Operation Mouette was an operation in 1953 by the French Army in Northern Vietnam during the First Indochina War. It was launched on October 15 in an attempt to locate and destroy Viet-Minh Chu Luc troops operating under the command of Võ Nguyên Giáp around the area of Phu Nho Quan, south of the Red River Delta. Following the establishment of a French camp in the area, various troops were dispatched to engage the Viet-Minh forces; the operation was ended and the French withdrew by November 7, claiming 1,000 enemy combatants killed, twice as many wounded, 181 captured as well as a substantial quantity of weapons and ammunition. The First Indochina War had raged, as guerrilla warfare, since 19 December 1946. From 1949, it evolved into conventional warfare, due to aid from the People's Republic of China to the north. Subsequently, the French strategy of occupying small, poorly defended outposts throughout Indochina along the Vietnamese-Chinese border, was failing. Thanks to the terrain and the close border with China, the Viet Minh had succeeded in turning a "clandestine guerrilla movement into a powerful conventional army", something which had never been encountered by the western world.
In October 1952, fighting around the Red River Delta spread into the Thai Highlands, resulting in the battle of Nà Sản, at which the Viet-Minh were defeated. The French used the lessons learned at Nà Sản – strong ground bases, versatile air support, a model based on the British Burma campaign – as the basis for their new strategy; the Viet-Minh, remained unbeatable in the highland regions of Vietnam, the French "could not offset the fundamental disadvantages of a road bound army facing a hill and forest army in a country which had few roads but a great many hills and forests". In May 1953, General Henri Navarre arrived to take command of the French forces in May 1953, replacing General Raoul Salan. Navarre spoke of a new offensive spirit in Indochina -- based on fast-moving forces. During August 1953, Navarre was aware of four divisions of the People's Army operating in the Red River Delta; this was during a time where Navarre was organising the disposition of forces for the occupation of Dien Bien Phu, thus his opponents' operations in the Delta persuaded him into committing forces there.
Navarre committed his thoughts to paper on September 19 in a general instruction relegating the threat to Laos as "provisionally reduced" relative to the Delta, thus chose to commit forces to that end over Dien Bien Phu. Division 320 of the People's Army, operating in the Phu Nho Quam forests, 12 miles from the De Lattre Line, was targeted by Operation Mouette. Mouette is the French term for seagull, deriving from the Norse Old English Maew; the operation, launched on October 15, was described by Martin Windrow as "not a raid, but an attempt to fix and destroy a major element of the Chu Luc before Giap could deploy it." The route for the Viet-Minh between Thanh Hóa and the Delta contained a crossroads at Lai Cac, targeted by the operation. Seven Mobile Groups were deployed with amphibious units. GM 2 and GM 3 took Lai Cac and established a camp under Colonel Christian de Castries, who would go on to command at Dien Bien Phu, General Jean Gilles who would command Dien Bien Phu's initial paratrooper occupation.
After occupation, the night of October 18 saw heavy counterattacks. A battalion of the 13th Foreign Legion Demi-Brigade under Major Paul Pégot held out all night against one enemy battalion, was "regarded as a solid unit." Followed by two weeks of probing by GM 4 and paratrooper units. These columns fought major engagements in the surrounded countryside against Division 320 on November 2, which continued until French withdrawal overnight on November 6; the French claimed over 1,000 enemy killed and 2,500 wounded, while 182 were captured, along with "500 infantry weapons, plus 100 bazookas and recoilless guns and 3,000 mines." Windrow notes that this would amount to one third of Division 320, Wiest writes that the operation "weakened the VM 320th Division." French casualties amounted to 113 dead, including seven officers, 505 wounded men, including 22 officers. 151 were recorded as missing. Navarre, despite the success of the operation, noted – according to Windrow – the "inefficiency of the bulk of the Expeditionary Corps' infantry by late 1953" and would state in front of the Dien Bien Phu committee of inquiry that "Mouette demonstrated – in the opinion of Generals Cogny and myself – that if we sent out infantry, given its present quality, outside the radius within which it enjoyed artillery support if it encountered Viet-Minh infantry, it would be beaten."
Jane Errington and B. McKercher, in their The Vietnam War as History, noted Mouette to be a "modest operation". A number of the French units involved in Mouette would go on to serve at Dien Bien Phu the 1st Parachute Chasseur Regiment and the 13th Foreign Legion Demi-Brigade. Both de Castries and Gilles would serve there, the former commanding the troops on the ground following the initial occupation by paratroopers under the latter. Viet-Minh Division 320 did not serve at Dien Bien Phu, instead continued to operate in the Delta, occupying the attention of General Cogny – who command the French troops there – and continually tying down French forces there which could otherwise have served at Dien Bien Phu. Printed sources: Errington, Elizabeth. McKercher; the Vietnam War as History. Greenwood Publishing Group
John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles was an American diplomat. A Republican, he served as United States Secretary of State under President Dwight D. Eisenhower from 1953 to 1959, he was a significant figure in the early Cold War era, advocating an aggressive stance against communism throughout the world. Born in Washington, D. C. Dulles joined the New York City law firm of Sullivan & Cromwell after graduating from George Washington University Law School, his grandfather, John W. Foster, his uncle, Robert Lansing, both served as United States Secretary of State, while his brother, Allen Dulles, served as the Director of Central Intelligence from 1953 to 1961. John Foster Dulles served on the War Industries Board during World War I and he was a U. S. legal counsel at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. He became a member of the League of Free Nations Association, which supported American membership in the League of Nations. Dulles helped design the Dawes Plan, which sought to stabilize Europe by reducing German war reparations.
Dulles served as the chief foreign policy adviser to Thomas E. Dewey, the Republican presidential nominee in 1944 and 1948, he helped draft the preamble to the United Nations Charter and served as a delegate to the United Nations General Assembly. In 1949, Dewey appointed Dulles to fill the Senate vacancy caused by the resignation of Sen. Robert F. Wagner, he served for four months but left office after being defeated in a special election by Herbert H. Lehman. After Eisenhower won the 1952 presidential election, he chose Dulles as Secretary of State; as Secretary of State, Dulles concentrated on building and strengthening Cold War alliances, most prominently the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. He was the architect of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, an anti-Communist defensive alliance between the United States and several nations in and near Southeast Asia, he helped instigate the 1953 Iranian coup d'état and the 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état. He favored a strategy of massive retaliation in response to Soviet aggression.
He advocated support of the French in their war against the Viet Minh in Indochina but rejected the Geneva Accords that France and the communists agreed to, instead supported South Vietnam after the Geneva Conference in 1954. Suffering from colon cancer, Dulles resigned from office in 1959 and died that year. Born in Washington, D. C. he was one of five children and the eldest son born to Presbyterian minister Allen Macy Dulles and his wife, Edith. His paternal grandfather, John Welsh Dulles, had been a Presbyterian missionary in India, his maternal grandfather, John W. Foster, doted on Dulles and his brother Allen, who would become the director of the Central Intelligence Agency; the brothers attended public schools in New York. Dulles attended Princeton University and graduated as a member of Phi Beta Kappa in 1908. At Princeton, Dulles competed on the American Whig-Cliosophic Society debate team, he attended the George Washington University Law School in Washington, D. C. Both his grandfather and his uncle, Robert Lansing, the husband of Eleanor Foster, had held the position of Secretary of State.
His younger brother, Allen Welsh Dulles, served as Director of Central Intelligence under Dwight D. Eisenhower, his younger sister Eleanor Lansing Dulles was noted for her work in the successful reconstruction of the economy of post-war Europe during her twenty years with the State Department. On June 26, 1912, Dulles married a first cousin of David Rockefeller, they had a daughter. Their older son John W. F. Dulles was a professor of history and specialist in Brazil at the University of Texas at Austin, their daughter Lillias. Their son Avery Dulles converted to Roman Catholicism, entered the Jesuit order, became the first American theologian to be appointed a Cardinal. Upon graduating from law school and passing the bar examination, Dulles joined the New York City law firm of Sullivan & Cromwell, where he specialized in international law. After the start of World War I, Dulles tried to join the United States Army, but was rejected because of poor eyesight. Instead, Dulles received an Army commission as Major on the War Industries Board.
Dulles returned to Sullivan & Cromwell and became a partner with an international practice. In 1915, Dulles's uncle, Robert Lansing, the then-Secretary of State, recruited him to travel to Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama, ostensibly on Sullivan & Cromwell company business, but in reality to sound out Latin American heads of state on aiding the US war effort against Germany. Dulles advised Washington to support Costa Rica's dictator, Federico Tinoco, on the grounds that he was anti-German, encouraged Nicaragua's dictator, Emianiano Camorro, to issue a proclamation suspending diplomatic relations with Germany. In Panama, Dulles offered waiver of the tax imposed by the United States on the annual Canal fee, in exchange for a Panamanian declaration of war on Germany. In 1918, President Woodrow Wilson appointed Dulles as legal counsel to the United States delegation to the Versailles Peace Conference where he served under his uncle, Secretary of State Robert Lansing. Dulles made an early impression as a junior diplomat.
While some recollections indicate he and forcefully argued against imposing crushing reparations on Germany, other recollections indicate he ensured Germany's reparation payments would extend for decades as perceived leverage militating against future German borne hostilities. Afterwards, he served as a member of the War Reparations Committee at Wilson's request, he was an early member, along with future First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, of the League of
Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcar
The Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcar is an American military transport aircraft developed from the World War II-era Fairchild C-82 Packet, designed to carry cargo, litter patients, mechanized equipment, to drop cargo and troops by parachute. The first C-119 made its initial flight in November 1947, by the time production ceased in 1955, more than 1,100 C-119s had been built, its cargo-hauling ability and unusual twin-boom design earned it the nickname "Flying Boxcar". The Air Force C-119 and Navy R4Q was a redesign of the earlier C-82 Packet, built between 1945 and 1948; the Packet provided service to the Air Force's Tactical Air Command and Military Air Transport Service for nearly nine years during which time its design was found to have several serious problems. All of these were addressed in the C-119. In contrast to the C-82, the cockpit was moved forward to fit flush with the nose rather than its previous location over the cargo compartment; this resulted in larger loads than the C-82 could accommodate.
The C-119 featured more powerful engines, a wider and stronger airframe. The first C-119 prototype first flew in November 1947, with deliveries of C-119Bs from Fairchild's Hagerstown, Maryland factory beginning in December 1949. In 1951, Henry J. Kaiser was awarded a contract to assemble additional C-119s at the Kaiser-Frazer automotive factory located in the former B-24 plant at Willow Run Airport in Belleville, Michigan; the Kaiser-built C-119F differed from the Fairchild aircraft by the use of Wright R-3350-85 Duplex Cyclone engines in place of Fairchild's use of the Pratt & Whitney R-4360 Wasp Major radial engine. Kaiser built 71 C-119s at Willow Run in 1952 and 1953 before converting the factory for a planned production of the Chase C-123 that never eventuated; the Kaiser sub-contract was frowned upon by Fairchild, efforts were made through political channels to stop Kaiser's production, which may have proven successful. Following Kaiser's termination of C-119 production the contract for the C-123 was instead awarded to Fairchild.
Most Kaiser-built aircraft were issued to the U. S. Marine Corps as R4Qs, with several turned over to the South Vietnamese air force in the 1970s; the AC-119G "Shadow" gunship variant was fitted with four six-barrel 7.62×51mm NATO miniguns, armor plating, flare launchers, night-capable infrared equipment. Like the AC-130 that succeeded it, the AC-119 proved to be a potent weapon; the AC-119 was made more deadly by the introduction of the AC-119K "Stinger" version, which featured the addition of two General Electric M61 Vulcan 20 mm cannon, improved avionics, two underwing-mounted General Electric J85-GE-17 turbojet engines, adding nearly 6,000 lbf of thrust. Other major variants included the EC-119J, used for satellite tracking, the YC-119H Skyvan prototype, with larger wings and tail. In civilian use, many C-119s feature the "Jet-Pack" modification, which incorporates a 3,400 lbf Westinghouse J34 turbojet engine in a nacelle above the fuselage. Number built: 1,183 consisting of: 1,112 built by Fairchild 71 built by Kaiser-Frazer CorpTwo additional airframes were built by Fairchild for static tests The aircraft saw extensive action during the Korean War as a troop and equipment transport.
In July 1950, four C-119s were sent to FEAF for service tests. Two months the C-119 deployed with the 314th Troop Carrier Group and served in Korea throughout the war. In December 1950, after Chinese PLA troops blew up a bridge at a narrow point on the evacuation route between Koto-ri and Hungnam, blocking the withdrawal of U. N. forces, eight U. S. Air Force C-119 Flying Boxcars flown by the 314th Troop Carrier Group. Were used to drop portable bridge sections by parachute; the bridge, consisting of eight separate sixteen-foot long, 2,900-pound sections, was dropped one section at a time, using two parachutes on each section. Four of these sections, together with additional wooden extensions were reassembled into a replacement bridge by Marine Corps combat engineers and the US Army 58th Engineer Treadway Bridge Company, enabling U. N. forces to reach Hungnam. From 1951 to 1962, C-119C, F and G models served with U. S. Air Forces in Europe and Far East Air Forces as the first-line Combat Cargo units, did yeoman work as freight haulers with the 60th Troop Carrier Wing, the 317th Troop Carrier Wing and the 465th Troop Carrier Wing in Europe, based first in Germany and in France with 150 aircraft operating anywhere from Greenland to India.
A similar number of aircraft served in the Far East. In 1958, the 317th absorbed the 465th, transitioned to the C-130s, but the units of the former 60th Troop Carrier Wing, the 10th, 11th and 12th Troop Carrier Squadrons, continued to fly C-119s until 1962, the last non-Air Force Reserve and non-Air National Guard operational units to fly the "Boxcars." The USAF Strategic Air Command had C-119 Flying Boxcars in service from 1955 to 1973. The most remarkable use of the C-119 was the aerial recovery of balloons, UAVs, satellites; the first use of this technique was in 1955, when C-119s were used to recover Ryan AQM-34 Firebee unmanned targets. The 456th Troop Carrier Wing, attached to the Strategic Air Command from 25 April 1955 – 26 May 1956, used C-119s to retrieve instrument packages from high-altitude reconnaissance balloons. C-119s from the 6593rd Test Squadron based at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii performed several aerial recoveries of film-return capsules during the early years of the Corona spy satellite program.
On 19 August 1960, the recovery by a C-119 of film from the Corona mission code-named Discoverer 14 was the fi
Civil Air Transport
Civil Air Transport was a Nationalist Chinese airline owned by the US Central Intelligence Agency, that supported United States covert operations throughout East and Southeast Asia. During the Cold War, missions consisted in assistance to "Free World" allies according to the Mutual Defense Assistance Act of 1949. CAT was created by Claire Chennault and Whiting Willauer in 1946 as Chinese National Relief and Rehabilitation Administration Air Transport. Using surplus World War II aircraft such as the C-47 Dakota and the C-46 Commando, CAT airlifted supplies and food into war-ravaged China, it was soon pressed into service to support Chiang Kai-shek and his Kuomintang forces in the civil war between them and the communists under Mao Zedong. Many of its first pilots were veterans of Chennault's World War II combat groups, popularly known as Flying Tigers. By 1950, following the defeat of Chiang's forces and their retreat to Taiwan, the airline faced financial difficulties; the CIA formed a private Delaware corporation called Airdale Corporation, which formed a subsidiary called CAT, Inc.
The subsidiary corporation purchased nominal shares of Civil Air Transport. CAT maintained a civilian appearance by flying scheduled passenger flights while using other aircraft in its fleet to fly covert missions. With the spread of communism throughout Southeast Asia, CAT's mission changed. During the Chinese Civil War, under contract with the Chinese Nationalist government and the CIA, CAT flew supplies and ammunition into China to assist Kuomintang forces on the Chinese mainland using C-47 and C-46 aircraft. With the defeat of the Kuomintang in 1949, CAT helped to evacuate thousands of Chinese to Taiwan. During the Korean War, CAT airlifted thousands of tons of war materials to supply United States military operations, including support of Kuomintang holdouts based in Burma. On 29 November 1952, a CAT C-47 left Seoul on a mission to collect an anti-Communist Chinese agent in the foothills of northeastern China, using a "pole and line" technique; the mission was compromised and Chinese forces were waiting for them.
Approaching low over the ground, it was attacked by small-arms fire, crash-landed near the town of Antu in China's Jilin province. The pilots, Robert Snoddy and Norman Schwartz were killed during the crash and subsequent fire, were buried nearby; the two CIA officers, John T. Downey and Richard G. Fecteau survived and were taken prisoner by Chinese forces, who were waiting for the flight. Downey and Fecteau were held by China and interrogated for nearly twenty years. Fecteau was released unexpectedly following Nixon's visit to China in 1972, but Downey was released only after Washington publicly acknowledged their spy mission in 1973. At the time the families of the pilots were told, in order to keep the CIA's covert actions in China secret, that they had crashed into the Sea of Japan on a routine flight to Tokyo. In 2001, China allowed the US Defense Department's Prisoner of War and Missing in Action office to conduct a recovery effort for the bodies of the pilots. In 2005 the POW/MIA office announced that it had identified the remains of Robert Snoddy using DNA analysis.
Schwartz's remains have not been recovered. The 1952-1953 edition of Jane's All The World's Aircraft lists the head office address as Suite 309, Kass Building, 711 14th Street, N. W. Washington, D. C. with the footnote that the company had reregistered in the U. S; the president is given as Whiting Willauer, the fleet listed as 23 Curtiss C-46 Commando and 4 Douglas DC-3 aircraft. CAT transported supplies and troops for French operations during the First Indochina War as early as Operation Castor in November 1953. CAT assisted the French government at various times during its Indochina wars, flying supplies and equipment into Hanoi's Gia Lam airport and other fields using C-46 and C-47 transport planes. At the Battle of Dien Bien Phu, CAT supplied the French garrison by parachuting troops and supplies with covert USAF C-119 inscribed with French Air Force insignia. In February 2005, seven surviving CAT pilots out of the thirty-seven involved in the battle received the French Legion of Honor during a special ceremony at the French embassy in Washington.
Two CAT pilots James B. McGovern, Jr. and Wallace Buford were killed in action during the siege of Dien Bien Phu in May 1954. They were the first American casualties of what was termed the Vietnam War. McGovern's remains were recovered in 2002 and identified in 2006; the 1956-1957 edition of Jane's All The World's Aircraft lists the head office address as 46 Chung Shan Road, North, 2nd Section, Taiwan. The president and general manager is given as Hugh L. Grundy, with C. J. Rosbert listed as assistant general manager; the fleet is listed as 2 Douglas DC-4, 22 Curtiss Commando, 2 Douglas DC-3, 3 Douglas C-47, 2 Convair Catalina. In the 1958-1959 edition of Jane's, the last year in which the "Airlines of the World" section was carried, the home office address in Taiwan remained the same, but no company officers are listed; the fleet is given as 3 Douglas DC-4, 25 Curtiss C-46, 5 Douglas DC-3, 2 Convair Catalina, with 2 Douglas DC-6B on order. In 1958 TIME reported that 20 CAT aircraft were supplying the PRRI/Permesta movement against President Sukarno's government of Indonesia, which the Eisenhower administration feared had communist sympathies.
In April 1958 two CAT pilots flew combat missions for Permesta's Angkatan Udara Revolusioner or
Battle of Nà Sản
The Battle of Nà Sản was fought between French Union forces and the Nationalist forces of the Việt Minh at Nà Sản, Sơn La Province, during the First Indochina War for control of the T’ai region. In the Fall of 1950, General Marcel Carpentier decided to withdraw all military forces from Hòa Bình, capital of the Muong region. In November 1951, General De Lattre, Carpentier's replacement, launched an offensive operation against the Việt Minh in Hòa Bình to reclaim an area he saw as vital for France's future in Indochina. According to De Lattre, capturing Hòa Bình would cut the enemy's supply line between Thanh Hóa and Việt Bắc. Psychologically, reclaiming the province would gain support from the Mường, who had supported neither side, but were leaning more toward the Franco-Vietnamese side. In November 1951, De Lattre mobilized 10 infantry and eight airborne battalions to mount a decisive operation. Giáp counterattacked with three regular divisions, two independent regiments, regional support troops.
The two sides fought hard for Hòa Bình. At the height of the Battle of Hòa Bình, Giáp had 40 battalions fighting his enemies at different locations throughout the province. In January 1952, French forces were winning when De Lattre had to return to France for cancer treatment and General Salan was appointed to take his place. General Salan, who saw the province as an area, hard to support and to defend, decided to withdraw his troops. On 22 February, French troops withdrew from Hòa Bình and regrouped in Xuan Mai two days later. Eight months after having defended Hòa Binh, General Giáp attacked Nghĩa Lộ in the T'ai region which he failed to take a year earlier. General Giáp used four regular divisions to attack the province's southeast and the regional regiment 148th to guard the northwest side against reinforcements. In 10 days, Việt Minh forces not only took Nghĩa Lộ but seized part of Sơn La and Lai Châu from French control. To avoid further losses, General Salan launched Operation Lorraine to relieve the Việt Minh pressure in the T'ai region and to serve as a diversion while Nà Sản was being built.
The operation, led by General François de Linares, started on 9 November and lasted until 19 November. While the operation was going on, General Salan tasked Colonel Jean Gilles of establishing an entrenched fire support base at Nà Sản to stop Giáp's offensive. Nà Sản, located on Route Provinciale 41, was a valley of 2 km x 1 km surrounded by 24 hills that could serve as natural defense positions. In early October 1952, there was a single outpost and a short airstrip, both guarded by a company under the command of a non-commissioned officer. General Salan used the Hanoi-based French Air Force Dakotas to transport troops and material there in order to complete a fortified "base aero-terrestre" or air-land base allowing a direct confrontation with the Việt Minh divisions. During the battle, Colonel Gilles used a new tactic, called "the hedgehog", for the first time in Indochina; the hedgehog defense consisted of an outpost surrounded by several armed positions. The objective was to provoke an enemy frontal assault, rather than fighting off hit-and-run attacks or falling into ambushes.
Nà Sản's hedgehog consisted of 30 P. A. with a complicated trench system, enforced with barbed wires. Its defense forces consisted of 6 artillery batteries. Colonel Jean Gilles, Nà Sản CommanderGroupement Lansade2nd battalion, 1st Algerian Light Infantry Regiment 3rd battalion, 3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment, commandant Favreau 2nd battalion, 6th Moroccan Light Infantry Regiment Groupement mobile Vietnamien 1st Thai Battalion 2nd Thai Battalion 3rd Thai Battalion, commandant Vaudrey 55th BVN, capitaine Phạm Văn Đồng 3rd Battalion, 5th Foreign Infantry Regiment, chef de bataillon DufourGroupement parachutiste Lieutenant colonel Ducourneau 1st Foreign Airborne Battalion, chef de bataillon Brothier 2nd Foreign Airborne Battalion, chef de bataillon Bloch 3rd Colonial Airborne Battalion, capitaine BonnigalArtillerie 5th Vietnamese Artillery Group 41st Colonial Artillery Regiment Foreign Legion Mortar Company Génie Commandant Casso 6 sections Aéronaval8th flotilla 9th flotilla 12th flotilla Armée de l'air Gascogne 1/19 Bombing Group General Võ Nguyên Giáp, Commander of the Tai region Campaign Dai doan 308 Commander: Colonel Vuong Thua Tu Regiment 36 Regiment 88 Regiment 102Dai doan 312 Commander: Colonel Lê Trọng Tấn Regiment 141 Regiment 165 Regiment 209Dai doan 316 Commander: Colonel Le Quang Ba Regiment 98 Regiment 174 Regiment 176 On 23 November at 20:00 Việt Minh forces from the 88/308 twice attacked at P.
A. 8 and were twice pushed back by the entrenched Franco-Vietnamese troops. From 24 to 30 November Việt Minh forces made night attacks on different points to test French defense. During the days, defending troops patrolled within their fire-support range for reconnaissance. At 8:00 PM on 30 November, Việt Minh forces from 9 battalions attacked P. A. 22 bis and 24 located east and west of the entrenche
Battle of Hanoi (1946)
On December 19, 1946, Viet Minh soldiers detonated explosives in Hanoi, the ensuing battle, known as the Battle of Hanoi marked the opening salvo of the First Indochina War. The explosives, set off at 20:03 in the evening, had been smuggled past French Army guards into the city's power plant; the resulting explosion plunged Hanoi into darkness, throughout the city the Viet-Minh began attacking French military positions and French homes. Surviving French troops, alerted by friendly spies gained a numerical superiority. French artillery shelled the city, house to house searches were conducted searching for the Viet-Minh leadership. Ho Chi Minh was at the time ill with fever, Võ Nguyên Giáp ordered "all soldiers... to stand together, go into battle, destroy the invaders, save the nation". Eventual French superiority in firepower forced the Viet-Minh to withdraw to the mountains 80 miles to the north of Hanoi. However, it took the French 60 days to gain complete control of the city, which bought enough time for their enemy to evacuate all of its central offices, as well as most of their main forces.
After expunging the Viet-Minh from the city, the French demanded the military surrender of their opponents, but the latter refused. The United States, alarmed at the incident, dispatched Abbot Low Moffat on a special mission to Saigon and Hanoi to consider a negotiated referendum. However, the realization that the Viet-Minh would not accept any compromise, the fact that the US did not want to formally mediate between the two sides, led to the US abandoning the idea. Monument Determined to Brave Death for the Survival of the Fatherland by artist Nguyễn-kim-Giao at Hàng-Dầu Street. Monument Determined to Brave Death for the Survival of the Fatherland by artists Vũ-đại-Bình and Mai-văn-Kế at Vạn-Xuân Park. Bronze sculpture Lunge Mine soldier by artist Trần-văn-Hòe. Sculpture Hanoi in the winter 1946 by Ngũ-xã's artists at the Đồng-Xuân Market. Hammer, Ellen Joy; the struggle for Indochina. Stanford University Press. Buttinger, Joseph. A dragon defiant: a short history of Vietnam. Praeger. Fall, Bernard B..
Hell in a small place: the siege of Dien Bien Phu. Lippincott. Kedward, Rod. La vie en bleu: France and the French since 1900. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-013095-9. Roy, Jules; the battle of Dienbienphu. Pyramid Books. Windrow, Martin; the Last Valley: Dien Bien Phu and the French Defeat in Vietnam. Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-81443-3. Fall, Bernard B.. Street without joy. Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-8117-1700-7. Devillers, Philippe. End of a war. Praeger. Fall, Bernard B.. The two Viet-Nams: a political and military analysis. Praeger
Battle of the Day River
The Battle of the Day River took place between late May and early June 1951, around the Day River Delta in the Gulf of Tonkin. Part of the First Indochina War, the battle was the first conventional campaign of Võ Nguyên Giáp, saw his Việt Minh People's Army of Vietnam forces tackle the Catholic-dominated region of the Delta in order to break its resistance to Việt Minh infiltration. On the back of two defeats at similar ventures through March and April that year, Giap led three divisions in a pattern of guerrilla and diversion attacks on Ninh Bình, Nam Định, Phủ Lý and Phat Diem beginning on May 28 which saw the destruction of commando François, a naval commando; the French army, under Jean de Lattre de Tassigny, who lost his son in the first day of the battle at Ninh Bình, mobilised three mobile groups and two paratrooper battalions as well as one dinassaut, the ebb and flow of captured and retaken positions continued until Giap's supply lines were cut around June 6. His forces, moving in large numbers and during daylight, were vulnerable to French firepower and to French ground forces supported by friendly local militia.
The Việt Minh army units were forced into withdrawing between June 10 and June 18, leaving 1,000 prisoners to the French and 9,000 casualties. Fall, Bernard B.. Hell in a Very Small Place; the Siege of Dien Bien Phu. London: Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-81157-9. Fall, Bernard B.. Street Without Joy; the French Debacle in Indochina. New York: Stackpole Military History. ISBN 978-0-8117-3236-9. Fall, Bernard B.. The Two Vietnams. A Political and Military Analysis. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, Inc. Roy, Jules; the Battle of Dien Bien Phu. New York: Carroll and Graf Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7867-0958-8. Gras, Yves. Histoire de la Guerre d'Indochine. Paris. ISBN 2-259-00478-4. Windrow, Martin; the Last Valley. Dien Bien Phu and the French Defeat in Vietnam. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-304-36692-7. Battle of Mang Yang pass for the usual composition of a groupement mobile