Triton is a Greek god, the messenger of the sea. He is the son of Poseidon and Amphitrite and goddess of the sea and is herald for his father, he is represented as a merman which has the upper body of a human and the tail, soft dorsal fin, spiny dorsal fin, anal fin, pelvic fins and caudal fin of a fish, "sea-hued", according to Ovid "his shoulders barnacled with sea-shells". Like his father, Poseidon, he carried a trident. However, Triton's special attribute was a twisted conch shell, on which he blew like a trumpet to calm or raise the waves, its sound was such a cacophony, that when loudly blown, it put the giants to flight, who imagined it to be the roar of a dark wild beast. According to Hesiod's Theogony, Triton dwelt with his parents in a golden palace in the depths of the sea; the story of the Argonauts places his home on the coast of Libya. When the Argo was driven ashore in the Gulf of Syrtes Minor, the crew carried the vessel to the "Tritonian Lake", Lake Tritonis, whence Triton, the local deity euhemeristically rationalized by Diodorus Siculus as "then ruler over Libya", welcomed them with a guest-gift of a clod of earth and guided them through the lake's marshy outlet back to the Mediterranean.
When the Argonauts were lost in the desert, he guided them to find the passage from the river back to the sea. Triton was foster parent to the goddess Athena. Pallas was killed by Athena accidentally during a sparring fight between the two goddesses. Triton can sometimes be multiplied into a host of daimones of the sea. In Virgil's Aeneid, book 6, it is told that Triton killed Misenus, son of Aeolus, by drowning him after he challenged the gods to play as well as he did. Over time, Triton's class and image came to be associated with a class of mermaid-like creatures, the Tritons, which could be male or female, formed the escort of marine divinities. Tritons were a race of sea goddesses born from Triton. Triton lived with his parents and Amphitrite, known as Celaeno, in a golden palace on the bottom of the sea. According to Homer it was called Aegae. Unlike their ancestor Poseidon, always anthropomorphic in ancient art, Triton's lower half is that of a fish, while the top half is presented in a human figure.
This is debated because their appearance is described differently throughout history. Ordinary Tritons were described in detail by the traveller Pausanias. "The Tritons have the following appearance. On their heads they grow hair like that of marsh frogs not only in color, but in the impossibility of separating one hair from another; the rest of their body is rough with fine scales. Under their ears they have a man's nose, their eyes seem to me blue, they have hands and nails like the shells of the murex. Under the breast and belly is a tail like a dolphin's instead of feet." They are compared to other Merman/Mermaid like beings, such as Merrows and Sirens. They are thought of as the aquatic versions of Satyrs. Another description of Tritons is that of the Centaur-Tritons known as Ichthyocentaurs who are depicted with two horse's feet in place of arms; when Pausanias visited the city of Triteia in the second century CE, he was told that the name of the city was derived from an eponymous Triteia, a daughter of Triton, that it claimed to have been founded by her son, one among several mythic heroes named Melanippus.
Tritons were the trumpeters of the sea, using trumpets made out of a great shell known as a conch. They would blow this shell throughout the sea to calm the waves, or stir them up, all at the command of Poseidon. There are numerous universities and high schools that use Triton as their mascot; these include the following: University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California Eckerd College, St. Petersburg, Florida Edmonds Community College, Washington Iowa Central Community College, Fort Dodge, Iowa Mariner High School, Cape Coral, Florida Notre Dame Academy, Green Bay, Wisconsin San Clemente High School University of Guam, Guam University of Missouri–St. Louis University of Rennes 1, Brittany FranceMany club sports teams, such as junior football leagues and numerous swimming leagues use the symbol of Triton. An example of other uses include Wilfrid Laurier University's orientation week in 2014 that had a colour team named the Green Tritons as part of the weeks events; the largest moon of the planet Neptune has been given the name Triton, as Neptune is the Roman equivalent of Poseidon.
In Wordsworth's sonnet "The World Is Too Much with Us", the poet regrets the prosaic humdrum modern world, yearning for In Jacob Jordaens"The Family of the Artist', now in the Prado, Madrid, a Triton is depicted gripping crushing, a child with its snake-like tail, a scene watched over by an exotic parrot. The significance of this motif in the context of a painting of domestic happiness is unclear, but it may involve a transfer of functions in that the child appears to be blowing on the conch shell in order to frighten away those forces that threaten family peace. A family of large sea snails, the shells of some of which have been used as trumpets since antiquity, are known as "tritons", see Triton; the name Triton is associated in modern industry with tough hard-wearing machines such as the Ford Triton engine and Mitsubishi Triton pickup truck. King Tri
In Greek mythology, Pontus was an ancient, pre-Olympian sea-god, one of the Greek primordial deities. Pontus has no father. For Hesiod, Pontus seems little more than a personification of the sea, ho pontos, "the Road", by which Hellenes signified the Mediterranean Sea. With Gaia, he fathered Nereus, Thaumas and his sister-consort Ceto, the "Strong Goddess" Eurybia. With the sea goddess Thalassa, he fathered all sea life. In a Roman sculpture of the 2nd century AD, rising from seaweed, grasps a rudder with his right hand and leans on the prow of a ship, he wears a mural crown, accompanies Fortuna, whose draperies appear at the left, as twin patron deities of the Black Sea port of Tomis in Moesia. From Aether and Earth: Grief, Wrath, Falsehood, Vengeance, Altercation, Sloth, Pride, Combat, Themis, Pontus. Pontus Gaius Julius Hyginus, Fabulae from The Myths of Hyginus translated and edited by Mary Grant. University of Kansas Publications in Humanistic Studies. Online version at the Topos Text Project.
Hesiod, Theogony from The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White, Cambridge, MA. Harvard University Press. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Greek text available from the same website
Chronos is the personification of time in pre-Socratic philosophy and literature. Chronos was confused with, or consciously identified with, the Titan Cronus in antiquity due to the similarity in names; the identification became more widespread during the Renaissance, giving rise to the allegory of "Father Time" wielding the harvesting scythe. He was depicted in Greco-Roman mosaics as a man turning the Zodiac Wheel. Chronos might be contrasted with the deity Aion as cyclical Time. Chronos is portrayed as an old, wise man with a long, grey beard, similar to Father Time. In some Greek sources, Kairos is mentioned as a brother of Chronos. However, other sources point out. During antiquity, Chronos was interpreted as Cronus. According to Plutarch, the Greeks believed. In addition to the name, the story of Cronus eating his children was interpreted as an allegory to a specific aspect of time held within Cronus' sphere of influence; as the theory went, Cronus represented the destructive ravages of time which consumed all things, a concept, expressed when the Titan king devoured the Olympian gods — the past consuming the future, the older generation suppressing the next generation.
During the Renaissance, the identification of Cronus and Chronos gave rise to "Father Time" wielding the harvesting scythe. The original meaning and etymology of the word chronos are uncertain. English words derived from it include chronology, chronic and chronicle. In the Orphic tradition, the unaging Chronos was "engendered" by "earth and water", produced Aether and Chaos, an egg, it produced the hermaphroditic god Phanes who gave birth to the first generation of gods and is the ultimate creator of the cosmos. Pherecydes of Syros in his lost Heptamychos, around 6th century BC, claimed that there were three eternal principles: Chronos and Chthonie; the semen of Chronos was produced the first generation of gods. Kirk, G. S. J. E. Raven, M. Schofield; the Presocratic Philosophers: A Critical History with a Selection of Texts. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521274559. Plutarch, Volume V: Isis and Osiris; the E at Delphi. The Oracles at Delphi No Longer Given in Verse; the Obsolescence of Oracles. Translated by Frank Cole Babbitt.
Loeb Classical Library No. 306. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1936. ISBN 978-0-674-99337-2. Online version at Harvard University Press. West, M. L; the Orphic Poems, Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-814854-8
In Greek mythology, Glaucus was a Greek prophetic sea-god, born mortal and turned immortal upon eating a magical herb. It was believed that he came to the rescue of sailors and fishermen in storms, having earlier earned a living from the sea himself. Glaucus's parentage is different in Nereus; the story of Glaucus's deification was dealt with in detail by Ovid in Metamorphoses and referenced by many other authors. According to Ovid, Glaucus began his life as a mortal fisherman living in the Boeotian city of Anthedon, he discovered by accident a magical herb which could bring the fish he caught back to life, decided to try eating it. The herb made him immortal, but caused him to grow fins instead of arms and a fish's tail instead of legs, forcing him to dwell forever in the sea. Glaucus was upset by this side-effect, but Oceanus and Tethys received him well and he was accepted among the deities of the sea, learning from them the art of prophecy. John Tzetzes adds to the above story that Glaucus became "immortal, but not immune to aging".
In an alternate, non-extant version cited in Athenaeus, Glaucus chased a hare on Mount Oreia until the animal fell down dead carried his prey to a spring and rubbed it with a bunch of grass, growing about. The herb brought the hare back to life. Glaucus tasted it himself and fell into a state of "divine madness", in which state Zeus made him fling himself into the stormy sea. Athenaeus informs that in yet another version followed by Possis of Magnesia, Glaucus was the builder and the pilot of Argo. During a naval battle between the Argonauts and the Etruscans, he fell into the sea and by the will of Zeus became a sea god. Alexander of Aetolia, cited in Athenaeus, related that the magical herb grew on the island Thrinacia sacred to Helios and served as a remedy against fatigue for the sun god's horses. Aeschrion of Samos informed that it was known as the "dog's-tooth" and was believed to have been sowed by Cronus. Athenaeus, referring to Aristotle's non-extant Constitution of Delos, related that Glaucus settled in Delos together with the Nereids and would give prophecies to whoever asked for them.
He mentions, this time with reference to Nicander, that Apollo was believed to have learned the art of prophecy from Glaucus. An encounter of Glaucus with the Argonauts was described by Diodorus Siculus and Philostratus the Elder; when the Argonauts were caught in a storm, Orpheus addressed the Cabeiroi with prayer. He followed the Argo for two days and prophesied to Heracles and the Dioscuri their future adventures and eventual deification, he addressed other members of the crew individually as well noting that he was sent to them thanks to Orpheus's prayer, instructing them to further pray to the Cabeiroi. In Apollonius Rhodius's version, Glaucus appeared at the point when Telamon quarreled with Jason over Heracles and Polyphemus being left behind on the coast of Bithynia where Hylas had been lost. Glaucus reconciled the two by letting them know that it had been ordained for Heracles to return to Eurystheus's court and complete his Twelve Labours, for Polyphemus to found Cius, while Hylas had been abducted by a nymph and married her.
Cf. above for the version that made Glaucus an Argonaut himself. In Euripides's play Orestes, Glaucus appeared in front of Menelaus on the latter's voyage home, announcing to him the death of his brother Agamemnon by the hand of Clytaemnestra. According to Ovid and Hyginus, Glaucus fell in love with the beautiful nymph Scylla and wanted her for his wife, but she was appalled by his fish-like features and fled onto land when he tried to approach her, he asked the witch Circe for a potion to make Scylla fall in love with him, but Circe fell in love with him instead. She tried to win his heart with her most passionate and loving words, telling him to scorn Scylla and stay with her, but he replied that trees would grow on the ocean floor and seaweed would grow on the highest mountain before he would stop loving Scylla. In her anger, Circe poisoned the pool where Scylla bathed, transforming her into a terrible monster with twelve feet and six heads. Euanthes and Theolytus of Methymna recorded an affair between Glaucus and Ariadne: according to Athenaeus who cites these authors, Glaucus seduced Ariadne as she was abandoned by Theseus on Dia.
Dionysus fought Glaucus over Ariadne and overpowered him, binding his hands and feet with grape vines. According to Mnaseas, again cited in Athenaeus, Glaucus abducted Syme on a journey back from Asia, had the island Syme named after her. Glaucus was reported to have had male lovers as well: Nicander in Europia mentioned Nereus as one, while Hedylus of Samos wrote that it was out of love for Melicertes that Glaucus threw himself into the sea, yet according to Nicanor of Cyrene's Change of Names and the deified Melicertes were one and the same. It is not known if Glaucus had any children, but Pausanias mentions Glaucus of Carystus as an alleged descendant of Glaucus the sea god. Virgil seems to indicate Deiphobe, as a daughter of Glaucus. Aeschylus wrote. A work entitled Glaucus
Jacob Bryant was an English scholar and mythographer, described as "the outstanding figure among the mythagogues who flourished in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries." Bryant was born at Plymouth. His father was afterwards moved to Chatham. Bryant was first sent to a school near Rochester, to Eton College. In 1736 he was elected to a scholarship at King's College, where he took his degrees of B. A. and M. A. being elected a fellow. He returned to Eton as private tutor to the Duke of Marlborough. In 1756 he accompanied the duke, master-general of ordnance and commander-in-chief of the forces in Germany, to the Continent as private secretary, he was rewarded by a lucrative appointment in the Board of Ordnance, which allowed him time to indulge his literary tastes. He turned it down. Bryant died on 14 November 1804 at Cippenham near Windsor, he left his library to King's College, having made some valuable presents from it to the king and the Duke of Marlborough. He bequeathed £2000 to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, £1000 for the use of the retired collegers of Eton.
His chief works were A New System or Analysis of Ancient Mythology, Observations on the Plain of Troy, Dissertation concerning the Wars of Troy. He wrote on theological and literary subjects. Bryant saw all mythology as derived from the Hebrew Scriptures, with Greek mythology arising via the Egyptians; the New System attempted to link the mythologies of the world to the stories recorded in Genesis. Bryant argued that the descendents of Ham had been the most energetic, but the most rebellious peoples of the world and had given rise to the great ancient and classical civilisations, he called these people "Amonians", because he believed that the Egyptian god Amon was a deified form of Ham. He argued that Ham had been identified with the sun, that much of pagan European religion derived from Amonian sun worship. John Richardson was Bryant's chief opponent, in the preface to his Persian Dictionary. In an anonymous pamphlet, An Apology, Bryant reaffirmed his opinions. Richardson revised the dissertation on languages prefixed to the dictionary, added a second part: Further Remarks on the New Analysis of Ancient Mythology.
Bryant wrote a pamphlet in answer to Daniel Wyttenbach of Amsterdam, about the same time. Sir William Jones mentions Bryant's model, accepting parts of it and criticising others his conjectural etymologies, he referred to the New System as "a profound and agreeable work", adding that he had read it through three times "with increased attention and pleasure, though not with perfect acquiescence in some other less important parts of his plausible system". Bryant in the New System acknowledges help from William Barford, his theories are credited as an influence on the mythological system of William Blake, who had worked in his capacity as an engraver on the illustrations to Bryant's New System. In his books on Troy, Bryant endeavoured to show that the existence of Troy and the Greek expedition were purely mythological, with no basis in real history. In 1791, Andrew Dalzel translated a work of Jean Baptiste LeChevalier as Description of the Plain of Troy, it provoked Bryant's Observations upon a Treatise... the Plain of Troy and A Dissertation concerning the War of Troy.
A fierce controversy resulted, with Bryant attacked by Thomas Falconer, John Morritt, William Vincent, Gilbert Wakefield. Bryant's first work was Observations and Enquiries relating to various parts of Ancient History... the Wind Euroclydon, the island Melite, the Shepherd Kings. Bryant attacked the opinions of Bochart, Beza and Bentley; when his account of the Apamean medal was disputed in the Gentleman's Magazine, Bryant defended himself in Apamean Medal and of the Inscription ΝΩΕ, London, 1775. Joseph Hilarius Eckhel upheld his views, but Daines Barrington and others opposed him in the Society of Antiquaries of London. After his friend Robert Wood died in 1771, Bryant edited one of his works as An Essay on the Original Genius and Writings of Homer, with a Comparative View of the Troade. Vindiciæ Flavianæ: a Vindication of the Testimony of Josephus concerning Jesus Christ was anonymous; the sequel was A Farther Illustration of the Analysis. This work influenced Joseph Priestley. An Address to Dr. Priestley... upon Philosophical Necessity.
Bryant was a believer in the authenticity of Thomas Chatterton's fabrications. Chatterton had created poems written in mock Middle English and had attributed them to Thomas Rowley, an imaginary monk of the 15th century; when Thomas Tyrwhitt issued his work The Poems supposed to have been written at Bristol by Thomas Rowley and others,' Bryant with Robert Glynn followed with his Observations on the Poems of Thomas Rowley in which the Authenticity of those Poems is ascertained. Gemmarum Antiquarum Delectus was printed at the expense of the Duke of Marlborough, with engravings by Francesco Bartolozzi; the first volume was written in Latin by Bryant, translated into French by Matthew Maty. On the Zingara or Gypsey Language was read by Bryant to the Royal Society, printed in the seventh volume of Archæologia. A disquisition On the Land of Goshen, written about 1767, was published in William Bowyer's Miscellaneous Tracts, 1785. A Treatise on the Authenticity of the Scriptures was ano
Mount Olympus is the highest mountain in Greece. It is located in the Olympus Range on the border between Thessaly and Macedonia, between the regional units of Pieria and Larissa, about 80 km southwest from Thessaloniki. Mount Olympus has 52 peaks, deep gorges, exceptional biodiversity; the highest peak, meaning "nose", rises to 2,919 metres. It is one of the highest peaks in Europe in terms of topographic prominence. Olympus is notable in Greek mythology on Mytikas peak. Mount Olympus is noted for its rich flora, it has been a National Park, the first in Greece, since 1938. It is a World Biosphere Reserve; every year, thousands of people visit Olympus to admire its fauna and flora, tour its slopes, reach its peaks. Organized mountain refuges and various mountaineering and climbing routes are available to visitors who want to explore it; the usual starting point for climbing Olympus is the town of Litochoro, on the eastern foothills of the mountain, 100 km from Thessaloniki. The shape of Olympus was formed by rain and wind, which produced an isolated tower 3,000 metres above the sea, only 18 kilometres away at Litochoro.
Olympus has many peaks and an circular shape. The mountain has a circumference of 150 kilometres, an average diameter of 26 kilometres, 500 square kilometres of area. To the northwest lies the Vlach village of Kokkinoplou; the Makryrema stream separates Olympus from the massif of Voulgara. The villages Petra and Dion lie to the northwest, while on the eastern side there is the town of Litochoro, where Enipeas bisects the massif of Olympus. On its southeastern side, the Ziliana gorge divides Mount Olympus from Kato Olympos, while on its southwestern foothills, there are the villages Sykaminea and Karya; the Agia Triada Sparmou Monastery and the village Pythion lie to the west. Olympus' dry foothills, known as the Xirokampi, are covered in chaparral and provides habitat for animals such as wild boar. Further east, the plain of Dion watered by the streams which originate on Olympus. Mount Olympus is formed of sedimentary rock laid down 200 million years ago in a shallow sea. Various geological events that followed caused the emergence of the sea.
Around one million years ago glaciers created its plateaus and depressions. With the temperature rise that followed, the ice melted and the streams that were created swept away large quantities of crushed rock in the lowest places, forming the alluvial fans, that spread out all over the region from the foothills of the mountain to the sea; the Geological Museum of Mount Olympus, located in Leptokarya, provides detailed information about the geological structure of the mountain. The complicated geological past of the region is obvious from the morphology of Olympus and its National Park. Features include deep gorges and dozens of smooth peaks, many of them in altitude of more than 2,000 metres, including Aghios Antonios, Kalogeros and Profitis Ilias. However, it is the central vertical, rocky peaks, that impress the visitor. Over the town of Litochoro, on the horizon, the relief of the mountain displays an apparent V, between two peaks of equal height; the left limb is the peak named Mytikas. It is Greece's highest peak.
On the right is Stefani, which presents the most impressive and steep peak of Olympus, with its last rising 200 meters presenting the greatest challenge for climbers. Further south, Skolio completes an arc of about 200 degrees, with its steep slopes forming on the west side, like a wall, an impressive precipitous amphitheatrical cavity, 700 metres in depth and 1,000 metres in circumference, the'Megala Kazania'. On the east side of the high peaks the steep slopes form zone like parallel folds, the'Zonaria'. Narrower and steeper scorings, the'Loukia', lead to the peak. Οn the north side, between Stefani and Profitis Ilias, extends the Muses' Plateau, at 2,550 metres, while further south in the center of the massif, extends the alpine tundra region of Bara, at an altitude of 2,350 metres. Olympus has numerous gullies. Most distinguishable of the ravines are those of Mavrologos-Enipeas and Mavratzas-Sparmos near Bara and'cut' the massif in two oval portions. On the southern foothills the great gorge of Ziliana, 13 km long, consists of a natural limit that separates the mountain from Lower Olympus.
There are many precipices and a number of caves nowadays unexplored. The form and layout of the rocks favor the emergence of numerous springs lower than 2,000 m, of small seasonal lakes and streams and of a small river, with its springs in the site Prionia and its estuary in the Aegean Sea; the origin of the name Όλυμπος Olumpos is unknown and considered of "pre-Greek" origin. In Homeric Greek, the variant Οὔλυμπος Oulumpos occurs. Homer appears to be using οὔλυμπος as a common noun, as a synonym of οὐρανός ouranos "sky". Mt Olympus was also known as Mount Belus, after Iliad 1.591, where the seat of the gods is referred to as βηλ θεσπεσίο "heavenly threshold". In Ancient Greek religion and myth
The Titans and Titanesses are a race of deities worshiped as part of Ancient Greek religion. They were considered to be the second generation of divine beings, succeeding the primordial deities and preceding the Olympians, but included certain descendants of the second generation; the Titans include the first twelve children of Gaia and Uranus, who ruled during the legendary Golden Age, comprised the first pantheon of Greek deities. Beekes connects the word "Titan" with τιτώ. Other scholars connect the word to the Greek verb τείνω, through an epic variation τιταίνω and τίσις. Hesiod appears to share that view when he narrates:But their father, great Ouranos, called them Titans by surname, rebuking his sons, whom he had begotten himself. Robert Graves suggested that Titans means'lords'. According to Greek mythology, the highest Titan, overthrew his father Uranus. In turn, the Titans were overthrown in an event known as the Titanomachy; the Greeks may have borrowed this mytheme from the Ancient Near East.
Greeks of the classical age knew several poems about the war between the Titans. The dominant one, the only one that has survived, was in the Theogony attributed to Hesiod. A lost epic, Titanomachia was mentioned in passing in an essay On Music, once attributed to Plutarch; the Titans played a prominent role in the poems attributed to Orpheus. Although only scraps of the Orphic narratives survive, they show interesting differences with the Hesiodic tradition; the classical Greek myths of the Titanomachy fall into a class of similar myths throughout Europe and the Near East concerning a war in heaven, where one generation or group of gods opposes the dominant one. Sometimes the elders are supplanted, sometimes the rebels lose and are either cast out of power or incorporated into the pantheon. Other examples might include the wars of the Æsir with the Vanir in Scandinavian mythology, the Babylonian epic Enuma Elish, the Hittite "Kingship in Heaven" narrative, the obscure generational conflict in Ugaritic fragments, Virabhadra's conquest of the early Vedic Gods, the rebellion of Lucifer in Christianity.
The Titanomachy lasted for ten years. The Titans were imprisoned in Tartarus. Tartarus is said to be the deepest part of the Underworld and the place where the evilest beings are tortured for all eternity. According to Hesiod, the first twelve Titans were the females Mnemosyne, Theia, Phoebe and Themis and the males Oceanus, Coeus, Cronus and Iapetus, they begat more Titans: Hyperion's children Helios and Eos. Surviving fragments of poetry ascribed to Orpheus preserve variations on the mythology of the Titans. In one such text, Zeus does not set upon his father violently. Instead, Rhea spreads out a banquet for Cronus. Rather than being consigned to Tartarus, Cronus is dragged – still drunk – to the cave of Nyx, where he continues to dream throughout eternity. Another myth concerning the Titans revolves around Dionysus. At some point in his reign, Zeus decides to give up the throne in favor of his infant son Dionysus, like the infant Zeus, is guarded by the Kouretes; the Titans decide to claim the throne for themselves.
Zeus, slays the Titans with his thunderbolt. This story is told by the poets Callimachus and Nonnus, who call this Dionysus "Zagreus", in a number of Orphic texts, which do not. Several sources from Late Antique concern the role of the Titans in the creation of the human race; the Neoplatonist philosopher Olympiodorus recounted in his commentary of Plato's Phaedo, affirms that humanity sprang up out of the fatty smoke of the burning Titan corpses. Pindar and Oppian refer offhandedly to the "Titanic nature" of humans. According to them, the body is the titanic part. Other early writers imply that humanity was born out of the malevolent blood shed by the Titans in their war against Zeus; some scholars consider that Olympiodorus' report, the only surviving explicit expression of this mythic connection, embodied a tradition that dated to the Bronze Age, while Radcliffe Edmonds has suggested an element of innovative allegorized improvisation to suit Olympiodorus' purpose. Some 19th- and 20th-century scholars, including Jane Ellen Harrison, have argued that an initiatory or shamanic ritual underlies the myth of the dismemberment and cannibalism of Dionysus by the Titans.
She asserts that the word "Titan" comes from the Greek τίτανος, signifying white "earth, clay, or gypsum," and that the Titans were "white clay men", or men covered by white clay or gypsum dust in their rituals. Martin Litchfield West asserts this in relation to shamanistic initiatory rites of early Greek religious practices; the planet Saturn is named for the Roman equiv