Frederick Albert Cook was an American explorer and ethnographer, noted for his claim of having reached the North Pole on April 21, 1908. This was nearly a year before Robert Peary, who reached the North Pole on April 6, 1909. Both men's accounts were disputed for several years, his expedition did discover Meighen Island, the only discovery of an island in the North American Arctic by a United States expedition. In December 1909, after reviewing Cook's limited records, a commission of the University of Copenhagen ruled his claim unproven. In 1911, Cook published a memoir of his expedition, his account of reaching Mount McKinley's summit has been discredited. Cook's birthplace is listed as Callicoon, New York, but he was born in Hortonville, New York in the Town of Delaware in Sullivan County, his parents were recent German immigrants who anglicized their name by adopting a phonetic version of their surname. He attended local schools before college, he graduated from Columbia University and did medical studies at New York University Medical School, receiving his doctorate in 1890.
Cook married Libby Forbes in 1889. She died two years later. In 1902, on his 37th birthday, he married Marie Fidele Hunt, they had two daughters together. After more than two decades of marriage, they divorced in 1923. Cook was the surgeon on Robert Peary's Arctic expedition of 1891–1892, on the Belgian Antarctic Expedition of 1897–1899, he contributed to saving the lives of its crew members when their ship—the Belgica—was ice-bound during the winter, as they had not prepared for such an event. It became the first expedition to winter in the Antarctic region. To prevent scurvy, Cook went hunting to keep the crew supplied with fresh meat. In 1897, Cook twice visited Tierra del Fuego, they studied the Yahgan peoples, with whom Bridges had worked for two decades. During this time, he had prepared a manuscript on their language's grammar and a dictionary of more than 30,000 words. Cook borrowed the manuscript for reference but failed to return it before Bridges' death in 1898. Several years he tried to publish the dictionary as his own.
In 1903, Cook led an expedition to Mount McKinley. He made a second journey in 1906, after which he claimed to have achieved the first summit of its peak with one other expedition crew member. Other members, including Belmore Browne, whom Cook had left on the lower mountain but expressed doubt. Cook's claims were not publicly challenged until 1909 when the dispute with Peary over the North Pole claim erupted, with Peary's supporters claiming Cook's McKinley ascent was fraudulent. Unlike Hudson Stuck in 1913, Cook had not taken photographs from atop McKinley, his alleged photo of the summit was found to have been taken on a small outcrop on a ridge beside the Ruth Glacier, 19 miles away. In late 1909, Ed Barrill, Cook's sole companion during the 1906 climb, signed an affidavit saying that they had not reached the summit. In the late 20th century, historians found that he had been paid by Peary supporters to deny Cook's claim. Up until a month before, Barrill had asserted that he and Cook had reached the summit.
His 1909 affidavit included a map locating what became called Fake Peak, featured in Cook's "summit" photo, showing that he and Cook had turned back at the Gateway. Climber Bradford Washburn has gathered data, repeated the climbs, taken new photos to evaluate Cook's 1906 claim. Between 1956 and 1995, Washburn and Brian Okonek identified the locations of most of the photographs Cook took during his 1906 Denali foray and took new photos at the same spots. In 1997 Bryce identified the locations of the remaining photographs, including Cook's "summit" photograph. Washburn showed that none of Cook's 1906 photos was taken past the "Gateway", 12 horizontal bee-line miles from Denali and 3 miles below its top. An expedition by the Mazama Club in 1910 reported that Cook's map departed abruptly from the landscape at a point when the summit was still 10 miles distant. Critics of Cook's claims have compared Cook's map of his alleged 1906 route with the landscape of the last 10 miles. Cook's descriptions of the summit ridge are variously claimed to bear no resemblance to the mountain and to have been verified by many subsequent climbers.
In the 1970s, climber Hans Waale found a route. Three decades in 2005 and 2006, this route was climbed by a group of Russian mountaineers. No evidence of Cook's purported journey between the "Gateway" and the summit has been found, his claim to have reached the summit is not supported by his photos' vistas, his two sketch maps' markers, peak-numberings for points attained. Neither his recorded compass bearings, barometer readings, route-map, nor camp trash support his claim of reaching the summit. However, samples of all such evidence have been found short of the Gateway. After the Mount Denali expedition, Cook returned to the Arctic in 1907, he planned to attempt to reach the North Pole, although he did not announce his intention until August 1907, when he was in the Arctic. He left Annoatok, a small settlement in the north of Greenland, in February 1908. Cook claimed that he reached the pole on April 21, 1908, after traveling north from Axel Heiberg Island, taking with him only two Inuit men and Etukishook.
On the journey south, he claimed to have been cut off from his intended route to Annoatok by open water. Living off lo
Rear Admiral Robert Edwin Peary Sr. was an American explorer and United States Navy officer who made several expeditions to the Arctic in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He is best known for claiming to have reached the geographic North Pole with his expedition on April 6, 1909. Peary was born in Cresson, but was raised in Portland, following his father's death at a young age, he attended Bowdoin College joined the National Geodetic Survey as a draftsman. Peary enlisted as a civil engineer. In 1885, he was made chief of surveying for the Nicaragua Canal. Peary visited the Arctic for the first time in 1886, making an unsuccessful attempt to cross Greenland by dogsled, he returned in 1891 much better prepared, by reaching Independence Fjord conclusively proved that Greenland was an island. He was one of the first Arctic explorers to study Inuit survival techniques. On his 1898–1902 expedition, Peary set a new "Farthest North" record by reaching Greenland's northernmost point, Cape Morris Jesup.
He reached the northernmost point of the Western Hemisphere, at the top of Canada's Ellesmere Island. Peary made two further expeditions to the Arctic, in 1905–06 and in 1908–09. During the latter, he claimed to have reached the North Pole. Peary received a number of awards from geographical societies during his lifetime, in 1911 received the Thanks of Congress and was promoted to rear admiral, he served two terms as president of The Explorers Club, retired to Eagle Island. Peary's claim to have reached the North Pole was debated in contemporary newspapers, but won widespread acceptance. However, in a 1989 book British explorer Wally Herbert concluded that Peary did not reach the pole, although he may have been as close as 60 miles, his conclusions have been accepted, although disputed by some authorities. Robert Edwin Peary was born on May 6, 1856, in Cresson, Pennsylvania, to Charles N. and Mary P. Peary. After his father died in 1859, Peary's mother settled in Portland, Maine. After growing up in Portland, Peary attended some 36 miles to the north.
He was a member of the Delta Kappa Phi Beta Kappa fraternities while at college. He graduated in 1877 with a civil engineering degree. Peary lived in Fryeburg, from 1878 to 1879. During that time he made a profile survey from the top of Fryeburg's Jockey Cap Rock; the 360 degree survey mountains visible from the summit. His boyhood friend, Alfred E. Burton, suggested; the survey was cast in bronze and set atop a granite cylinder, erected to his memory by the Peary Family in 1938. A hike of less than a mile leads visitors to the monument. After college, Peary worked as a draftsman making technical drawings in Washington, D. C. at the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey office. He joined the United States Navy and on October 26, 1881, was commissioned as a civil engineer, with the relative rank of lieutenant. From 1884 to 1885 he was assistant engineer on the surveys for the Nicaragua Canal, became the engineer in charge; as reflected in a diary entry he made in 1885, during his time in the Navy, he resolved to be the first man to reach the North Pole.
In April 1886 he wrote a paper for the National Academy of Sciences proposing two methods for crossing Greenland's ice cap. One was to trek about 400 miles to the east coast; the second, more difficult path was to start from Whale Sound at the top of the known portion of Baffin Bay and travel north to determine whether Greenland was an island or if it extended all the way across the Arctic. Peary was promoted to the rank of lieutenant commander on January 5, 1901, to commander on April 6, 1902. Peary made his first expedition to the Arctic in 1886, intending to cross Greenland by dog sled, taking the first of his own suggested paths, he was given six months' leave from the Navy, he received $500 from his mother to book passage north and buy supplies. He sailed on a whaler to Greenland, arriving in Godhavn on June 6, 1886. Peary wanted to make a solo trek but a young Danish official named Christian Maigaard convinced him he would die if he went out alone. Maigaard and Peary set off together and traveled nearly 100 miles due east before turning back because they were short on food.
This was the second-farthest penetration of Greenland's ice sheet at that date. Peary returned home knowing more of. Back in Washington attending with the US Navy, Peary was ordered in November 1887 to survey routes for a proposed Nicaragua Canal. To complete his tropical outfit he needed a sun hat, so he went to a men's clothing store. There he met a black man working as a sales clerk. Learning that Henson had six years of seagoing experience as a cabin boy, Peary hired him as a personal valet. On assignment in the jungles of Nicaragua, Peary told Henson of his dream of Arctic exploration. Henson accompanied Peary on every one of his subsequent Arctic expeditions, becoming his field assistant and "first man," a critical member of his team. In 1891 Peary returned to Greenland, taking the second, more difficult route that he had laid out in 1886: traveling farther north to find out whether Greenland was a much larger landmass extending to the North Pole, he was financed by several groups, including the American Geographic Society, the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences.
Members of this expedi
HMS Alert (1856)
HMS Alert was a 17-gun wooden screw sloop of the Cruizer class of the Royal Navy, launched in 1856 and broken up in 1894. It was the eleventh ship of the Royal Navy to bear the name, was noted for her Arctic exploration work. Alert served with the US Navy, ended her career with the Canadian Marine Service as a lighthouse tender and buoy ship; the wooden sloops of the Cruizer class were designed under the direction of Lord John Hay, after his "Committee of Reference" was disbanded, their construction was supervised by the new Surveyor of the Navy, Sir Baldwin Walker. Ordered together with her co-ship Falcon on 2 April 1853, Alert was laid down at the Royal Dockyard, Pembroke in January 1855, it was fitted at Chatham with a two-cylinder horizontal single-expansion steam engine, supplied by Ravenhill & Salkeld at a cost of £6,052 and generated an indicated horsepower of 383 hp. The class was given a barque-rig sail plan. All the ships of the class were provided with one 32-pounder long gun on a pivot mount and sixteen 32-pounder carriage guns in a broadside arrangement.
When converted for Arctic exploration in 1874, her armament was reduced to a token outfit of four Armstrong breech-loaders. Alert spent the first 11 years of her life on the Pacific Station, based at Esquimalt at the southern tip of Vancouver Island, Canada. Alert Bay, British Columbia is named after the ship, nearby Pearse Island, at the north entrance to Johnstone Strait, is named after Commander William Alfred Rumbulow Pearse, her commanding officer. During this period it returned to May 1863 for a refit, her service on the Pacific station was the type of work for which her class had been designed—the policing of Britain's far-flung maritime empire. A photograph exists of Alert at Esquimalt, British Columbia from 1867, it is further attested to by the following extract from The Colonist newspaper: "The'Alert' Taken! – On Wednesday, H. M. S. Alert was taken without resistance on the part of her officers and crew, who are believed to have lent themselves to the plot; the ship was lying at anchor in Esquimalt harbour when the affair occurred, the time chosen by the enemy was noon-day.
The captor was Mr. Robinson the Photographer, the only weapons he used in effecting his object were a Camera, a bit of glass." Alert was placed in the Steam Reserve. In 1874, Alert was taken in hand for conversion to the role of Arctic exploration, her single-expansion engine was replaced with an R & W Hawthorn compound-expansion engine, it was reboilered to 60 pounds per square inch, her armament was reduced to four guns and her hull was strengthened with felt-covered iron. Above the waterline it was sheathed with teak, below it, Canadian elm and pitch-pine; the modifications caused her displacement to increase to 1,240 tons. The British Arctic Expedition was commanded by Captain George Strong Nares, comprised Alert and Discovery; the expedition aimed to reach the North Pole via Smith Sound, the sea passage between Greenland and Canada's northernmost island, Ellesmere Island. Contemporary geographers proposed that there could be an Open Polar Sea, that if the thick layer of ice surrounding it were overcome, access to the North Pole by sea might be possible.
Since Edward Augustus Inglefield had penetrated Smith Sound in 1852, it had been a route to the North. Despite finding heavier-than-expected ice, the expedition pressed on. Leaving Discovery to winter at Lady Franklin Bay, Alert pressed on a further 50 nautical miles through the Robeson Channel, establishing her winter quarters at Floeberg Beach. Spring 1876 saw considerable activity by sledge, charting the coasts of Ellesmere Island and Greenland, but scurvy had begun to take hold, with Alert suffering the greatest burden. On 3 April the second-in-command of Alert, Albert Hastings Markham, took a party north to attempt the Pole. By 11 May, having made slow progress, they reached their greatest latitude at 83° 20' 26"N. Suffering from snow blindness and exhaustion, they turned back; the expedition was rewarded on its return. The geography of northern Canada and Greenland is dotted with the names of those connected with the expedition: Nares Strait, Nares Lake, Markham Ice Shelf, Ayles Ice Shelf, Mount Ayles.
The northernmost permanently inhabited place on earth, the settlement of Alert at the northern point of Ellesmere Island, was named for the ship. Alert recommissioned at Chatham on 20 August 1878 under the command of Captain Sir George Strong Nares for a survey of the Strait of Magellan. On 12 March 1879 Captain John Fiot Lee Pearse Maclear took command, under him she went to Australia Station and the Pacific, she was employed in surveying, but the presence of Doctor Richard Coppinger, her surgeon, ensured that she made a huge contribution to the field of zoology. Coppinger, who had served in the Arctic expedition, was an accomplished naturalist and his collections from the period 1878–1882, which included indigenous cultural artifacts purloined, as he admitted, from Mutumui sites on Clack Island, added 1,300 species to the National Collection. Alert paid off at Sheerness on 20 September 1882. Adolphus Greely led the Lady Franklin Bay Expedition to the Arctic in 1881. Two supply ships failed to reach his party, a relief expedition in 1883 failed to extract the team.
The US Navy put together a further relief expedition in 1884 under Captain W. S. Schley, Alert was offered, she was loaned to the US Navy und
Adolphus Washington Greely was a United States Army officer, polar explorer, recipient of the Medal of Honor. He began his long and distinguished military career shortly after the outbreak of the American Civil War. On 26 July 1861, he enlisted in the 19th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment at the age of 17, after having been rejected twice before. Over the next two years he worked his way up the enlisted ranks to 1st sergeant. On 18 March 1863, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the 81st United States Colored Infantry, he was promoted to 1st lieutenant on 26 April 1864 and to captain on 4 April 1865. After the war he received a brevet promotion to major to rank from 13 March 1865 for "faithful and meritorious service during the war", he was mustered out of the Volunteer Army on 22 March 1867. He was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the 36th Infantry Regiment of the Regular Army on 7 March 1867 and was reassigned to the 5th Cavalry Regiment on 14 July 1869 after the 36th Infantry was disbanded.
He was promoted to first lieutenant on 27 May 1873. In 1881, First Lieutenant Greely was given command of the Lady Franklin Bay Expedition on the ship Proteus. Promoted by Henry W. Howgate, its purpose was to establish one of a chain of meteorological-observation stations as part of the First International Polar Year; the expedition was commissioned by the US government to collect astronomical and polar magnetic data, carried out by the astronomer Edward Israel, part of Greely's crew. Another goal of the expedition was to search for any clues of the USS Jeannette, lost in the Arctic two years earlier. Greely was without previous Arctic experience, but he and his party were able to discover many hitherto unknown miles along the coast of northwest Greenland; the expedition crossed Ellesmere Island from east to west and Lt. James B. Lockwood and Sgt. David Legge Brainard achieved a new "farthest north" record of 83°23'8" on Lockwood Island. In 1882, Greely sighted a mountain range during a dog sledding exploration to the interior of northern Ellesmere Island and named them the Conger Range.
He sighted the Innuitian Mountains from Lake Hazen. Two consecutive supply parties failed to reach Greely's party encamped at Fort Conger on Ellesmere Island in 1882 and 1883. In accordance with his instructions for this case, Greely decided in August 1883 to abandon Fort Conger and retreat south with his team, they reached Cape Sabine expecting to find food and equipment depots from the supply ships, but these had not been provided. With winter setting in Greely and his men were forced to winter at Cape Sabine with inadequate rations and little fuel. A rescue expedition, led by Capt. Winfield Scott Schley on the USRC Bear, was sent to rescue the Greely party. By the time Bear and ships Thetis and Alert arrived on June 22, 1884, to rescue the expedition, nineteen of Greely's 25-man crew had perished from starvation, hypothermia, and, in the case of Private Henry, gunshot wounds from an execution ordered by Greely. Greely and the other survivors were themselves near death; the returning survivors were venerated as heroes, though the heroism was tainted by sensational accusations of cannibalism during the remaining days of low food.
An exhibition on the "Greely expedition" was part of the Columbian Exposition in 1893 and was captured on stereoscopic images. In June 1886, Greely was promoted to captain after serving twenty years as a lieutenant and, in March 1887, President Grover Cleveland appointed him as Chief Signal Officer of the U. S. Army with the rank of brigadier general. During his tenure as Chief Signal Officer of the Army, the following military telegraph lines were constructed and maintained during the Spanish–American War: Puerto Rico, 800 miles. In connection with Alaska General Greely had constructed under adverse conditions a telegraph system of nearly 4,000 mi, consisting of submarine cables, land cables and wireless telegraphy, the latter covering a distance of 107 mi, which at the time of installation was the longest commercial system working in the world. In 1906, he served as military commander over the emergency situation created by the San Francisco earthquake. On February 10, 1906, he was promoted to major general and on March 27, 1908, he retired, having reached the mandatory retirement age of 64.
In 1911 he represented the United States Army at the coronation of King George V. On March 21, 1935, a special act of Congress awarded Greely the Medal of Honor in recognition of his long and distinguished career, he is the second person to be awarded the Medal of Honor for "lifetime achievement" rather than for acts of physical courage at the risk of one's own life. His was the last award of the Medal of Honor by the Army for non-combat service. General Greely died on October 20, 1935, in Washington, D. C. and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery, Virginia. Greely attended the First Presbyterian Church and married Henrietta Nesmith in 1878 and with her had six children: Antoinette in 1879, Adola in 1881, John in 1885, Rose in 1887, Adolphus in 1889, Gertrude in 1891. Henrietta was a member of the Daughters of the American Revolution and one of the founding vice presidents general of the Children of the American Revolution. After the Civil War, Greely became a companion of the District of Columbia Commandery of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States - a military society composed of Union officers
Henry Hudson was an English sea explorer and navigator during the early 17th century, best known for his explorations of present-day Canada and parts of the northeastern United States. In 1607 and 1608, Hudson made two attempts on behalf of English merchants to find a rumored Northeast Passage to Cathay via a route above the Arctic Circle. In 1609 he landed in North America and explored the region around the modern New York metropolitan area, looking for a Northwest Passage to Asia on behalf of the Dutch East India Company, he sailed up the Hudson River, named after him, thereby laid the foundation for Dutch colonization of the region. Hudson discovered the Hudson Strait and the immense Hudson Bay on his final expedition, while still searching for the Northwest Passage. In 1611, after wintering on the shore of James Bay, Hudson wanted to press on to the west, but most of his crew mutinied; the mutineers cast Hudson, his son, seven others adrift. Besides being the namesake of numerous geographical features, Hudson is the namesake of the Hudson's Bay Company that explored and traded in the vast Hudson Bay watershed in the following centuries.
Details of Hudson's birth and early life are unknown. Some sources have identified Henry Hudson as having been born in about 1565, but others date his birth to around 1570. Other historians assert less certainty. Mancall, for instance, states that " was born in the 1560s," while Piers Pennington gives no date at all. Hudson is thought to have spent many years at sea, beginning as a cabin boy and working his way up to ship's captain. In 1607, the Muscovy Company of England hired Hudson to find a northerly route to the Pacific coast of Asia. At the time, the English were engaged in an economic battle with the Dutch for control of northwest routes, it was thought that, because the sun shone for three months in the northern latitudes in the summer, the ice would melt and a ship could make it across the "top of the world". On 1 May 1607, Hudson sailed with a crew of a boy on the 80-ton Hopewell, they reached the east coast of Greenland on 14 June. Here the party named a headland "Young's Cape", a "very high mount, like a round castle" near it "Mount of God's Mercy" and land at 73° north latitude "Hold-with-Hope".
After turning east, they sighted "Newland" on the 27th, near the mouth of the great bay Hudson simply named the "Great Indraught". On 13 July and his crew estimated that they had sailed as far north as 80° 23' N, but more only reached 79° 23' N; the following day they entered what Hudson in the voyage named "Whales Bay", naming its northwestern point "Collins Cape" after his boatswain, William Collins. They sailed north the following two days. On the 16th they reached as far north as Hakluyt's Headland at 79° 49' N, thinking they saw the land continue to 82° N when it trended to the east. Encountering ice packed along the north coast, they were forced to turn back south. Hudson wanted to make his return "by the north of Greenland to Davis his Streights, so for Kingdom of England," but ice conditions would have made this impossible; the expedition returned to Tilbury Hope on the Thames on 15 September. Hudson reported large numbers of whales in Spitsbergen waters during this voyage. Many authors credit his reports as the catalyst for several nations sending whaling expeditions to the islands.
This claim is contentious- others have pointed to strong evidence that it was Jonas Poole's reports in 1610 that led to the establishment of English whaling, voyages of Nicholas Woodcock and Willem Cornelisz. Van Muyden in 1612 which led to the establishment of Dutch and Spanish whaling. In 1608, English merchants of the East India and Muscovy Companies again sent Hudson in the Hopewell to attempt to locate a passage to the Indies, this time to the east around northern Russia. Leaving London on 22 April, the ship traveled 2,500 miles, making it to Novaya Zemlya well above the Arctic Circle in July, but in the summer they found the ice impenetrable and turned back, arriving at Gravesend on 26 August. According to Thomas Edge, "William Hudson" in 1608 discovered an island he named "Hudson's Tutches" at 71° N, the latitude of Jan Mayen. However, records of Hudson's voyages suggest that he could only have come across Jan Mayen in 1607 by making an illogical detour, historians have pointed out that Hudson himself made no mention of it in his journal.
There is no cartographical proof of this supposed discovery. Jonas Poole in 1611 and Robert Fotherby in 1615 both had possession of Hudson's journal while searching for his elusive Hold-with-Hope, but neither had any knowledge of any discovery of Jan Mayen, an achievement, only attributed to Hudson. Fotherby stumbled across Jan Mayen, thinking it a new discovery and naming it "Sir Thomas Smith's Island", though the first verifiable records of the discovery of the island had been made a year earlier, in 1614. In 1609 Hudson was chosen by merchants of the Dutch East India Company in the Netherlands to find an easterly passage to Asia. While awaiting orders and supplies in Amsterdam, he heard rumors of a northwest route to the Pacific through North America. Hudson had been told to sail through the Arctic Ocean north of Russia, into the Pacific and so to the Far East. Huds
The Polaris expedition of 1871–1873 was an American expedition, one of the first serious attempts to reach the North Pole, after that of British naval officer Sir William Edward Parry, who reached 82° 45′N in 1827. The expedition's notable achievement was reaching 82 ° 29 ′ N by a record at the time; the expedition was commanded by the experienced and self-taught Arctic explorer Charles Francis Hall, who had lived among the Inuit in the Arctic region while on his obesessive quest to determine the fate of Franklin's lost expedition of 1845. Hall possessed the necessary survival skills, but lacked an academic background, had no experience leading men and commanding a ship, he had managed to secure the position of expedition commander based on his authority on the subject of the Arctic. Polaris departed from New York in June 1871. Underway, the expedition found itself hampered by poor leadership. Insubordination loomed at the instigation of chief scientist Emil Bessels and meteorologist Frederick Meyer—both German—who looked down on what they perceived to be their unqualified commander.
Bessels and Meyer were supported by the German half of the crew, further increasing tensions among a crew, divided by nationality. By October, the men were wintering in Thank God Harbor, on the shore of northern Greenland, making preparations for the trip to the Pole. Hall returned to the ship from an exploratory sledging journey to a fjord he named Newman Bay, promptly fell ill. Before he died, he accused members of the crew of orchestrating his murder, an accusation directed at Bessels. On the way southward, 19 members of the expedition became separated from the ship and drifted on an ice floe for six months and 1,800 miles, before being rescued; the damaged Polaris was run aground and wrecked near Etah in October 1872. The remaining men were rescued the following summer. A naval board of inquiry investigated Hall's death, but no charges were laid. However, an exhumation of his body in 1968 revealed he had ingested a large quantity of arsenic in the last two weeks of his life. Coupled with recently-discovered affectionate letters written by both Hall and Bessels to Vinnie Ream, a young sculptor they met in New York while waiting for Polaris to be outfitted, suggests Bessels had a motive, besides the means, to kill Hall.
In 1827, Sir William Edward Parry led a British Royal Navy expedition with the aim to be the first men to reach the North Pole. In the next five decades following Parry's attempt, the Americans would mount three such expeditions: Elisha Kent Kane in 1853–1855, Isaac Israel Hayes in 1860–1861, Charles Francis Hall with the Polaris in 1871–1873. Hall was a Cincinnati businessman with no notable academic sailing experience, he worked as a blacksmith and for a couple of years he published his own newspaper – the Cincinnati Occasional. Energetic and enterprising, he enthusiastically wrote about the latest technological innovations, he was a voracious reader captivated by the Arctic. His focus was directed towards the region around 1857, after it had dawned on society that Franklin's Arctic expedition of 1845, in all likelihood, would never be coming home, he spent the next few years studying the reports of previous explorers and trying to raise money for an expedition. As a result of his charisma and personality, he was able to launch two solo expeditions in search of Franklin and his crew.
These experiences established him as a seasoned Arctic explorer, gave him valuable contacts among the Inuit people. The renown he gained allowed him to convince the U. S. Government to finance a third expedition. In 1870, the U. S. Senate introduced a bill in Congress to fund an expedition to the North Pole. Hall, aided by Navy Secretary George M. Robeson lobbied for, received, a $50,000 grant to command the expedition, he began recruiting personnel in late 1870. He secured a 387-ton screw-propelled steamer. At the Washington Navy Yard, the ship was fitted as a fore-topsail schooner, renamed Polaris, she was prepared for Arctic service by the addition of solid oak timber all over her hull, the bow was sheathed in iron. A new engine was added, one of the boilers was retrofitted to burn seal or whale oil; the ship was outfitted with four whaleboats, 20-foot-long and four-foot-wide, a flat-bottomed scow. During his previous Arctic expeditions, Hall came to admire the Inuit umiak—a type of open boat made of driftwood and walrus- or seal skins—and brought a constructed collapsible boat which could hold 20 people.
Food packed on board consisted of tinned ham, salted beef and sailor's biscuit. They intended to prevent scurvy by supplementing their diet with fresh muskox and polar bear meat. In July 1870, U. S. President Ulysses S. Grant designated Hall as the expedition's overall commander, he was to be referred to as captain. Although Hall had abundant Arctic experience, he had no sailing experience, the title was purely honorary. In selecting officers and seamen, Hall relied on whalers with experience in the Arctic waters; this was markedly different from the polar expeditions of the British Admiralty, who tended to use naval officers and disciplined crews. For his selection of sailing master, Hall first turned to Sidney O. Budington to George E. Tyson. Both declined due to prior whaling commitments; when those commitments fell through, Hall named Budington as sai
United States Coast Guard
The United States Coast Guard is the coastal defense and maritime law enforcement branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the country's seven uniformed services. The Coast Guard is a maritime, multi-mission service unique among the U. S. military branches for having a maritime law enforcement mission and a federal regulatory agency mission as part of its mission set. It operates under the U. S. Department of Homeland Security during peacetime, can be transferred to the U. S. Department of the Navy by the U. S. President at any time, or by the U. S. Congress during times of war; this has happened twice: in 1917, during World War I, in 1941, during World War II. Created by Congress on 4 August 1790 at the request of Alexander Hamilton as the Revenue-Marine, it is the oldest continuous seagoing service of the United States; as Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton headed the Revenue-Marine, whose original purpose was collecting customs duties in the nation's seaports. By the 1860s, the service was known as the U.
S. Revenue Cutter Service and the term Revenue-Marine fell into disuse; the modern Coast Guard was formed by a merger of the Revenue Cutter Service and the U. S. Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915, under the U. S. Department of the Treasury; as one of the country's five armed services, the Coast Guard has been involved in every U. S. war from 1790 to the Iraq War and the War in Afghanistan. The Coast Guard has 40,992 men and women on active duty, 7,000 reservists, 31,000 auxiliarists, 8,577 full-time civilian employees, for a total workforce of 87,569; the Coast Guard maintains an extensive fleet of 243 coastal and ocean-going patrol ships, tenders and icebreakers called "cutters", 1650 smaller boats, as well as an extensive aviation division consisting of 201 helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft. While the U. S. Coast Guard is the smallest of the U. S. military service branches in terms of membership, the U. S. Coast Guard by itself is the world's 12th largest naval force; the Coast Guard carries out three basic roles, which are further subdivided into eleven statutory missions.
The three roles are: Maritime safety Maritime security Maritime stewardshipWith a decentralized organization and much responsibility placed on the most junior personnel, the Coast Guard is lauded for its quick responsiveness and adaptability in a broad range of emergencies. In a 2005 article in Time magazine following Hurricane Katrina, the author wrote, "the Coast Guard's most valuable contribution to may be as a model of flexibility, most of all, spirit." Wil Milam, a rescue swimmer from Alaska told the magazine, "In the Navy, it was all about the mission. Practicing for war, training for war. In the Coast Guard, it was, take care of our people and the mission will take care of itself." The eleven statutory missions as defined by law are divided into homeland security missions and non-homeland security missions: Ice operations, including the International Ice Patrol Living marine resources Marine environmental protection Marine safety Aids to navigation Search and rescue Defense readiness Maritime law enforcement Migrant interdiction Ports and coastal security Drug interdiction See National Search and Rescue Committee See Joint Rescue Coordination CentersWhile the U.
S. Coast Guard Search and Rescue is not the oldest search and rescue organization in the world, it is one of the Coast Guard's best-known operations; the National Search and Rescue Plan designates the Coast Guard as the federal agency responsible for maritime SAR operations, the United States Air Force as the federal agency responsible for inland SAR. Both agencies maintain rescue coordination centers to coordinate this effort, have responsibility for both military and civilian search and rescue; the two services jointly provide instructor staff for the National Search and Rescue School that trains SAR mission planners and coordinators. Located on Governors Island, New York, the school is now located at Coast Guard Training Center Yorktown at Yorktown, Virginia. Operated by the Coast Guard, the National Response Center is the sole U. S. Government point of contact for reporting all oil, radiological and etiological spills and discharges into the environment, anywhere in the United States and its territories.
In addition to gathering and distributing spill/incident information for Federal On Scene Coordinators and serving as the communications and operations center for the National Response Team, the NRC maintains agreements with a variety of federal entities to make additional notifications regarding incidents meeting established trigger criteria. The NRC takes Maritime Suspicious Activity and Security Breach Reports. Details on the NRC organization and specific responsibilities can be found in the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; the Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement database system is managed and used by the Coast Guard for tracking pollution and safety incidents in the nation's ports. The National Maritime Center is the merchant mariner credentialing authority for the USCG under the auspices of the Department of Homeland Security. To ensure a safe and environmentally sound marine transportation system, the mission of the NMC is to issue credentials to qualified mariners in the United States maritime jurisdiction.
The five uniformed services that make up the U. S. Armed Forces are defined in Title 10 of the U. S. Code: The term "armed forces" means the Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard; the Coast Guard is further defined by Title 14 of the United States Code: The Coast Guar