Special Operations OPSEC Education Fund
Special Operations OPSEC Education Fund, Inc. is a 501 organization in the United States, formed in 2012. It began a media campaign critical of President Obama in August 2012, accusing his administration of disclosing sensitive information about the killing of Osama bin Laden and taking too much credit for the operation. OPSEC's members are former U. S. special operations forces and intelligence community personnel. The group has extensive ties to the Republican Party and Tea Party movement, though it describes itself as non-partisan; as of mid-August 2012, it claims to have raised $1 million. The military portmanteau "OPSEC" is where security measures are taken to prevent friendly operations and intentions from being observed by an adversary's intelligence systems. OPSEC's president is Scott Taylor, a former Navy SEAL who has served as Congressman for Virginia's 2nd congressional district since 2017, its lead spokesperson and former SEAL, Ben Smith, was a spokesperson for Tea Party Express. Another spokesperson is Chad Kolton, who worked for the Bush administration as a spokesperson for the Director of National Intelligence, and, hired to perform media relations for OPSEC in July 2012 through HDMK, a Republican strategic communications firm.
Public records filed with authorities indicate the group's treasurer, lawyer and TV producers have affiliations with Republican Party organizations. During the 2012 United States presidential election it began a media campaign asserting that leaks of sensitive information from the Obama Administration have endangered U. S. personnel and compromised national security, that Barack Obama has taken too much credit for the death of Osama bin Laden. On August 15, 2012, the organization released Dishonorable Disclosures, a 22-minute documentary film that accuses the Obama Administration of taking credit for killing bin Laden and leaking information for political advantage, featuring interviews with former special forces personnel; the film appears on the organization's website and on YouTube, OPSEC intends to show it in a handful of swing states, including Virginia, Florida, North Carolina, Nevada. Elizabeth Flock of US News questioned the group's claims to be non-partisan noting that "its ranks are filled with Republicans" and stating that OPSEC "has taken a political side".
News reports have described the group's ties to the Republican Party, noting that several prominent leaders of the group are Republicans and Tea Partiers and that it shares an office with a Republican consulting firm and a Republican polling firm. The Obama campaign has likened it to the discredited "swift boat" smear tactics used against presidential nominee John Kerry in 2004. In an official statement, the Obama campaign responded to the film by saying "The Republicans are resorting to'Swift Boat' tactics because when it comes to foreign policy and national security, Mitt Romney has offered nothing but reckless rhetoric". Leaders of OPSEC responded by stating the group is non-partisan and unconnected to any political party or presidential campaign; the veterans political action committee called VetPAC has said "OPSEC is a shadowy Republican front group," and called their video "dubious" and "silly". Juliet Lapidos of the New York Times called the OPSEC video "a dishonest hatchet job" and remarked that while the stars of the video presented themselves as concerned citizens with no partisan motivations, their positions were inconsistent with their decision to appear in the video.
Military journalist and former Marine, Geoffrey Ingersoll, reported in Business Insider that the video is a partisan effort instead of an effort to protect US troops, saying, "Obama used SEALs to kill bin Laden. Republicans are using them to eliminate Obama." In mid-August 2012, the group said that it had raised $1 million since June of that year. Registered with the Internal Revenue Service as a 501 social welfare organization, unlike 501, can participate in partisan politics, the group is not required to disclose its donors and OPSEC has declined to discuss its funding. Special Operations OPSEC Education Fund
United States Armed Forces
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America. It consists of the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, Coast Guard; the President of the United States is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and forms military policy with the Department of Defense and Department of Homeland Security, both federal executive departments, acting as the principal organs by which military policy is carried out. All five armed services are among the seven uniformed services of the United States. From the time of its inception, the U. S. Armed Forces played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of national unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War. So, the founders of the United States were suspicious of a permanent military force, it played a critical role in the American Civil War, continuing to serve as the armed forces of the United States, although a number of its officers resigned to join the military of the Confederate States.
The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold War's onset, created the modern U. S. military framework. The Act established the National Military Establishment, headed by the Secretary of Defense, it was amended in 1949, renaming the National Military Establishment the Department of Defense, merged the cabinet-level Department of the Army, Department of the Navy, Department of the Air Force, into the Department of Defense. The U. S. Armed Forces are one of the largest militaries in terms of the number of personnel, it draws its personnel from a large pool of paid volunteers. Although conscription has been used in the past in various times of both war and peace, it has not been used since 1973, but the Selective Service System retains the power to conscript males, requires that all male citizens and residents residing in the U. S. between the ages of 18–25 register with the service. On February 22, 2019, however, a federal judge ruled that registering only males for Selective Service is unconstitutional.
As of 2017, the U. S. spends about US$610 billion annually to fund its military forces and Overseas Contingency Operations. Put together, the U. S. constitutes 40 percent of the world's military expenditures. The U. S. Armed Forces has significant capabilities in both defense and power projection due to its large budget, resulting in advanced and powerful technologies which enables a widespread deployment of the force around the world, including around 800 military bases outside the United States; the U. S. Air Force is the world's largest air force, the U. S. Navy is the world's largest navy by tonnage, the U. S. Navy and the U. S. Marine Corps combined are the world's second largest air arm. In terms of size, the U. S. Coast Guard is the world's 12th largest naval force; the history of the U. S. Armed Forces dates to 14 June 1775, with the creation of the Continental Army before the Declaration of Independence marked the establishment of the United States; the Continental Navy, established on 13 October 1775, Continental Marines, established on 10 November 1775, were created in close succession by the Second Continental Congress in order to defend the new nation against the British Empire in the American Revolutionary War.
These forces demobilized in 1784. The Congress of the Confederation created the current United States Army on 3 June 1784; the United States Congress created the current United States Navy on 27 March 1794 and the current United States Marine Corps on 11 July 1798. All three services trace their origins to their respective Continental predecessors; the 1787 adoption of the Constitution gave the Congress the power to "raise and support armies", to "provide and maintain a navy" and to "make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces", as well as the power to declare war. The President is the U. S. Armed Forces' commander-in-chief; the United States Coast Guard traces its origin to the founding of the Revenue Cutter Service on 4 August 1790 which merged with the United States Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915 to establish the Coast Guard. The United States Air Force was established as an independent service on 18 September 1947. S. Signal Corps, formed 1 August 1907 and was part of the Army Air Forces before becoming an independent service as per the National Security Act of 1947.
The United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps was considered to be a branch of the United States Armed Forces from 29 July 1945 until its status as such was revoked on 3 July 1952. On March 1st, 2019, the Department of Defense sent a proposal to Congress that would establish the United States Space Force as an independent military service within the Department of the Air Force. If approved, this would become the sixth military service branch to be created. Command over the U. S. Armed Forces is established in the Constitution; the sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief. The Constitution presumes the existence of "executive Departments" headed by "principal officers", whose appointment mechanism is provided for in the Appointments Clause; this allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act. The DoD is headed by the Secretary of Defense, a civilian and member of the Cabinet.
The Defense Secretary is second in the U. S. Armed Forces chain of command, with the exception of the Coast Guard, under the Secretary of Homeland Security, is just below the President and serves as the
National Security Agency
The National Security Agency is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence. The NSA is responsible for global monitoring and processing of information and data for foreign and domestic intelligence and counterintelligence purposes, specializing in a discipline known as signals intelligence; the NSA is tasked with the protection of U. S. communications networks and information systems. The NSA relies on a variety of measures to accomplish its mission, the majority of which are clandestine. Originating as a unit to decipher coded communications in World War II, it was formed as the NSA by President Harry S. Truman in 1952. Since it has become the largest of the U. S. intelligence organizations in terms of personnel and budget. The NSA conducts worldwide mass data collection and has been known to physically bug electronic systems as one method to this end; the NSA has been alleged to have been behind such attack software as Stuxnet, which damaged Iran's nuclear program.
The NSA, alongside the Central Intelligence Agency, maintains a physical presence in many countries across the globe. SCS collection tactics encompass "close surveillance, wiretapping and entering". Unlike the CIA and the Defense Intelligence Agency, both of which specialize in foreign human espionage, the NSA does not publicly conduct human-source intelligence gathering; the NSA is entrusted with providing assistance to, the coordination of, SIGINT elements for other government organizations – which are prevented by law from engaging in such activities on their own. As part of these responsibilities, the agency has a co-located organization called the Central Security Service, which facilitates cooperation between the NSA and other U. S. defense cryptanalysis components. To further ensure streamlined communication between the signals intelligence community divisions, the NSA Director serves as the Commander of the United States Cyber Command and as Chief of the Central Security Service; the NSA's actions have been a matter of political controversy on several occasions, including its spying on anti-Vietnam-war leaders and the agency's participation in economic espionage.
In 2013, the NSA had many of its secret surveillance programs revealed to the public by Edward Snowden, a former NSA contractor. According to the leaked documents, the NSA intercepts and stores the communications of over a billion people worldwide, including United States citizens; the documents revealed the NSA tracks hundreds of millions of people's movements using cellphones metadata. Internationally, research has pointed to the NSA's ability to surveil the domestic Internet traffic of foreign countries through "boomerang routing"; the origins of the National Security Agency can be traced back to April 28, 1917, three weeks after the U. S. Congress declared war on Germany in World War I. A code and cipher decryption unit was established as the Cable and Telegraph Section, known as the Cipher Bureau, it was headquartered in Washington, D. C. and was part of the war effort under the executive branch without direct Congressional authorization. During the course of the war it was relocated in the army's organizational chart several times.
On July 5, 1917, Herbert O. Yardley was assigned to head the unit. At that point, the unit consisted of two civilian clerks, it absorbed the navy's Cryptanalysis functions in July 1918. World War I ended on November 11, 1918, the army cryptographic section of Military Intelligence moved to New York City on May 20, 1919, where it continued intelligence activities as the Code Compilation Company under the direction of Yardley. After the disbandment of the U. S. Army cryptographic section of military intelligence, known as MI-8, in 1919, the U. S. government created the Cipher Bureau known as Black Chamber. The Black Chamber was the United States' first peacetime cryptanalytic organization. Jointly funded by the Army and the State Department, the Cipher Bureau was disguised as a New York City commercial code company, its true mission, was to break the communications of other nations. Its most notable known success was at the Washington Naval Conference, during which it aided American negotiators by providing them with the decrypted traffic of many of the conference delegations, most notably the Japanese.
The Black Chamber persuaded Western Union, the largest U. S. telegram company at the time, as well as several other communications companies to illegally give the Black Chamber access to cable traffic of foreign embassies and consulates. Soon, these companies publicly discontinued their collaboration. Despite the Chamber's initial successes, it was shut down in 1929 by U. S. Secretary of State Henry L. Stimson, who defended his decision by stating, "Gentlemen do not read each other's mail". During World War II, the Signal Intelligence Service was created to intercept and decipher the communications of the Axis powers; when the war ended, the SIS was reorganized as the Army Security Agency, it was placed under the leadership of the Director of Military Intelligence. On May 20, 1949, all cryptologic activities were centralized under a national organization called the Armed Forces Security Agency; this organization was established within the U. S. Department of Defense under the command of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
Loose lips sink ships
Loose lips sink ships is an American English idiom meaning "beware of unguarded talk". The phrase originated on propaganda posters during World War II; the phrase was created by the War Advertising Council and used on posters by the United States Office of War Information. This type of poster was part of a general campaign of American propaganda during World War II to advise servicemen and other citizens to avoid careless talk that might undermine the war effort. There were many similar such slogans, but "Loose lips sink ships" remained in the American idiom for the remainder of the century and into the next as an admonition to avoid careless talk in general.. However, propaganda experts at the time and historians since have argued the main goal of these and similar posters was to frighten people into not spreading rumors – or truths – containing bad news that might hurt morale or create tension between groups of Americans, since the FBI had rounded up the key agents in June 1941, so that the nation "entered the war with confidence that there was no major German espionage network hidden in U.
S. society." From the White House perspective, the FBI had succeeded in ending the German espionage threat. Historian Joseph E. Persico says it "practically shut down German espionage in the United States overnight."Historian D'Ann Campbell argues that the purpose of the wartime posters and censorship of soldiers' letters was not to foil spies but "to clamp as tight a lid as possible on rumors that might lead to discouragement, strikes, or anything that would cut back military production." Loose Lips
Communications security is the discipline of preventing unauthorized interceptors from accessing telecommunications in an intelligible form, while still delivering content to the intended recipients. In the North Atlantic Treaty Organization culture, including United States Department of Defense culture, it is referred to by the abbreviation COMSEC; the field includes cryptographic security, transmission security, emissions security and physical security of COMSEC equipment and associated keying material. COMSEC is used to protect both classified and unclassified traffic on military communications networks, including voice and data, it is used for both analog and digital applications, both wired and wireless links. Voice over secure internet protocol VOSIP has become the de facto standard for securing voice communication, replacing the need for Secure Terminal Equipment in much of NATO, including the U. S. A. USCENTCOM moved to VOSIP in 2008. Cryptographic security: The component of communications security that results from the provision of technically sound cryptosystems and their proper use.
This includes ensuring message authenticity. Emission security: The protection resulting from all measures taken to deny unauthorized persons information of value that might be derived from communications systems and cryptographic equipment intercepts and the interception and analysis of compromising emanations from cryptographic—equipment, information systems, telecommunications systems. Transmission security: The component of communications security that results from the application of measures designed to protect transmissions from interception and exploitation by means other than cryptanalysis. Physical security: The component of communications security that results from all physical measures necessary to safeguard classified equipment and documents from access thereto or observation thereof by unauthorized persons. AKMS = the Army Key Management System AEK = Algorithmic Encryption Key CT3 = Common Tier 3 CCI = Controlled Cryptographic Item - equipment which contains COMSEC embedded devices ACES = Automated Communications Engineering Software DTD = Data Transfer Device ICOM = Integrated COMSEC, e.g. a radio with built in encryption TEK = Traffic Encryption Key TED = Trunk Encryption Device such as the WALBURN/KG family KEK = Key Encryption Key KPK = Key production key OWK = Over the Wire Key OTAR = Over the Air Rekeying LCMS = Local COMSEC Management Software KYK-13 = Electronic Transfer Device KOI-18 = Tape Reader General Purpose KYX-15 = Electronic Transfer Device KG-30 = family of COMSEC equipment TSEC = Telecommunications Security SOI = Signal operating instructions SKL = Simple Key Loader TPI = Two person integrity STU-III STE - Secure Terminal Equipment Types of COMSEC equipment: Crypto equipment: Any equipment that embodies cryptographic logic or performs one or more cryptographic functions.
Crypto-ancillary equipment: Equipment designed to facilitate efficient or reliable operation of crypto-equipment, without performing cryptographic functions itself. Crypto-production equipment: Equipment used to produce or load keying material Authentication equipment: The Electronic Key Management System is a United States Department of Defense key management, COMSEC material distribution, logistics support system; the National Security Agency established the EKMS program to supply electronic key to COMSEC devices in securely and timely manner, to provide COMSEC managers with an automated system capable of ordering, production, storage, security accounting, access control. The Army's platform in the four-tiered EKMS, AKMS, automates frequency management and COMSEC management operations, it eliminates paper keying material, hardcopy SOI, associated time and resource-intensive courier distribution. It has 4 components: LCMS provides automation for the detailed accounting required for every COMSEC account, electronic key generation and distribution capability.
ACES is the frequency management portion of AKMS. ACES has been designated by the Military Communications Electronics Board as the joint standard for use by all services in development of frequency management and cryptonet planning. CT3 with DTD software is in a fielded, ruggedized hand-held device that handles, views and loads SOI, electronic protection data. DTD provides an improved net-control device to automate crypto-net control operations for communications networks employing electronically keyed COMSEC equipment. SKL is a hand-held PDA that handles, views and loads SOI, electronic protection data. KMI is intended to replace the legacy Electronic Key Management System to provide a means for securely ordering, producing, distributing and auditing cryptographic products; this system is being fielded by Major Commands and variants will be required for non-DoD Agencies with a COMSEC Mission. Dynamic secrets Electronics technician Information security Information warfare List of telecommunications encryption terms NSA encryption systems NSA product types Operations security Secure communication Signals intelligence Traffic analysis This article incorporates public domain material from the General Services Administration document "Federal Standard 1037C".
National Information Systems Security Glossary This article incorporates public domain material from
Information security, sometimes shortened to InfoSec, is the practice of preventing unauthorized access, disclosure, modification, recording or destruction of information. The information or data may take e.g. electronic or physical. Information security's primary focus is the balanced protection of the confidentiality and availability of data while maintaining a focus on efficient policy implementation, all without hampering organization productivity; this is achieved through a multi-step risk management process that identifies assets, threat sources, potential impacts, possible \controls, followed by assessment of the effectiveness of the risk management plan. To standardize this discipline and professionals collaborate and seek to set basic guidance and industry standards on password, antivirus software, encryption software, legal liability and user/administrator training standards; this standardization may be further driven by a wide variety of laws and regulations that affect how data is accessed, processed and transferred.
However, the implementation of any standards and guidance within an entity may have limited effect if a culture of continual improvement isn't adopted. At the core of information security is information assurance, the act of maintaining the confidentiality and availability of information, ensuring that information is not compromised in any way when critical issues arise; these issues include but are not limited to natural disasters, computer/server malfunction, physical theft. While paper-based business operations are still prevalent, requiring their own set of information security practices, enterprise digital initiatives are being emphasized, with information assurance now being dealt with by information technology security specialists; these specialists apply information security to technology. It is worthwhile to note that a computer does not mean a home desktop. A computer is any device with some memory; such devices can range from non-networked standalone devices as simple as calculators, to networked mobile computing devices such as smartphones and tablet computers.
IT security specialists are always found in any major enterprise/establishment due to the nature and value of the data within larger businesses. They are responsible for keeping all of the technology within the company secure from malicious cyber attacks that attempt to acquire critical private information or gain control of the internal systems; the field of information security has grown and evolved in recent years. It offers many areas for specialization, including securing networks and allied infrastructure, securing applications and databases, security testing, information systems auditing, business continuity planning, electronic record discovery, digital forensics. Information security professionals are stable in their employment; as of 2013 more than 80 percent of professionals had no change in employer or employment over a period of a year, the number of professionals is projected to continuously grow more than 11 percent annually from 2014 to 2019. Information security threats come in many different forms.
Some of the most common threats today are software attacks, theft of intellectual property, identity theft, theft of equipment or information and information extortion. Most people have experienced software attacks of some sort. Viruses, phishing attacks, Trojan horses are a few common examples of software attacks; the theft of intellectual property has been an extensive issue for many businesses in the IT field. Identity theft is the attempt to act as someone else to obtain that person's personal information or to take advantage of their access to vital information. Theft of equipment or information is becoming more prevalent today due to the fact that most devices today are mobile, are prone to theft and have become far more desirable as the amount of data capacity increases. Sabotage consists of the destruction of an organization's website in an attempt to cause loss of confidence on the part of its customers. Information extortion consists of theft of a company's property or information as an attempt to receive a payment in exchange for returning the information or property back to its owner, as with ransomware.
There are many ways to help protect yourself from some of these attacks but one of the most functional precautions is user carefulness. Governments, corporations, financial institutions and private businesses amass a great deal of confidential information about their employees, products and financial status. Should confidential information about a business' customers or finances or new product line fall into the hands of a competitor or a black hat hacker, a business and its customers could suffer widespread, irreparable financial loss, as well as damage to the company's reputation. From a business perspective, information security must be balanced against cost. For the individual, information security has a significant effect on privacy, viewed differently in various cultures. Possible responses to a security threat or risk are: reduce/mitigate – implement safeguards and countermeasures to eliminate vulnerabilities or block threats assign/transfer – place the cost of the threat onto another entity or organization such as purchasing insurance or outsourcing accept – evaluate if the cost of the countermeasure outweighs the possible cost of loss due to the threat Since the earl
Women's Army Corps
The Women's Army Corps was the women's branch of the United States Army. It was created as an auxiliary unit, the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps on 15 May 1942 by Public Law 554, converted to an active duty status in the Army of the United States as the WAC on 1 July 1943, its first director was a prominent woman in Texas society. The WAC was disbanded in 1978, all units were integrated with male units; the WAAC's organization was designed by numerous Army bureaus coordinated by Lt. Col. Gillman C. Mudgett, the first WAAC Pre-Planner. Without the support of the War Department, Representative Edith Nourse Rogers of Massachusetts introduced a bill on 28 May 1941, providing for a women’s army auxiliary corps; the bill was held up for months by the Bureau of the Budget but was resurrected after the United States entered the war. The senate approved the bill on 14 May 1941 and became law on 15 May 1942; when President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the bill the next day, he set a recruitment goal of 25,000 women for the first year.
That goal was unexpectedly exceeded, so Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson decided to increase the limit by authorizing the enlistment of 150,000 volunteers; the WAAC was modeled after comparable British units the ATS, which caught the attention of Chief of Staff George C. Marshall. Members of the WAC became the first women other than nurses to serve within the United States Army. In 1942, the first contingent of 800 members of the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps began basic training at Fort Des Moines Provisional Army Officer Training School, Iowa; the women were fitted for uniforms, assigned to companies and barracks and inoculated against disease during the first day. The WAAC were first trained in three major specialties; the brightest and nimblest were trained as switchboard operators. Next came the mechanics, who had to have a high degree of mechanical aptitude and problem solving ability; the bakers were the lowest scoring recruits and were stereotyped as being the least intelligent and able by their fellow WAACs.
This was expanded to dozens of specialties like Postal Clerk, Driver and Clerk-Typist. WAC armorers repaired small arms and heavy weapons that they were not allowed to use. A physical training manual titled "You Must Be Fit" was published by the War Department in July 1943, aimed at bringing the women recruits to top physical standards; the manual begins by naming the responsibility of the women: "Your Job: To Replace Men. Be Ready To Take Over." It cited the commitment of women to the war effort in England, Russia and Japan, emphasized that the WAC recruits must be physically able to take on any job assigned to them. The fitness manual was state-of-the-art for its day, with sections on warming up, progressive body-weight strength-building exercises for the arms, legs and neck and back, it included a section on designing a personal fitness routine after basic training, concluded with "The Army Way to Health and Added Attractiveness" with advice on skin care, make-up, hair styles. Inept publicity and the poor appearance of the WAAC/WAC uniform in comparison to that of the other services, handicapped recruiting efforts.
A resistance by senior Army commanders was overcome by the efficient service of WAACs in the field, but the attitude of men in the rank and file remained negative and hopes that up to a million men could be replaced by women never materialized. The United States Army Air Forces became an early and staunch supporter of regular military status for women in the army. About 150,000 American women served in the WAAC and WAC during World War II, they were the first women other than nurses to serve with the Army. While conservative opinion in the leadership of the Army and public opinion was opposed to women serving in uniform, the shortage of men necessitated a new policy. While most women served stateside, some went to various places around the world, including Europe, North Africa, New Guinea. For example, WACs landed on Normandy Beach just a few weeks after the initial invasion. In 1943 the recruiting momentum stopped and went into reverse as a massive slander campaign on the home front challenged the WACs as sexually immoral.
Many soldiers ferociously opposed allowing women in uniform, warning their sisters and friends they would be seen as lesbians or prostitutes. Other sources were from other women - servicemen's and officer's wives' idle gossip, local women who disliked the newcomers taking over "their town", female civilian employees resenting the competition and volunteer organizations who resented the extra attention the WAACs received, complaints and slander spread by disgruntled or discharged WAACs. All investigations showed. African American women serving in the WAC experienced segregation in much the same fashion as in U. S. civilian life. Some billets accepted WACs of any race. Black women were taught the same specialties as white women, the races were not segregated at specialty training schools; the US Army goal was to have 10 percent of the force be African-American, to reflect the larger U. S. population, but a shortage of recruits brought only 5.1 percent black women to the WAC. General Douglas MacArthur called the WACs "my best soldiers", adding that they worked harder, complained less, were better disciplined than men.
Many generals wanted more of them and proposed to draft women but it was realized that this "would provoke considerable public outcry and Congressional opposition", so the War Depart