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Operculum (gastropod)

The operculum, meaning little lid, is a corneous or calcareous anatomical structure like a trapdoor which exists in many groups of sea snails and freshwater snails, in a few groups of land snails. The operculum is attached to the upper surface of the foot and in its most complete state, it serves as a sort of "trapdoor" to close the aperture of the shell when the soft parts of the animal are retracted; the shape of the operculum varies from one family of gastropods to another. It is often circular, or more or less oval in shape. In species where the operculum fits snugly, its outline corresponds to the shape of the aperture of the shell and it serves to seal the entrance of the shell. Many families have opercula that are reduced in size, which are not capable of closing the shell aperture. Opercula have sometimes been modified: in the Strombidae the operculum is claw-shaped and is used to push into the substrate in a leaping form of locomotion. All pulmonate snails are inoperculate, i.e. they do not have an operculum, with the exception of the Amphiboloidea.

However, some terrestrial pulmonate species are capable of secreting an epiphragm, a temporary structure that can in some cases serve some of the same functions as an operculum. The epiphragm may be distinguished from the true operculum by its homogeneity and want of growth marks. In ammonites, a calcareous structure known as the aptychus existed; when these were first described they were thought to be valves of a bivalve species for many years after that they were considered to be a form of paired or single operculum-like structures belonging to ammonites. More the aptychus or paired aptychi have been hypothesized to be a jaw apparatus of ammonites; the most essential function of the operculum in gastropods is to allow snails to resist drying out, or desiccation. This is important in intertidal marine snails during low tide, this enables operculate freshwater and land snails to survive periods of drought and dry weather. In those marine species where the operculum seals the shell, it can serve as a protection against predators when the snail body is retracted.

In life, the operculum is attached at the ending of the columellar muscle with an opercular disc dorsally to the upper surface of the posterior part of the foot. However, in Buccinum a layer of long cylindrical epithelial cells, with distinct nuclei, long divided processes enter between the muscular fibres; the operculum, a cuticular development of these cells, is composed, as may be seen in the corneous opercula of Murex, Triton, of thin superimposed layers. The cylindrical cells are attached with their head to the lowermost layer; the operculum grows in size as the shell grows, such that the operculum remains in proportion to the apertural size. In many species, when the animal is active and crawling, part of the underside of the shell rests on the outer surface of the operculum. In many species of marine shelled snails which live subtidally, the operculum is reduced in size, no longer serves to seal the shell entrance. In a large number of families it has been eliminated completely. In species of conchs, the operculum is elongated and sickle-shaped, is used to dig into the sand to enable the conch to perform a leaping type of locomotion.

The structure of the operculum can be described as follows: concentric: the nucleus is central or subcentral as in Lithoglyphus and Ampullaria, in other the nucleus is near the parietal margin of the shell. Imbricated, or lamellar: when it grows only on one side, the nucleus is marginal, as in Purpura and Paludomus. Claw-shaped, or unguiculate: with the nucleus apical or in front, as in Turbinella and Fusus. Paucispiral or oligogyrous: with few spirals as in Littorina. Subspiral or scarcely spiral, in Thiara multispiral or polygyrous: having many spaced spirals as in Trochus where they sometimes amount to twenty. Articulated, when it has a projection, as in Nerita radiated is a modification of the articulated operculum in which the spiral is not so evident as in Navicella In 1998 Checa and Jimeneze proposed three types of opercula: type 1: flexiclaudent spiral operculum. Type 2: rigiclaudent spiral operculum. Type 3: rigiclaudent concentric operculum. There are two basic types of opercula in terms of their material composition: The most common kind of operculum is composed of a thin to rather thick corneous protein material, yellow to brownish in color and is somewhat translucent.

This matter is supple. The operculum varies in shape, depending on the family of snails and the shape of the aperture of their shells; the other kind of operculum is restricted t

Wilton's Music Hall

Wilton's Music Hall is a Grade II* listed building in Shadwell, built as a music hall and now run as a multi-arts performance space in Graces Alley, off Cable Street in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. It is one of few surviving music halls and retains many original features. Wilton's has been a producing venue since 2004, it produces imaginative, distinctive work that has roots in the early music hall tradition but reinterpreted for an audience of today, which means presenting a diverse and distinct programme including opera, classical music, cabaret and magic. Situated at the heart of the historic East End within easy walking distance from The Tower of London, the River Thames and the City, it is a focus for theatrical and East End history, as well as a living theatre, concert hall, public bar and heritage site; the venue underwent an extensive programme of restoration work. The theatre did not close at any point during the building works: instead running an interim arts programme called The Chrysalis Club.

The award-winning spaces reopened in October 2015. The theatre is an unrestored example of the'giant pub hall'. In the theatre, a single gallery, on three sides and supported by'barley sugar' cast iron pillars, rises above a large rectangular hall and a high stage with a proscenium arch. In its heyday, a'sun-burner' chandelier of 300 gas jets and 27,000 cut crystals, illuminated a mirrored hall. Today, charring is still visible in the rafters, where the chimney exhausted the heat of this massive device; the hall would have had space for supper tables, a benched area, promenades around the outside for standing customers. Wilton's was modelled on many other successful London halls of the time, including the second Canterbury Hall in Lambeth, Evans Music-and-Supper Rooms in Covent Garden, Weston's. Wilton's remains the only surviving example. Wilton's is a unique building comprising a mid-19th Century grand music hall attached to an 18th-century terrace of three houses and a pub. An alehouse dating from 1743 or earlier, it may well have served the Scandinavian sea captains and wealthy merchants who lived in neighbouring Wellclose Square.

From c. 1826, it was known as The Mahogany Bar, reputedly because the landlord was the first to install a mahogany bar and fittings in his pub. In 1839 a concert room was built behind the pub and in 1843 it was licensed for a short time as The Albion Saloon, a saloon theatre permitted to put on full-length plays. John Wilton bought the business in c. 1850, enlarged the concert room three years and replaced it with his'Magnificent New Music Hall' in 1859. Wilton's was built by Jacob Maggs, on the same site as the former concert room of the Albion Saloon; the hall could accommodate 1,500 people. The bar was retained as the public entrance, the hall was built in the area behind the existing block of houses; this was common practice at the time, as street frontage for music halls was expensive. He furnished the hall with mirrors and decorative paintwork, installed the finest heating and ventilation systems of the day. Madrigals and excerpts from opera were at first the most important part of the entertainment, along with the latest attractions from West End and provincial halls, circus and fairground.

In the thirty years Wilton's was a music hall, many of the best-remembered acts of early popular entertainment performed here, from George Ware who wrote'The Boy I love is up in the Gallery', to Arthur Lloyd and George Leybourne two of the first music hall stars to perform for royalty. Wilton's passed into several ownerships during the 1870s before being destroyed by fire in 1877. An eight-year rebuild commenced that year before the building was bought by the East End Mission of the Methodist Church. Towards the end of the 19th century the East End had become notorious for extreme poverty and terrible living conditions. Religious organisations tried to help, such as the East London Methodist Mission, renamed The Mahogany Bar Mission and for some time considered'Methodism's finest hall'. During the Great Dock Strike of 1889, a soup kitchen was set up at The Mahogany Bar, feeding a thousand meals a day to the starving dockers' families; the Mission remained open for nearly 70 years, through some of the most testing periods in East End history including the 1936 Mosley March and the London Blitz in World War II.

Throughout that time the Methodists campaigned against social abuses, welcomed people of all creeds and ethnicity, gave invaluable support to the local community the needy children of the area. The church ceased in 1956 and Wilton's became a rag storage warehouse. After the Second World War the area was subject to local authority compulsory purchase and scheduled for demolition as part of the slum clearance schemes of the 1960s; the Methodists had to leave and Wilton's was scheduled for demolition. A campaign was started to save the building with support from persons such as Sir John Betjeman, Peter Sellers and Spike Milligan. Wilton's was given the protection of Grade II* listed building status in April 1971 and was bought by the Greater London Council who preserved it until 1999 when it was leased to Broomhill Opera Company until 2004. Wilton's reopened as a theatre and concert hall in 1997. Frances Mayhew, former Managing and Artistic Director took over the building in 2004, having worked at Wilton's in the late 90s as an intern.

It was again derelict and in debt. In June 2007 the World Monuments Fund added the building to its list of the world's "100 most endangered sites". Over the next decade Frances Mayhew and her team restored the building with a programme of arts and c

Together Again (NSYNC song)

"Together Again" is a song by American boy band NSYNC. It was released as the fifth single from their self-titled debut album, it was released in November 1997 on the German market. It was written by Andy Reynolds and Tee Green and is one of the few NSYNC songs where Joey Fatone and Chris Kirkpatrick each sing a verse; the music video for "Together Again" premiered in September 1997. The video features the band performing in a Christmas playroom, reminiscing about their own childhoods; the video shows pictures of the boys when they were younger, changes the theme of the song to relate to the break-up between their selves and their parents. The video shows the boys celebrating Christmas together. German CD single "Together Again" – 3:25 "Together Again" – 4:09 "Giddy Up" – 4:10 "Some Dreams" – 4:18 "Sundreams"

Byun Se-jong

Byun Se-jong is a South Korean figure skater. He is bronze medalist of 2018 CS Asian Open Trophy, competed in the free skate at two Four Continents Championships. Byun debuted at the Junior Grand Prix series in the 2014–15 season, he placed 9th at the JGP Czech Republic. At the JGP Germany, he placed 11th. A few weeks Byun won the silver medal at the Ice Challenge as a junior. Back in Korea, he came in third at a qualification event, the KSU President Cup Ranking Competition, which gave him a spot to compete at the 2015 Four Continents Championships to be held in Seoul, South Korea. At the South Korean Nationals, he settled in 5th place. In February, he competed at his first senior ISU championship, 2015 Four Continents Championships, where he achieved his new personal best in short program and total score; as the last competition of the season, Byun participated in the Triglav Trophy. In the short program, he placed first and got ratified his first triple-triple combination, triple toe-loop-triple toe-loop.

Due to the big margin of points obtained in the short program, he could keep the lead and won the gold for the first time internationally. Byun began his new season at the ISU Junior Grand Prix qualifying competition held in South Korea, he placed first with a score of 161.39. He came in fifth at a qualification event, 2015 KSU President Cup Ranking Competition, which gave him a spot to compete at the 2016 Four Continents Figure Skating Championships to be held in Taipei, Taiwan. At the 2016 Korean National Figure Skating Championships, Byun skated flawlessly, he placed third after short programme as a result, he placed fourth in total, which meant he kept his spot as the Korean national team member for the upcoming season. At the 2016 World Junior Championships he placed 29th in the short program and did not qualify to the free skating. CS: Challenger Series. 임, 선영. "우리 중에 누가'빌리 엘리엇'이 될까요". The Dong-a Ilbo. Retrieved August 28, 2015. 2014 Leo Scheu Memorial Results 2013 Asian Figure Skating Trophy Results 2012 Asian Figure Skating Trophy Results 2015 Triglav Trophy Results Se Jong BYUN at the International Skating Union

Early Wynn

Early Wynn Jr. nicknamed "Gus", was an American professional baseball right-handed pitcher. He played in Major League Baseball for the Washington Senators, Cleveland Indians, Chicago White Sox, during his 23-year MLB career. Wynn was identified as one of the most intimidating pitchers in the game, having combined his powerful fastball with a hard attitude toward batters, he was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1972. Wynn signed with the Senators at the age of 17, deciding to forego completing his high school education, in pursuit of a baseball career, he spent a couple of seasons in Minor League Baseball, achieving a brief MLB stint in 1939. Wynn returned to the big leagues in 1941, pitching his first full MLB season in 1942. Wynn missed all of 1945 and a portion of the 1946 season, while serving in the United States Army during the latter part of World War II. Wynn was a member of one of baseball's best pitching rotations, along with Bob Feller, Mike Garcia, Bob Lemon, while with the Indians in the mid-1950s.

He won the 1959 Cy Young Award, beginning to rely more on the knuckleball, as the velocity of his pitches declined. Wynn retired following the 1963 season, he finished with 300 career wins, having spent the last several months of his career in pursuit of that win. Wynn served after his retirement as a player. In 1999, he was included on The Sporting News list of the 100 greatest players in baseball history. Wynn died that year in an assisted living facility following a stroke. Wynn was born January 6, 1920, in Hartford, the son of Blanche Wynn and Early Wynn Sr. an automobile mechanic and former semipro baseball player. He excelled at both baseball in high school; as a sophomore, Wynn was about to become the top running back at his school when he suffered a broken leg on a punt return. The injury focused his attention on baseball. Wynn described it as "my best break ever."When he was a teenager, Wynn attended a tryout session in Florida for the Washington Senators. He impressed Senators coach Clyde Milan enough that the organization offered him a minor league contract.

Wynn decided not to finish high school. Between 1937 and 1939, Wynn pitched minor league baseball in the Florida State League and the Piedmont League. Wynn made his MLB debut in 1939, appearing in only three games before returning to the minor leagues for 1940, he made it back to the major leagues in 1941, starting five games, completing four of them and finishing with a 3-1 win-loss record. Wynn was named to Washington's four-man pitching rotation in 1942, he pitched 30 games that season, finishing with a 10-16 record and a 5.12 earned run average. The next season, in 37 games, he finished 18-12 with a 2.91 ERA. He led the league in losses in 1944. Wynn joined the United States Army in 1944, going to the Philippines to serve in World War II. Though he missed the 1945 major league season, Wynn played with a Pacific Army team known as the Manila Dodgers, he rejoined the Senators. In 17 games that year, he finished with an 8-5 record, he pitched 33 games the next year and earned a decision in every game, totaling 17 wins with 15 losses.

Wynn made the 1947 AL All-Star squad for the first time as a replacement for an injured Bob Feller. In 1948, Wynn struggled to an 8-19 record with a 5.82 ERA, giving up a league-high 128 earned runs. In a December 1948 trade and Mickey Vernon were sent to the Cleveland Indians in exchange for Joe Haynes, Ed Klieman and Eddie Robinson. A month earlier, the Boston Red Sox had offered Johnny Pesky to Washington for Wynn, but the trade did not go through; the Indians' pitching coach and former star pitcher Mel Harder taught him how to throw a curveball, slider and knuckleball. Wynn assimilated Harder's lessons and after his 1949 season adjustment, the next year he recorded 18 wins and led the AL with a 3.20 ERA. Between 1950 and 1956, Wynn won at least 17 games per season, his first 20-win season came in 1951. By that time he had become part of one of the greatest pitching rotations in MLB history, joining Bob Feller, Bob Lemon and Mike Garcia. Manager Al López called those four pitchers "the greatest pitching staff I saw during 33 years in the majors."In 1954, Wynn posted a 2.73 ERA, won 23 games and struck out 155 batters.

The team went to the 1954 World Series. After suffering from pneumonia at the beginning of the 1955 season, Wynn earned his first win in May, he pitched 3 scoreless innings in the game. He finished the 1955 season with a 17-11 record and a 2.82 ERA. In a 1956 game, he was struck in the face by a sharp line drive off the bat of Washington Senators shortstop Jose Valdivielso, he did not leave the game later realizing he had lost seven teeth. The facial wound required 16 stitches. In 1957, Wynn became the second pitcher in major league history to win a game by a score of 1-0 while recording at least ten strikeouts and hitting a home run. Wynn was traded to the Chicago White Sox after the 1957 season. Wynn and Al Smith were exchanged for Fred Hatfield. In 1958 Wynn became the first MLB pitcher to lead his league in strikeouts in consecutive years with different teams, he won the Cy Young Award in 1959 at the age of 39, posting a record of 22–10, with 179 strikeouts and a 3.16 ERA which helped lead the

Texas State Highway 191

State Highway 191 or SH 191 is a Texas state highway running from the north side of Odessa east to the western edge of Midland. The highway is used as a reliever route for local traffic between the two cities, as opposed to I‑20 a few miles to the south. SH 191 begins at an intersection with Spur 450 in western Odessa, just short of SH 302 and Loop 338; the highway runs east along 42nd Street, soon crossing U. S. Highway 385. In the eastern part of the city, SH 191 crosses by Music City Mall and the University of Texas at the Permian Basin and picks up freeway status at the eastern leg of Loop 338; the highway passes through rural land, with some subdivisions nearby. The highway exits the Odessa city enters into Midland County. SH 191 enters into Midland. A few miles to the northeast of here, SH 158 joins the highway, with the two running together until Loop 250, where SH 191 ends, but the mainlanes continues east into the city as a business route of SH 158. SH 191 was designated on November 28, 1932, on a route from Albany south to Coleman.

On September 26, 1939, this route had been transferred to US 183. The current SH 191 was designated on August 31, 1977, from SH 158 southwest to Loop 338 & Spur 492. Spur 492 was designated on June 4, 1970, from Loop 338 westward to Grandview Avenue, replacing FM 2399 and extending the road 0.5 miles west. On August 4, 1970, Spur 492 extended west to another point on Loop 338; this mileage was transferred to SH 191 on April 26, 1983. All exits are unnumbered