Royal Australian Navy
The Royal Australian Navy is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. Following the Federation of Australia in 1901, the ships and resources of the separate colonial navies were integrated into a national force, called the Commonwealth Naval Forces. Intended for local defence, the navy was granted the title of'Royal Australian Navy' in 1911, became responsible for defence of the region. Britain's Royal Navy’s Australian Squadron was assigned to the Australia Station and provided support to the RAN; the Australian and New Zealand governments helped to fund the Australian Squadron until 1913, while the Admiralty committed itself to keeping the Squadron at a constant strength. The Australian Squadron ceased on 4 October 1913, when RAN ships entered Sydney Harbour for the first time; the Royal Navy continued to provide blue-water defence capability in the Pacific up to the early years of World War II. Rapid wartime expansion saw the acquisition of large surface vessels and the building of many smaller warships.
In the decade following the war, the RAN acquired a small number of aircraft carriers, the last of, decommissioned in 1982. Today, the RAN consists of 48 commissioned vessels, 3 non-commissioned vessels and over 16,000 personnel; the navy is one of the largest and most sophisticated naval forces in the South Pacific region, with a significant presence in the Indian Ocean and worldwide operations in support of military campaigns and peacekeeping missions. The current Chief of Navy is Vice Admiral Michael Noonan; the Commonwealth Naval Forces were established on 1 March 1901, two months after the federation of Australia, when the naval forces of the separate Australian colonies were amalgamated. A period of uncertainty followed as the policy makers sought to determine the newly established force's requirements and purpose, with the debate focusing upon whether Australia's naval force would be structured for local defence or whether it would be designed to serve as a fleet unit within a larger imperial force, controlled centrally by the British Admiralty.
In 1908–09, the decision was made to pursue a compromise solution, the Australian government agreed to establish a force that would be used for local defence but which would be capable of forming a fleet unit within the imperial naval strategy, albeit without central control. As a result, the navy's force structure was set at "one battlecruiser, three light cruisers, six destroyers and three submarines". On 10 July 1911, King George V granted the service the title of "Royal Australian Navy"; the first of the RAN's new vessels, the destroyer Yarra, was completed in September 1910 and by the outbreak of the First World War the majority of the RAN's planned new fleet had been realised. The Australian Squadron was placed under control of the British Admiralty, it was tasked with capturing many of Germany's South Pacific colonies and protecting Australian shipping from the German East Asia Squadron. In the war, most of the RAN's major ships operated as part of Royal Navy forces in the Mediterranean and North Seas, later in the Adriatic, the Black Sea following the surrender of the Ottoman Empire.
In 1919, the RAN received a force of six destroyers, three sloops and six submarines from the Royal Navy, but throughout the 1920s and early 1930s, the RAN was drastically reduced in size due to a variety of factors including political apathy and economic hardship as a result of the Great Depression. In this time the focus of Australia's naval policy shifted from defence against invasion to trade protection, several fleet units were sunk as targets or scrapped. By 1923, the size of the navy had fallen to eight vessels, by the end of the decade it had fallen further to five, with just 3,500 personnel. In the late 1930s, as international tensions increased, the RAN was modernised and expanded, with the service receiving primacy of funding over the Army and Air Force during this time as Australia began to prepare for war. Early in the Second World War, RAN ships again operated as part of Royal Navy formations, many serving with distinction in the Mediterranean, the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, the Indian Ocean, off the West African coast.
Following the outbreak of the Pacific War and the virtual destruction of British naval forces in south-east Asia, the RAN operated more independently, or as part of United States Navy formations. As the navy took on an greater role, it was expanded and at its height the RAN was the fourth-largest navy in the world, with 39,650 personnel operating 337 warships. A total of 34 vessels were lost during the war, including four destroyers. After the Second World War, the size of the RAN was again reduced, but it gained new capabilities with the acquisition of two aircraft carriers and Melbourne; the RAN saw action in many Cold War–era conflicts in the Asia-Pacific region and operated alongside the Royal Navy and United States Navy off Korea and Vietnam. Since the end of the Cold War, the RAN has been part of Coalition forces in the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean, operating in support of Operation Slipper and undertaking counter piracy operations, it was deployed in support of Australian peacekeeping operations in East Timor and the Solomon Islands.
The strategic command structure of the RAN was overhauled during the New Generation Navy changes. The RAN is commanded through Naval Headquarters in Canberra; the professional head is the Chief of Navy. NHQ is responsible for implementing policy decisions handed down from the Department of Defence and for overseeing tactical and operational issues that are the purview of the subordinate commands. Beneath NHQ are two subordinate commands: Fleet Command: fleet comma
Australian Defence Force
The Australian Defence Force is the military organisation responsible for the defence of Australia. It consists of the Royal Australian Navy, Australian Army, Royal Australian Air Force and a number of'tri-service' units; the ADF has a strength of just under 80,000 full-time personnel and active reservists, is supported by the Department of Defence and several other civilian agencies. During the first decades of the 20th century, the Australian Government established the armed services as separate organisations; each service had an independent chain of command. In 1976, the government made a strategic change and established the ADF to place the services under a single headquarters. Over time, the degree of integration has increased and tri-service headquarters and training institutions have supplanted many single-service establishments; the ADF is technologically sophisticated but small. Although the ADF's 58,206 full-time active-duty personnel and 21,694 active reservists make it the largest military in Oceania, it is smaller than most Asian military forces.
Nonetheless, the ADF is supported by a significant budget by worldwide standards and is able to deploy forces in multiple locations outside Australia. The ADF's legal standing draws on the executive government sections of the Australian Constitution. Section 51 gives the Commonwealth Government the power to make laws regarding Australia's defence and defence forces. Section 114 of the Constitution prevents the States from raising armed forces without the permission of the Commonwealth and Section 119 gives the Commonwealth responsibility for defending Australia from invasion and sets out the conditions under which the government can deploy the defence force domestically. Section 68 of the Constitution sets out the ADF's command arrangements; the Section states that "the command in chief of the naval and military forces of the Commonwealth is vested in the Governor-General as the Queen's representative". In practice, the Governor-General does not play an active part in the ADF's command structure, the elected government controls the ADF.
The Minister for Defence and several subordinate ministers exercise this control. The Minister acts on most matters alone, though the National Security Committee of Cabinet considers important matters; the Minister advises the Governor-General who acts as advised in the normal form of executive government. The Commonwealth Government has never been required by the Constitution or legislation to seek parliamentary approval for decisions to deploy military forces overseas or go to war; the ADF's current priorities are set out in the 2016 Defence White Paper, which identifies three main areas of focus. The first of these is to defend Australia from direct coercion; the second priority is to contribute to the security of the South Pacific. The third priority is to contribute to stability across the Indo-Pacific region and a "rules-based global order which supports our interests"; the white paper states that the government will place equal weight on the three priorities when developing the ADF's capabilities.
Australia has maintained military forces since federation as a nation in January 1901. Shortly after Federation, the Australian Government established the Australian Army and Commonwealth Naval Force by amalgamating the forces each of the states had maintained. In 1911, the Government established the Royal Australian Navy, which absorbed the Commonwealth Naval Force; the Army established the Australian Flying Corps in 1912, separated to form the Royal Australian Air Force in 1921. The services were not linked by a single chain of command, as they each reported to their own separate Minister and had separate administrative arrangements; the three services saw action around the world during World War I and World War II, took part in conflicts in Asia during the Cold War. The importance of'joint' warfare was made clear to the Australian military during World War II when Australian naval and air units served as part of single commands. Following the war, several senior officers lobbied for the appointment of a commander in chief of the three services.
The government rejected this proposal and the three services remained independent. The absence of a central authority resulted in poor co-ordination between the services, with each service organising and operating on the basis of a different military doctrine; the need for an integrated command structure received more emphasis as a result of the inefficient arrangements which at times hindered the military's efforts during the Vietnam War. In 1973, the Secretary of the Department of Defence, Arthur Tange, submitted a report to the Government that recommended the unification of the separate departments supporting each service into a single Department of Defence and the creation of the post of Chief of the Defence Force Staff; the government accepted these recommendations and the Australian Defence Force was established on 9 February 1976. Until the 1970s, Australia's military strategy centred on the concept of'forward defence', in which the role of the Australian military was to co-operate with allied forces to counter threats in Australia's region.
In 1969, when the United States began the Guam Doctrine and the British withdrew'east of Suez', Australia developed a defence policy which emphasised self-reliance and the defence of the Australian continent. This was known as the Defence of Australia Policy. Under this policy, the focus of Australian defence planning was to protect Australia's northern maritime approaches against enemy attack. In line with this goal, the ADF was restructured to increase its ability to strike at enemy forces from Australian bases and to counter raids on continental Australia; the ADF a
Australian Operational Service Medal
The Australian Operational Service Medal is a campaign medal established on 22 May 2012 to recognise service by Australian Defence Force personnel on designated hazardous operations. It may be awarded to civilians who serve alongside the ADF on designated operations under specific conditions, it replaces the Australian Active Service Medal and Australian Service Medal for future ADF operations. The medal is issued to military personnel with a different ribbon for each designated operation; when issued to civilians, a standard ribbon is issued with clasps issued for each designated operation. The Australian Operational Service Medal is a campaign medal established by Royal Letters Patent on 22 May 2012; the medal is intended to supersede future awards of the Australian Active Service Medal and Australian Service Medal for future Defence operations. It will be awarded in civilian variant; the ADF version of the medal will be a standard medal design. An accumulated service device will be awarded for subsequent qualifying service by ADF members where they undertake further service on an operation for which they have been awarded the Australian Operational Service Medal.
To date, two ribbons for ADF service have been announced: Civilians who serve alongside the ADF and are subject to the Defence Force Discipline Act 1982 may be awarded a civilian variant of the medal. The civilian version will use the same medal design as the ADF version, but will be awarded with a standard civilian ribbon and a clasp denoting the declared operation. Subsequent qualifying service for civilians will be denoted by clasps. Clasps announced to date are listed below; the variant for border protection operations was announced on 19 July 2012. This variant will be awarded to Australian Defence Force personnel who have served on border protection operations since 1997; the ribbon for the medal is 32 mm wide with a central stripe of ochre flanked by one blue stripe and one green stripe of equal width. The declared operations are: Personnel who served on naval vessels, maritime patrol aircraft or Regional Force Surveillance Unit patrols whilst assigned to any of these operations may be eligible.
Members of the Australian Defence Force must have served either an aggregate of 30 days either deployed or force assigned as a member of one of the declared operations, or were deployed or force assigned to a declared operation and completed 30 sorties from a unit assigned to the operation, so long as the sorties were conducted over a period of not less than 30 aggregate days with no more than one sortie counted per day. Members must have been: Deployed at sea directly supporting a declared operation Deployed on land or in the air, dedicated in support of a declared operation Deployed forward to support a declared operation. Members are not eligible for an award of the AOSM-BP where an entitlement exists to another Australian medal for the same deployment. Members are not eligible for an award of the AOSM-BP where the member was part of: Headquarters staff at Joint Operations Command; the declared operations are: On 12 December 2012, the Governor-General declared, for the purposes of the Australian Operational Service Medal Regulation 2012, a number of declared operations, determined the conditions for award of Clasps.
General conditions for all Clasps include awarded to a civilian, employed for duty on the declared operation for a period of not less than an aggregate of 30 days. Australian Operational Service Medal, www.defence.gov.au Australian Operational Service Medal – Border Protection, www.defence.gov.au Australian Operational Service Medal - Civilian, www.defence.gov.au
NATO intervention in Bosnia and Herzegovina
The NATO intervention in Bosnia and Herzegovina was a series of actions undertaken by NATO whose stated aim was to establish long-term peace during and after the Bosnian War. NATO's intervention began as political and symbolic, but expanded to include large-scale air operations and the deployment of 60,000 soldiers under Operation Joint Endeavor. NATO involvement in the Bosnian War and the Yugoslav Wars in general began in February 1992, when the alliance issued a statement urging all the belligerents in the conflict to allow the deployment of United Nations peacekeepers. While symbolic, this statement paved the way for NATO actions. On July 10, 1992, at a meeting in Helsinki, NATO foreign ministers agreed to assist the United Nations in monitoring compliance with sanctions established under United Nations Security Council resolutions 713 and 757; this led to the commencement of Operation Maritime Monitor off the coast of Montenegro, coordinated with the Western European Union Operation Sharp Guard in the Strait of Otranto on July 16.
On October 9, 1992, the Security Council passed Resolution 781, establishing a no-fly zone over Bosnia-Herzegovina. In response, on October 16, NATO expanded its mission in the area to include Operation Sky Monitor, which monitored Bosnian airspace for flights from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On November 16, 1992, the Security Council issued Resolution 787, which called upon member states to "halt all inward and outbound maritime shipping in order to inspect and verify their cargos" to ensure compliance with sanctions. In response to this resolution, NATO deactivated Maritime Monitor on November 22, replaced it with Operation Maritime Guard, under which NATO forces were authorized to stop ships and inspect their cargos. Unlike Sky Monitor and Maritime Monitor, this was a true enforcement mission, not just a monitoring one. NATO's air mission switched from monitoring to enforcement; the Security Council issued Resolution 816, which authorized states to use measures "to ensure compliance" with the no-fly zone over Bosnia.
In response, on April 12, 1993, NATO initiated Operation Deny Flight, tasked with enforcing the no-fly zone, using fighter aircraft based in the region. Throughout 1993, the role of NATO forces in Bosnia grew. On June 10, 1993, NATO and the UN agreed that aircraft acting under Deny Flight would provide close air support to UNPROFOR at the request of the UN. On June 15, NATO integrated Operation Maritime Guard and Western European Union naval activities in the region into Operation Sharp Guard, expanded its role to include greater enforcement powers. On February 28, 1994, the scope of NATO involvement in Bosnia increased dramatically. In an incident near Banja Luka, NATO fighters operating under Deny Flight shot down four Serb jets; this was the first combat operation in the history of NATO and opened the door for a growing NATO presence in Bosnia. In April, the presence of NATO airpower continued to grow during a Serb attack on Goražde. In response, NATO launched its first close air support mission on April 10, 1994, bombing several Serb targets at the request of UN commanders.
NATO launched several other limited air strikes throughout the year, acting in coordination with the United Nations. NATO continued its air operations over Bosnia in the first half of 1995. During this period, American pilot Scott O'Grady was shot down over Bosnia by a surface-to-air missile fired by Bosnian Serb soldiers, he was rescued safely, but his downing caused concern in the United States and other NATO countries about NATO air superiority in Bosnia and prompted some calls for more aggressive NATO action to eliminate Serb anti-air capabilities. In July 1995, the Bosnian Serbs launched an attack on the Bosnian town of Srebrenica, ending with the deaths of 8,000 civilians in the Srebrenica massacre. After the horrifying events at Srebrenica, 16 nations met at the London Conference, beginning on July 21, 1995, to consider new options for Bosnia; as a result of the conference, UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali gave General Bernard Janvier, the UN military commander, the authority to request NATO airstrikes without consulting civilian UN officials, as a way to streamline the process.
As a result of the conference, the North Atlantic Council and the UN agreed to use NATO air strikes in response to attacks on any of the other safe areas in Bosnia. The participants at the conference agreed in principle to the use of large-scale NATO air strikes in response to future acts of aggression by Serbs. After the London Conference, NATO planned an aggressive new air campaign against the Bosnian Serbs. On August 28, 1995, Serb forces launched a mortar shell at the Sarajevo marketplace killing 37 people. Admiral Leighton Smith, the NATO commander recommended that NATO launch retaliatory air strikes under Operation Deliberate Force. On August 30, 1995, NATO launched Operation Deliberate Force with large-scale bombing of Serb targets; the bombing involved attacks on 338 individual targets. As a result of the bombing under Operation Deliberate Force and changes in the battlefield situation, the belligerents in the Bosnian War met in Dayton, Ohio in November 1995, signed the Dayton Accords, a peace treaty.
As part of the accords, NATO agreed to provide 60,000 peacekeepers for the region, as part of the Implementation Force. In December 1995, under Operation Joint Endeavor, NATO deployed these forces; these forces remained deployed until December 1996, when those remaining in the region were transferred to the Stabilization Force. SFOR peacekeepers remained in Bosnia until 2004. Phillips, R. Cody. Bosnia-Herzegovina: The U. S. Army's Role in Peace Enforc
The Implementation Force was a NATO-led multinational peace enforcement force in Bosnia and Herzegovina under a one-year mandate from 20 December 1995 to 20 December 1996 under the codename Operation Joint Endeavour. NATO was responsible to the United Nations for carrying out the Dayton Peace Accords; the Dayton Peace Accords were started on 22 November 1995 by the presidents of Bosnia and Serbia, on behalf of Serbia and the Bosnian Serb Republic. The actual signing happened in Paris on 14 December 1995; the peace accords contained eleven supporting annexes with maps. The accords had three major goals: ending of hostilities, authorization of military and civilian program going into effect, the establishment of a central Bosnian government while excluding individuals that serve sentences or under indictment by the International War Crimes Tribunals from taking part in the running of the government. IFOR's specific role was to implement the military Annexes of The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
IFOR relieved the UN peacekeeping force UNPROFOR, which had arrived in 1992, the transfer of authority was discussed in Security Council Resolution 1031. 60,000 NATO soldiers in addition to forces from non-NATO nations were deployed to Bosnia. Operation Decisive Endeavor, beginning 6 December 1995, was a subcomponent of Joint Endeavor; the Dayton Agreement resulted from a long series of events. Notably, the failures of EU-led peace plans, the August 1995 Croat Operation Storm and expelling 200.000 Serb civilians, the Bosnian Serb war crimes, in particular the Srebrenica massacre, the seizure of UNPROFOR peace-keepers as human shields against NATO's Operation Deliberate Force. Admiral Leighton W. Smith, Jr. acted as the Joint Force Commander for the operation. He commanded the operation from HQs in Zagreb and from March 1996 from the Residency in Sarajevo. Lt Gen Michael Walker, Commander Allied Rapid Reaction Corps acted as the Land Component Commander for the Operation, commanding from HQ ARRC based in Kiseljak and from late January 1996 from HQ ARRC Ilidža.
This was NATO's first out-of-area land deployment. The Land Component's part of the operation was known as Operation Firm Endeavour. At its height, IFOR involved troops from 32 countries and numbered some 54,000 soldiers in-country and around 80,000 involved soldiers in total. In the initial phases of the operation, much of the initial composition of IFOR consisted of units, part of UNPROFOR but remained in place and replaced their United Nations insignia with IFOR insignia. NATO nations that contributed forces included Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Turkey, the United States, the United Kingdom. Non-NATO nations that contributed forces included; the tasks of the Land Component were carried out by three Multi National Divisions: Multi-National Division, Mostar - French led. Known as the'Division salamandre.' MND-SE included two French brigades, one Spanish brigade, one Italian brigade, a Portuguese Parachute Battalion of 700 plus a services and support detachement of 200, Egyptian and Ukrainian units, as well as a Moroccan task force.
The divisional headquarters was provided in rotation by divisions including the 7th Armoured Division and the 6th Light Armored Division. Multi-National Division, Banja Luka – British led; the British codename for their armed forces' involvement in IFOR was Operation Resolute. MND-SW included a Canadian Brigade and Dutch units. Division headquarters was provided by 3 Division 1st Armoured Division. Multi-National Division, Tuzla – American led. Task Force Eagle; the US Army 1st Armored Division under the command of Major General William L. Nash, constituted the bulk of the ground forces for Task Force Eagle, they began to deploy on 18 December 1995. MND-N was composed of two U. S. Brigades, a Russian brigade, a Turkish brigade, the Nordic-Polish Brigade. A Russian brigade under the command of Colonel Aleksandr Ivanovich Lentsov, was part of the Task Force Eagle effort; the 1st Brigade of 1st Armored Division was commanded by Colonel Gregory Fontenot and covered the northwest. The 2nd Brigade of 1st Armored Division, led by Col John Batiste, constituted the southern flank of the US sector, based in Camp Lisa, about 20 km east of Kladanj.
Task Force 2–68 Armor, based in Baumholder, was based in Camp Linda, outside of Olovo. This was the Southern boundary of the US Sector; the 1AD returned in late 1996 to Germany. One of MND-N's components was the Nordic-Polish Brigade, a multinational brigade of Denmark, Finland, Lithuania, Poland, Sweden and USA, it was formed in 1996, till its disestablishment in 2000 it was stationed in Bosnia and Herzegovina as part of both IFOR and SFOR. The Nordic Support Group at Pécs in Hungary handled the relay of supply and other logistical tasks between the NORDPOL participating countries and their deployed forces in Bosnia-Herzegovina, it comprised several National Support Eleme
The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995. Following a number of violent incidents in early 1992, the war is viewed as having started on 6 April 1992; the war ended on 14 December 1995. The main belligerents were the forces of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and those of the self-proclaimed Bosnian Serb and Bosnian Croat entities within Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republika Srpska and Herzeg-Bosnia, which were led and supplied by Serbia and Croatia, respectively; the war was part of the breakup of Yugoslavia. Following the Slovenian and Croatian secessions from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1991, the multi-ethnic Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina –, inhabited by Muslim Bosniaks, as well as Orthodox Serbs and Catholic Croats – passed a referendum for independence on 29 February 1992; this was rejected by the political representatives of the Bosnian Serbs, who had boycotted the referendum.
Following Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of independence, the Bosnian Serbs, led by Radovan Karadžić and supported by the Serbian government of Slobodan Milošević and the Yugoslav People's Army, mobilised their forces inside Bosnia and Herzegovina in order to secure ethnic Serb territory war soon spread across the country, accompanied by ethnic cleansing. The conflict was between the Yugoslav Army units in Bosnia which transformed into the Army of Republika Srpska on the one side, the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, composed of Bosniaks, the Croat forces in the Croatian Defence Council on the other side. Tensions between Croats and Bosniaks increased throughout late 1992, resulting in the Croat–Bosniak War that escalated in early 1993; the Bosnian War was characterised by bitter fighting, indiscriminate shelling of cities and towns, ethnic cleansing and systematic mass rape perpetrated by Serb, to a lesser extent and Bosniak forces. Events such as the Siege of Sarajevo and the Srebrenica massacre became iconic of the conflict.
The Serbs, although militarily superior due to the weapons and resources provided by the JNA lost momentum as the Bosniaks and Croats allied themselves against the Republika Srpska in 1994 with the creation of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina following the Washington agreement. Pakistan defied the UN's ban on supply of arms and airlifted missiles to the Bosnian Muslims, while after the Srebrenica and Markale massacres, NATO intervened in 1995 with Operation Deliberate Force targeting the positions of the Army of the Republika Srpska, which proved key in ending the war; the war was brought to an end after the signing of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina in Paris on 14 December 1995. Peace negotiations were held in Dayton and were finalised on 21 November 1995. By early 2008, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia had convicted 45 Serbs, 12 Croats and 4 Bosniaks of war crimes in connection with the war in Bosnia; the most recent estimates suggest.
Over 2.2 million people were displaced, making it the most devastating conflict in Europe since the end of World War II. In addition, an estimated 12,000–20,000 women were raped, most of them Bosniak. There is debate over the start date of the Bosnian War. Clashes between Bosnian Muslims and Croats started in late February 1992, "full-scale hostilities had broken out by 6 April", the same day that the United States and European Economic Community recognised Bosnia and Herzegovina. Misha Glenny gives a date of 22 March, Tom Gallagher gives 2 April, while Mary Kaldor and Laura Silber and Allan Little give 6 April. Philip Hammond the British Chancellor of the Exchequer, claimed that the most common view is that the war started on 6 April 1992. Serbs consider the Sarajevo wedding shooting, when a groom's father was killed on the second day of the Bosnian independence referendum, 1 March 1992, to have been the first victim of the war; the Sijekovac killings of Serbs took place on the Bijeljina massacre on 1 -- 2 April.
On April 5, when a huge crowd approached a barricade, a demonstrator was killed by Serb forces. The war was brought to an end by the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, negotiated at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio between 1 and 21 November 1995 and signed in Paris on 14 December 1995; the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina came about as a result of the breakup of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. A crisis emerged in Yugoslavia as a result of the weakening of the confederational system at the end of the Cold War. In Yugoslavia, the national communist party, the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, was losing its ideological potency. Meanwhile, ethnic nationalism experienced a renaissance in the 1980s, after violence broke out in Kosovo. While the goal of Serbian nationalists was the centralisation of Yugoslavia, other nationalities in Yugoslavia aspired to the federalisation and the decentralisation of the state. Bosnia and Herzegovina, a former Ottoman province, has been a multi-ethnic state.
According to the 1991 census, 44% of the population considered themselves Muslim, 32.5% Serb and 17% Croat, with 6% describing themselves as Yugoslav. In March 1989, the crisis in Yugoslavia deepened after the adoption of amendments to the Serbian Constitution which allowed the government of Serbia to dominate the provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina; until Kosovo and Vojvodina's decision-making had been independent and both autonomous provinc
The Australian Army is Australia's military land force. It is part of the Australian Defence Force along with the Royal Australian Navy and the Royal Australian Air Force. While the Chief of the Defence Force commands the ADF, the Army is commanded by the Chief of Army; the CA is therefore subordinate to the CDF, but is directly responsible to the Minister for Defence. Although Australian soldiers have been involved in a number of minor and major conflicts throughout its history, only in World War II has Australian territory come under direct attack. Formed in March 1901, with the amalgamation of the six separate colonial military forces, the history of the Australian Army can be divided into two periods: 1901–47, when limits were set on the size of the regular Army, the vast majority of peacetime soldiers were in reserve units of the Citizens Military Force, expeditionary forces were formed to serve overseas, Post-1947, when a standing peacetime regular infantry force was formed and the CMF began to decline in importance.
During its history the Australian Army has fought in a number of major wars, including: Second Boer War, First World War, the Second World War, Korean War, Malayan Emergency, Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation, Vietnam War, more in Afghanistan and Iraq. Since 1947 the Australian Army has been involved in many peacekeeping operations under the auspices of the United Nations, however the non-United Nations sponsored Multinational Force and Observers in the Sinai is a notable exception. Australia's largest peacekeeping deployment began in 1999 in East Timor, while other ongoing operations include peacekeeping on Bougainville, in the Sinai, in the Solomon Islands. Humanitarian relief after 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake in Aceh Province, Operation Sumatra Assist, ended on 24 March 2005; the 1st Division comprises a deployable headquarters, while 2nd Division under the command of Forces Command is the main home-defence formation, containing Army Reserve units. 2nd Division's headquarters only performs administrative functions.
The Australian Army has not deployed a divisional-sized formation since 1945 and does not expect to do so in the future. 1st Division carries out high-level training activities and deploys to command large-scale ground operations. It has few combat units permanently assigned to it, although it does command the 2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment as part of Australia's amphibious task group. Forces Command controls for administrative purposes all non-special-forces assets of the Australian Army, it is neither an a deployable command. 1 Brigade – Multi-role Combat Brigade based in Darwin and Adelaide. 3 Brigade – Multi-role Combat Brigade based in Townsville. 6 Brigade – Mixed brigade based in Sydney. 7 Brigade – Multi-role Combat Brigade based in Brisbane. 16 Aviation Brigade – Army Aviation brigade based in Enoggera, Brisbane. 17 Combat Service Support Brigade – Logistic brigade based in Sydney. 2nd Division administers the reserve forces from its headquarters located in Sydney. 4 Brigade – based in Victoria.
5 Brigade – based in New South Wales. 8 Brigade – training brigade with units around Australia 9 Brigade – based in South Australia and Tasmania. 11 Brigade – based in Queensland. 13 Brigade – based in Western Australia. Additionally, Forces Command includes the following training establishments: Army Recruit Training Centre at Kapooka, NSW. Special Operations Command comprises a command formation of equal status to the other commands in the ADF, it includes all of Army's special forces assets. Under a restructuring program known as Plan Beersheba announced in late 2011, the 1st, 3rd and 7th Brigades will be re-formed as combined-arms multi-role manoeuvre brigades with the 2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment forming the core of a future amphibious force; the force will be known as the Amphibious Ready Element and will be embarked on the Navy's new Canberra-class amphibious assault ships. Infantry, some other combat units of the Australian Army carry flags called the Queen's Colour and the Regimental Colour, known as "the Colours".
Armoured units carry Standards and Guidons – flags smaller than Colours and traditionally carried by Cavalry, Light Horse and Mounted Infantry units. The 1st Armoured Regiment is the only unit in the Australian Army to carry a Standard, in the tradition of heavy armoured units. Artillery units' guns are considered to be their Colours, on parade are provided with the same respect. Non-combat units do not have Colours, as Colours are battle flags and so are only available to combat units; as a substitute, many have Banners. Units awarded battle honours have them emblazoned on their Colours and Guidons, they are a memorial to the fallen. Artillery do not have Battle Honours – their single Honour is "Ubique" which means "Everywhere" – although they can receive Honour Titles; the Army is the guardian of the National Flag and as such, unlike the Royal Australian Air Force, does not have a flag or Colours. The Army, has a banner, known as the Army Banner. To commemorate the centenary of the Army, the Governor General Sir William Deane, presented the Army with a new Banner at a parade in front of the Australian War Memorial on 10 March 2001.
The Banner was