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Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery which deals with the diagnosis and treatment of eye disorders. An ophthalmologist is a specialist in ophthalmology; the credentials include a degree in medicine, followed by additional four to five years of ophthalmology residency training. Ophthalmology residency training programs may require a one-year pre-residency training in internal medicine, pediatrics, or general surgery. Additional specialty training may be sought in a particular aspect of eye pathology. Ophthalmologists are allowed to use medications to treat eye diseases, implement laser therapy, perform surgery when needed. Ophthalmologists may participate in academic research on the diagnosis and treatment for eye disorders. Amblyopia - known as “lazy eye.” Due to decreased function in one or both eyes. Anterior chamber - the fluid-filled space between the cornea and iris. Aqueous humor - the clear, watery fluid between the cornea and the front of the vitreous; the aqueous humor maintains pressure within the eye.

Since the lens and cornea have no blood supply, the aqueous humor performs the blood’s job of carrying nutrients to those structures. Astigmatism - results from an irregularly-shaped or football-shaped cornea which causes light to refract ineffectively. Vision irregularities depend on the exact nature of the astigmatism. Cataract - a cloudy or opaque portion of the eye’s crystalline lens that can block vision. Choroid - the thin layer of major blood vessels that lies between the retina and sclera; the choroid nutrients. It thickens at the front of the eye to form the ciliary body. Ciliary body - the ring of muscle fibers that holds the lens of the eye, it helps control intraocular pressure. Ciliary muscle - the smooth muscle portion of the ciliary body, responsible for controlling the lens’ shape as it narrows or thickens to focus on images at different distances. Ciliary processes - the portion of the ciliary body that produces the eye’s aqueous humor. Cones - the receptor cells in the retina that detect color and fine detail.

Conjunctiva - the transparent mucous membrane that lines the inner surfaces of the eyelids and covers the sclera, except at the cornea. Conjunctivitis - an inflammation or infection of the conjunctiva. Known as “pink eye.” Cornea - the dome-shaped window of the eye that provides most of the eye’s optical power. Light is refracted by the cornea's angle toward the back of the eye. Corneal transplantation - a surgical procedure to remove a diseased or scarred cornea and replace it with a healthy cornea from a deceased donor. Diabetic retinopathy - a condition associated with diabetes that causes retinal changes and hemorrhaging. More than 7 million of the 14 million Americans diagnosed with diabetes will experience some degree of diabetic retinopathy, the most common diabetic eye disease. Nearly all individuals with Type I diabetes will experience some retinal changes 15 years after diagnosis of diabetes. One-fourth of these will experience severe diabetic retinopathy. About 10% of individuals with Type II diabetes will experience severe diabetic retinopathy 15 years after diagnosis.

Diopter - a unit of measurement—abbreviated as “D” on medical charts. It measures the degree to which light converges or diverges within the eye or through a lens, such as an eyeglass lens or contact lens. Drusen - white or yellowish deposits within the retina that occur after age 60. Individuals with drusen are at increased risk of developing abnormal blood vessels that leak and form scar tissue on the choroid. Emmetropia - Light focuses on the retina, near and far objects are seen clearly. Gene therapy - a therapy to replace defective genes responsible for retinal degenerations, such as macular degeneration; this therapy is under investigation in the laboratories at the Emory Eye Center. Glaucoma - a group of diseases that result from increased intraocular pressure, which can result in damage to the optic nerve. A common cause of preventable vision loss. Hyperopia - results when the eyeball is too short. Light rays hit the retina. Distant objects are clearer than near objects. Intracorneal ring - a tiny, transparent ring that can be inserted into the periphery of the cornea to change its shape and correct nearsightedness.

Intraocular lens - a plastic implant, used to replace the natural lens of the eye. Abbreviated as “IOL.” Iris - the ring of muscle fibers behind the cornea that determine eye color. The iris opens and closes the hole at its center—the pupil—to control the amount of light entering the eye. Keratoconus - a hereditary, degenerative condition that causes the cornea to thin and protrude into a cone-like shape. LASIK - laser in situ keratomileusis. A surgical procedure during which the top layer of the cornea is pulled back and the middle layer is sculpted to eliminate refractive errors such as nearsightedness and astigmatism; the top layer of the cornea is replaced to serve as a protective flap. Lens - the almond-shaped, elastic structure within the eye that focuses images onto the retina, it is curved on both its back surfaces. Lensectomy - surgical removal of the lens. Used to remove a cataract. Macula - the central portion of the retina, responsible for the sharpest sight. Macular degeneration - the leading cause of blindness in individuals over age 60.

Called “rusting of the retina.” There are two main types and wet. The dry or atrophic type is the most common—affectin

Dancing Barry

Barry Richards is an entertainer who performed at National Basketball Association games under the stage name Dancing Barry. He performed with the Los Angeles Lakers and was a staple of their Showtime era. Richards made his Dancing Barry debut for the Houston Rockets in 1975, he performed in Houston for a few years. Starting in 1983, he was a paid performer for the Lakers for seven full seasons, he performed for the Charlotte Hornets for five seasons as Magic Barry, a name he uses for his entertainment company, corporate game shows and magic act. Richards graduated from the University of Houston, he first danced at a Houston Rockets game in the 1975 NBA Playoffs. Richards had graduated from a Fred Astaire dance studio, where he received a deal for five lessons for $5; the Rockets' opponent was the New York Knicks, whose home games at Madison Square Garden featured Dancing Harry placing a whammy on the opposing team. Richards' friends encouraged him to be Harry's counterpart. In the first game of the series, the Knicks were being routed in the fourth quarter and called timeout.

Avoiding security guards, Richards put on a swing-dance spin move and continued dancing and avoiding security through the entire song. After the song ended, he ripped open his shirt to display "DANCING BARRY" where Superman wears his "S". Dancing Barry became a mainstay at Houston Rockets games for the next four seasons. Two years in 1982, Richards moved to Los Angeles and became a real estate mortgage broker, as well as a part-time magician. A friend, who believed the Los Angeles Lakers's home crowd at The Forum was "laid back", convinced Richards to revive his Dancing Barry routine. On March 20, 1983, the Lakers called a timeout in the fourth quarter after a 17-point lead over the Dallas Mavericks had been reduced to one point; the band was playing "When danced. Lakers announcer Chick Hearn took notice of his performance, the Lakers scored eight points in a row and won the game, 117–110. For the following seven-plus seasons, Dancing Barry was a regular at Lakers games, always performing during the fourth quarter.

He was a staple of their Showtime Era, his tenure with the team included six NBA Finals appearances and championships in 1985, 1987 and 1988 for the Lakers. He no longer had to pay for tickets, he was paid $35 a game during his first season with the Lakers, the same rate as the Laker Girls were paid; when the Los Angeles Clippers offered to pay him $200 a game, the Lakers matched the offer. He was perturbed. Although he came up with new comedy dance routines that required people to help, Dancing Barry had to pay them out of his own pocket. Dancing Barry performed wearing stylized sunglasses, wore either an all-white or custom-made purple-and-gold tuxedo. Barry's high-level energy worked a quiet Forum crowd into a frenzy. During some broadcasts, Chick Hearn credited him with firing up the Lakers. Barry sometimes joined then-Laker Girl Paula Abdul in an on-court skit. Dancing Barry performed again in Houston in a 1986 Finals game between the Rockets and the Boston Celtics, where he said he was accosted by a fan who called him a "traitor".

Barry recalled his last appearance for the Lakers being a 15-point victory against the Chicago Bulls in January 1990. The games grew less fun for him, he stopped going. Barry left with a bitter taste in his mouth, as the Lakers never said goodbye to him or thanked him for seven seasons of great memories for the fans. In 2007, he refused an invitation to attend a 20-year reunion of the Lakers 1987 championship when the Lakers denied his request for $2,000 and an airplane ticket though he would have had to fly across the country. Richards moved to Charlotte, North Carolina, he became a territorial sales representative and trainer for a veterinary laboratory, selling lab services and training vets on promoting their business. On the side he performed as Magic Barry, producing corporate game shows and performing close-up magic at both corporate and family events, he danced at Charlotte Hornets games for five years, performing his Lakers' act under the name Magic Barry, before the team moved to New Orleans.

Official website

List of philosophers born in the 15th and 16th centuries

Philosophers born in the 15th and 16th centuries, listed alphabetically: Note: This list has a minimal criterion for inclusion and the relevance to philosophy of some individuals on the list is disputed. See also: List of philosophers born in the centuries BC List of philosophers born in the 1st through 10th centuries List of philosophers born in the 11th through 14th centuries List of philosophers born in the 15th and 16th centuries List of philosophers born in the 17th century List of philosophers born in the 18th century List of philosophers born in the 19th century List of philosophers born in the 20th century Isaac ben Judah Abravanel, Judah ben Isaac Abravanel, Alessandro Achillini, Uriel Acosta, Rodolphus Agricola, Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa, * Leone Battista Alberti, Yohanan ben Isaac Alemanno, Isaac ben Moses Arama, Jacobus Arminius, Francis Bacon, 12 Domingo Báñez, Sebastiano Basso, Gabriel Biel, Jean Bodin, 12 Jakob Böhme, Giovanni Botero, Giordano Bruno, 12* Thomas Cajetan, 12 John Calvin, 2 Tommaso Campanella, 12 Gerolamo Cardano, Andrea Cesalpino, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Pierre Charron, Ch'en Hsien-chang, Chiao Hung, John Comenius, 12 Nicolaus Copernicus, 12 Johannes Crellius, Cesare Cremonini, Jalal al-Din al-Dawani, Elijah Delmedigo, Joseph Solomon Delmedigo, Denys the Carthusian, René Descartes, 12 Guillaume du Vair, Desiderius Erasmus, 12 Marsilio Ficino, 12* Robert Filmer, 12 Robert Fludd, Pedro da Fonseca, Fujiwara Seika, Galileo Galilei, 12 Pierre Gassendi, 12 Rudolph Goclenius, Wawrzyniec Grzymala Goslicki Hugo Grotius, 12 Henricus Regius, Edward Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Cherbury, Abraham Cohen de Herrera, Thomas Hobbes, 12 Richard Hooker, John of St. Thomas, Joachim Jungius, Bartholomäus Keckermann, Johannes Kepler, * Isaac La Peyrère, Justus Lipsius, Liu Tsung-chou, Martin Luther, 12 Niccolò Machiavelli, 12 John Major, 12 Juan de Mariana, Jacopo Mazzoni, Bartolomé de Medina, Philipp Melanchthon, Marin Mersenne, Judah Messer Leon, Mikyo Dorje, Muhammad Baqir Mir Damad, Luis de Molina, 12 Michel de Montaigne, 12 Thomas More, * Mulla Sadra, 12 Nicholas of Cusa, 12* Agostino Nifo, Richard Overton, Francesco Patrizi da Cherso Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, 12* Pietro Pomponazzi, 12 François Rabelais, Petrus Ramus, Raghunatha Siromani, Francisco Sanches, Julius Caesar Scaliger, Michal Sedziwój, John Selden, Francesco Silvestri, Sosan Hyujong, Domingo de Soto, Francisco Suárez, 12* Nicolaus Taurellus, Bernardino Telesio, Teresa of Avila, Francisco Toledo, Lorenzo Valla, 12* Vallabhacharya, Lucilio "Giulio Cesare" Vanini, Gabriel Vasquez, Nicoletto Vernia, Francisco de Vitoria, 12 Juan Luís Vives, Wang Yangming, 12 Thomas White, Yi Hwang Yi I Jacopo Zabarella, List of philosophers

Katie Prankerd

Catherine Rachel "Katie" Prankerd is a Welsh road and track cyclist and a member of the Podium Ambition Pro Cycling squad. Born in Cardiff, Prankerd began competing at a young age with the Maindy Flyers children's cycle club before joining Cardiff Ajax. Prankerd set the record for the 5 km Tandem Standing Start event on the track along with Alex Greenfield, with a time of 7 minutes 4.424 seconds. The record was set in Newport Velodrome on 10 June 2004, they hold the 10 km Tandem Standing Start event on the track, with a time of 13 minutes 10.421 seconds. The record was set in Newport Velodrome on 16 May 2006. In 2008 Prankerd rode with Team Halfords Bikehut before moving to Vision1 Racing in 2009. Prankerd suffered a setback to her cycling career. Subsequently, she took up a coaching role at the Wales National Velodrome in Newport and teamed up with sighted cyclist Nia Knight with a view to competing in the tandem event at the 2014 Commonwealth Games. Prankerd subsequently rode solo, representing Wales at the Commonwealth Games in the scratch race, where she finished 7th.

Profile on British Cycling website

Conor Kostick

Conor Kostick is an Irish historian and writer living in Dublin. He is the author of many works of fiction. Epic was his first novel and was awarded a place on the International Board on Books for Young People Honours list for 2006 and on the Booklist Best Fantasy Books for Youth list for 2007; the sequel to Epic is Saga, first published in Ireland late in 2006. At their 2009 awards, the Reading Association of Ireland gave him the Special Merit Award'in recognition of his significant contribution to writing for children in Ireland.' Conor Kostick was the editor of Socialist Worker in Ireland and a reviewer for the Journal of Music in Ireland. He was twice chairperson of the Irish Writers' Union, he was awarded the Farmleigh writer's residency for the summer of 2010 and a place on the nominees list for the Astrid Lindgren Memorial Award 2012 and 2013. In 2015, Conor Kostick became Chairperson of the Irish Copyright Licensing Agency and was President of the Irish Jury for the EU Prize for Literature, in that year too he was appointed to the Board of the National Library of Ireland.

In 2018, the Kerala Literature Festival, chose to showcase Irish literature and Conor Kostick was one of seven Irish writers invited to participate. In August that year, he was recruited by the UK's Ockham Publishing to lead a new imprint, Level Up publishing, with a remit to publish LitRPG. In 2019, Conor Kostick again was president of the Irish Jury of the EU Prize for Literature; as an historian, Conor Kostick's awards include a gold medal from Trinity College, first prize in the 2001 Dublinia Medieval Essay Competition. He is the brother of the playwright Gavin Kostick. Conor Kostick was a designer for Treasure Trap. A former winner of Manorcon, now one of Europe's grand prix Diplomacy events, Conor Kostick was a member of the Irish team that won the Diplomacy National World Cup in 2012. Epic. Saga. Edda. Kudos. Aliens. Revenge Upon the Vampyres. Dancers Beyond the Whorl of Time; the Siege of Mettleburg. The Murder Mystery; the Book of Curses. Move; the Book of Wishes. The Dragon's Revenge; the Art of Correspondence in the Game of Diplomacy.

Irish Writers Against War, co-editor with Katherine Moore. The Social Structure of the First Crusade. Revolution in Ireland; the Easter Rising, A Guide to Dublin in 1916, with Lorcan Collins. The Siege of Jerusalem. Medieval Italy and Early Modern Women – Essays in Honour of Christine Meek, editor; the Crusades and the Near East: Cultural Histories, editor. Strongbow. Michael O'Hanrahan. Making the Medieval Relevant, co-editor. Level Up editor EPIC by Conor Kostick at O'Brien Press Interview with Kostick as historian Interview for readers from Poland Interview of Kostick as novelist Conor Kostick at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Conor Kostick at Library of Congress Authorities, with 13 catalogue records

Arnica venosa

Arnica venosa is a rare California species of arnica in the sunflower family known by the common name Shasta County arnica. It should not be confused with A. viscosa. Arnica venosa is endemic to the Klamath Mountains of northwestern California, where it can be found only in Shasta and Trinity Counties. Arnica venosa is a perennial herb producing one or more hairy, glandular stems up to about 50 centimeters tall. There are six to ten pairs of veiny, toothed leaves along the stem, each lance- to oval-shaped and 3 to 7 centimeters long; the inflorescence bears a single flower head lined with hairy phyllaries. The head is discoid, containing only yellow disc florets, no ray florets; the fruit is an achene about 7 millimeters long. Jepson Manual Treatment — Arnica venosa USDA Plants Profile Arnica venosa — U. C. Photo gallery