the Korean War near the city of Taegu, South Korea. The battle took place in a narrow valley, dubbed the "Bowling Alley", north of Taegu, it followed a week of fighting between the Korean People's Army 13th Division and the Republic of Korea Army's 1st Division along the latter's last defensible line in the hills north of the city. Reinforcements, including the US Army's 27th and 23rd Infantry Regiments were committed to bolster the South Koreans' defenses; this battle and several others were smaller engagements of the Battle of Pusan Perimeter. For another week, North Korean divisions launched all the troops they had in massed attacks against the ROK and US lines, their attacks, which occurred at night and were supported by armor and artillery, advanced with infantry and tanks in close support of one another. Each North Korean attack ran into well-established UN lines, where US tanks and entrenched infantry were positioned to counter them.
Strikes by US aircraft ravaged the attacking North Koreans. The fighting was fierce with many casualties on both sides where the North and South Koreans fought one another; the repeated attacks broke and pushed back the North Korean forces. They continued their push against the Pusan Perimeter until they were outflanked in the Battle of Inchon. Following the invasion of the South Korea by North Korea on June 25, 1950, the UN voted to use force to defend South Korea; the United States, a member of the UN committed ground forces to the Korean peninsula with the goal of pushing back the North Korean invasion and preventing South Korea from collapsing. But US forces in the Far East had been decreasing since the end of World War II, five years earlier, at the time the closest force was the 24th Infantry Division, headquartered in Japan; the division was understrength, most of its equipment was antiquated due to reductions in military spending. The 24th was ordered to South Korea; the 24th Infantry Division was the first US unit sent into Korea with the mission to take the initial "shock" of North Korean advances, delaying much larger North Korean units to buy time to allow reinforcements to arrive.
The division fought for several weeks while the 1st Cavalry, 7th Infantry and 25th Infantry Divisions and Eighth United States Army supporting units were arriving. Advance elements of the 24th were badly defeated in the Battle of Osan on July 5, the first encounter between American and North Korean forces. For the first month after the defeat at Osan, the 24th Infantry Division was defeated and forced south by superior North Korean numbers and equipment; the regiments of the division were systematically pushed south in engagements around Chochiwon and Pyongtaek. The 24th was annihilated in the Battle of Taejon, but was able to delay the North Korean forces until July 20. By that time, the Eighth Army's force of combat troops were equal to North Korean forces attacking the region, with new UN units arriving every day. After the fight at Taejon, UN forces were pushed back before halting the North Korean advance in a series of engagements in the southern section of the country. Forces of the 3rd Battalion, 29th Infantry, newly arrived in the country, were wiped out at Hadong in a coordinated ambush by North Korean forces on July 27, opening a pass to the Pusan area from the west.
Soon after, North Korean forces took Chinju, east of Hadong, pushing back the US 19th Infantry Regiment and leaving routes to Pusan open to direct North Korean attacks. The UN formations were subsequently able to defeat the North Koreans in the Battle of the Notch on August 2, halting their advance from the west. Suffering mounting losses, the KPA force withdrew for several days to re-equip and receive reinforcements; this granted both sides a reprieve to prepare for the attack on the Pusan Perimeter. Meanwhile, the Eighth Army commander Lieutenant General Walton Walker had established Taegu as his headquarters. At the center of the Pusan Perimeter line, Taegu stood at the entrance to the Naktong River valley, an area where North Korean forces could advance in large numbers in close support; the natural barriers provided by the Naktong River to the south and the mountainous terrain to the north converged around Taegu, a transportation hub and the last major South Korean city aside from Pusan itself to remain in UN hands.
From south to north, the city was defended by the US 1st Cavalry Division, the ROK 1st Division and the 6th Division, which were under the command of ROK II Corps. The 1st Cavalry Division was spread out along a long line on the Naktong River to the south, with its 5th Cavalry and 8th Cavalry regiments holding a 24,000-meter line along the river south of Waegwan, facing west; the 7th Cavalry held position to the east in reserve, along with artillery forces, ready to reinforce anywhere a North Korean crossing could be attempted. The ROK 1st Division held a northwest-facing line in the mountains north of the city while the ROK 6th Division held position to the east, guarding the narrow valley holding the Kunwi road into the Pusan Perimeter area. Five North Korean divisions amassed around Taegu to oppose the UN forces in the city. From south to north, the 10th, 3rd, 15th, 13th, 1st North Korean Divisions occupied a wide line encircling Taegu from Tuksong-dong and around Waegwan to Kunwi; the North Korean army planned to use the natural corridor of the Naktong River valley from Sangju to Taegu as its main axis of attack for the next push south, so the KPA divisions all moved through this valley, crossing the Naktong at different areas along the low ground.