Jabril ibn Bukhtishu
Jabril ibn Bukhtishu written as Bakhtyshu, was an 8th-9th century physician from the Bukhtishu family of Assyrian Nestorian physicians from the Academy of Gundishapur. He spoke the Syriac language. Grandson of Jirjis ibn Jibril, he lived in the second half of the eighth century, he was physician to Ja'far the Barmakide in 805-6 to Harun al-Rashid and to al-Ma'mun. He exerted much influence upon the progress of science in Baghdad. Works attributed to him include Kitāb ṭabā’i‘ al-ḥayawān wa-khawāṣṣihā wa-manāfi‘ a‘ḍā’ihā, written for Nasir al-Dawla, he was a member of the Bakhtyashu family. He patronized the translators. List of Persian scientists The Bukhtishu family. Bukhtishu, Abdollah ibn. Yuhanna ibn Bukhtishu F. Wüstenfeld, Arabische Aerzte. Lucien Leclerc, Médecine arabe. Max Meyerhof, New Light on Hunain ibn Ishaq
The Abbasid Caliphate was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It was founded by a dynasty descended from Muhammad's uncle, Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib, from whom the dynasty takes its name, they ruled as caliphs for most of the caliphate from their capital in Baghdad in modern-day Iraq, after having overthrown the Umayyad Caliphate in the Abbasid Revolution of 750 CE. The Abbasid Caliphate first centred its government in Kufa, modern-day Iraq, but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur founded the city of Baghdad, near the ancient Sasanian capital city of Ctesiphon; the Abbasid period was marked by reliance on Persian bureaucrats for governing the territories as well as an increasing inclusion of non-Arab Muslims in the ummah. Persianate customs were broadly adopted by the ruling elite, they began patronage of artists and scholars. Baghdad became a centre of science, culture and invention in what became known as the Golden Age of Islam. Despite this initial cooperation, the Abbasids of the late 8th century had alienated both non-Arab mawali and Iranian bureaucrats.
They were forced to cede authority over al-Andalus to the Umayyads in 756, Morocco to the Idrisid dynasty in 788, Ifriqiya to the Aghlabids in 800 and Egypt to the Isma'ili-Shia caliphate of the Fatimids in 969. The political power of the caliphs ended with the rise of the Iranian Buyids and the Seljuq Turks, who captured Baghdad in 945 and 1055, respectively. Although Abbasid leadership over the vast Islamic empire was reduced to a ceremonial religious function, the dynasty retained control over its Mesopotamian domain; the Abbasids' period of cultural fruition ended in 1258 with the sack of Baghdad by the Mongols under Hulagu Khan. The Abbasid line of rulers, Muslim culture in general, re-centred themselves in the Mamluk capital of Cairo in 1261. Though lacking in political power, the dynasty continued to claim religious authority until after the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517; the Abbasid caliphs were Arabs descended from Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, one of the youngest uncles of Muhammad and of the same Banu Hashim clan.
The Abbasids claimed to be the true successors of Prophet Muhammad in replacing the Umayyad descendants of Banu Umayya by virtue of their closer bloodline to Muhammad. The Abbasids distinguished themselves from the Umayyads by attacking their moral character and administration in general. According to Ira Lapidus, "The Abbasid revolt was supported by Arabs the aggrieved settlers of Merv with the addition of the Yemeni faction and their Mawali"; the Abbasids appealed to non-Arab Muslims, known as mawali, who remained outside the kinship-based society of the Arabs and were perceived as a lower class within the Umayyad empire. Muhammad ibn'Ali, a great-grandson of Abbas, began to campaign in Persia for the return of power to the family of Prophet Muhammad, the Hashimites, during the reign of Umar II. During the reign of Marwan II, this opposition culminated in the rebellion of Ibrahim the Imam, the fourth in descent from Abbas. Supported by the province of Khorasan though the governor opposed them, the Shia Arabs, he achieved considerable success, but was captured in the year 747 and died assassinated, in prison.
On 9 June 747, Abu Muslim, rising from Khorasan initiated an open revolt against Umayyad rule, carried out under the sign of the Black Standard. Close to 10,000 soldiers were under Abu Muslim's command when the hostilities began in Merv. General Qahtaba followed the fleeing governor Nasr ibn Sayyar west defeating the Umayyads at the Battle of Gorgan, the Battle of Nahāvand and in the Battle of Karbala, all in the year 748; the quarrel was taken up by Ibrahim's brother Abdallah, known by the name of Abu al-'Abbas as-Saffah, who defeated the Umayyads in 750 in the battle near the Great Zab and was subsequently proclaimed caliph. After this loss, Marwan fled to Egypt; the remainder of his family, barring one male, were eliminated. After their victory, As-Saffah sent his forces to Central Asia, where his forces fought against Tang expansion during the Battle of Talas; the noble Iranian family Barmakids, who were instrumental in building Baghdad, introduced the world's first recorded paper mill in the city, thus beginning a new era of intellectual rebirth in the Abbasid domain.
As-Saffah focused on putting down numerous rebellions in Mesopotamia. The Byzantines conducted raids during these early distractions; the first change the Abbasids, under Al-Mansur, made was to move the empire's capital from Damascus, in Syria, to Baghdad in Iraq. This was to both appease as well to be closer to the Persian mawali support base that existed in this region more influenced by Persian history and culture, part of the Persian mawali demand for less Arab dominance in the empire. Baghdad was established on the Tigris River in 762. A new position, that of the vizier, was established to delegate central authority, greater authority was delegated to local emirs; this meant that many Abbasid caliphs were relegated to a more ceremonial role than under the Umayyads, as the viziers began to exert greater influence, the role of the old Arab aristocracy was replaced by a Persian bureaucracy. During Al-Mansur's time control of Al-Andalus was lost, the Shia revolted and were defeated a year at the Battle of Bakhamra.
The Abbasids had depended on the support of Persians in their overthrow of the Umayyads. Abu al-'Abbas' successor, Al-Mansur welcomed non-Arab Musli
Ali ibn Isa al-Kahhal
ʿAlī ibn ʿĪsā al-Kahhal, surnamed "the oculist" was the best known and most celebrated Arab ophthalmologist of medieval islam. He was known in medieval Europe as Jesu Occulist, he was the author of the influential Memorandum of the Oculists, where for the first time in the literature a surgical anaesthetic is prescribed. He wrote the landmark textbook on ophthalmology in medieval Islam, Notebook of the Oculists, for which he was known in medieval Europe as Jesu Occulist, with "Jesu" being a Latin translation of "Isa", the Arabic name for Jesus. Ibn'Isa is considered one of the most famous physicians of the tenth century, his famous Notebook of the Oculists combined information obtained from both Greco-Roman and Arab sources. The book encompassed information on treatment and classification of over one hundred different eye diseases. In the book, eye diseases were sorted by their anatomical location; the Notebook of the Oculists was used by European physicians for hundreds of years. Ibn Isa’s book was one of the first, along with Hunayn ibn Ishaq’s Ten Treatises on the Eye, to illustrate anatomy of the eye.
Ibn Isa illustrated the optic chiasm and brain. Ibn Isa was the first to suggest treatment for an array of diseases. For example, he was the first to discover the symptoms of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome - ocular inflammation associated with a distinct whitening of the hair and eyelashes. Ibn Isa was the first to classify epiphora as being a result of overzealous cautery of pterygium. In addition to this pioneering description, Ibn Isa suggested treatments for epiphora based on the stage of the disease – namely treatment in the early stages with astringent materials, for example ammonia salt, burned copper, or lid past and a hook dissection with a feathered quill for chronic stages of epiphora. Ibn Isa is thought to be the first to describe temporal arteritis, although Sir Jonathan Hutchinson is erroneously credited with this
Injection is the act of putting a liquid a drug, into a person's body using a needle and a syringe. Injection is a technique for delivering drugs by parenteral administration, that is, administration via a route other than through the digestive tract. Parenteral injection includes subcutaneous, intravenous, intracardiac and intracavernous injection. Injection is administered as a bolus, but can be used for continuous drug administration as well; when administered as a bolus, the medication may be long-acting, can be called depot injection. Administration by an indwelling catheter is preferred instead of injection in case of more long-term or recurrent drug administration. Injections are among the most common health care procedures, with at least 16 billion administered in developing and transitional countries each year. 95% of injections are administered in curative care, 3% are for immunization, the rest for other purposes, such as blood transfusions. In some instances the term injection is used synonymously with inoculation by different workers in the same hospital.
This should not cause confusion. Since the process inherently involves a small puncture wound to the body, fear of needles is a common phobia. Intravenous injections involve needle insertion directly into the vein and the substance is directly delivered into the bloodstream. In medicine and drug use, this route of administration is the fastest way to get the desired effects since the medication moves into blood circulation and to the rest of the body; this type of injection is the most common and associated with drug use. Intramuscular injections deliver a substance deep into a muscle, where they are absorbed by blood vessels. Common injections sites include the deltoid, vastus lateralis, ventrogluteal muscles. Most inactivated vaccines, like influenza, are given by IM injection; some medications are formulated like Epinephrine autoinjectors. Medical professionals are trained to give IM injections, but patients can be trained to self-administer medications like epinephrine. In a subcutaneous injection, the medication is delivered to the tissues between the skin and the muscle.
Absorption of the medicine is slower than that of intramuscular injection. Since the needle does not need to reach the muscles a bigger gauge and shorter needle is used. Usual site of administration is fat tissues behind the arm. Certain intramuscular injection medicine such as EpiPen® can be used subcutaneously. Insulin injection is a common type of subcutaneous injection medicine. Certain vaccines including MMR, Zoster are given subcutaneously. In an Intradermal Injection, medication is delivered directly into the dermis, the layer just below the epidermis of the skin; the injection is given at a 5 to 15 degree angle with the needle placed flat against the patient's skin. Absorption takes the longest from this route compared to intravenous and subcutaneous injections; because of this, intradermal injection are used for sensitivity tests, like tuberculin and allergy tests, local anesthesia tests. The reactions caused by these tests are seen due to the location of the injections on the skin. Common sites of intradermal injections are lower back.
A depot injection is an injection subcutaneous, intradermal, or intramuscular, that deposits a drug in a localized mass, called a depot, from which it is absorbed by surrounding tissue. Such injection allows the active compound to be released in a consistent way over a long period. Depot injections are either solid or oil-based. Depot injections may be available as certain forms such as decanoate salts or esters. Examples of depot injections include haloperidol decanoate. Prostate cancer patients receiving hormone therapy get depot injections as a treatment or therapy. Zoladex is an example of a medication delivered by depot for therapy. Naltrexone may be administered in a monthly depot injection to control opioid abuse; the advantages of using a long-acting depot injection include increased medication compliance due to reduction in the frequency of dosing, as well as more consistent serum concentrations. A significant disadvantage is that the drug is not reversible, since it is released. In psychiatric nursing, a short acting depot, zuclopenthixol acetate, which lasts in the system from 24–72 hours, is more used for rapid tranquillisation.
The pharmaceutical injection type of infiltration involves loading a volume of tissue with the drug, filling the interstitial space. Local anesthetics are infiltrated into the dermis and hypodermis; the pain of an injection may be lessened by prior application of ice or topical anesthetic, or simultaneous pinching of the skin. Recent studies suggest that forced coughing during an injection stimulates a transient rise in blood pressure which inhibits the perception of pain. Sometimes, as with an amniocentesis, a local anesthetic is given; the most common technique to reduce the pain of an injection is to distract the patient. Babies can be distracted by giving them a small amount of sweet liqui
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.
Tiberias is an Israeli city on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee. Established around 20 CE, it was named in honour of the second emperor of the Roman Empire, Tiberius. In 2017 it had a population of 43,664. Tiberias was held in great respect in Judaism from the middle of the 2nd century CE and since the 16th century has been considered one of Judaism's Four Holy Cities, along with Jerusalem and Safed. In the 2nd–10th centuries, Tiberias was the largest Jewish city in the Galilee and the political and religious hub of the Jews of Israel, its immediate neighbour to the south, Hammat Tiberias, now part of modern Tiberias, has been known for its hot springs, believed to cure skin and other ailments, for some two thousand years. See Diocese of Tiberias for ecclesiastical history Jewish tradition holds that Tiberias was built on the site of the ancient Israelite village of Rakkath or Rakkat, first mentioned in the Book of Joshua. In Talmudic times, the Jews still referred to it by this name. Tiberias was founded sometime around 20 CE in the Herodian Tetrarchy of Galilee and Peraea by the Roman client king Herod Antipas, son of Herod the Great.
Herod Antipas made it the capital of his realm in the Galilee and named it for the Roman Emperor Tiberius. The city was built in immediate proximity to a spa which had developed around 17 natural mineral hot springs, Hammat Tiberias. Tiberias was at first a pagan city, but became populated by Jews, with its growing spiritual and religious status exerting a strong influence on balneological practices. Conversely, in The Antiquities of the Jews, the Roman-Jewish historian Josephus calls the village with hot springs Emmaus, today's Hammat Tiberias, located near Tiberias; this name appears in The Wars of the Jews. In the days of Herod Antipas, some of the most religiously orthodox Jews, who were struggling against the process of Hellenization, which had affected some priestly groups, refused to settle there: the presence of a cemetery rendered the site ritually unclean for the Jews and for the priestly caste. Antipas settled many non-Jews there from rural Galilee and other parts of his domains in order to populate his new capital, built a palace on the acropolis.
The prestige of Tiberias was so great that the Sea of Galilee soon came to be named the Sea of Tiberias. The city was governed by a city council of 600 with a committee of 10 until 44 CE when a Roman procurator was set over the city after the death of Herod Agrippa I. Tiberias is mentioned in John 6:23 as the location from which boats had sailed to the eastern side of the Sea of Galilee; the crowd seeking Jesus after the miraculous feeding of the 5000 used these boats to travel back to Capernaum on the north-western part of the lake. Under the Roman Empire, the city was known by its Greek name Τιβεριάς, an adaptation of the taw-suffixed Semitic form that preserved its feminine grammatical gender. In 61 CE Herod Agrippa II annexed the city to his kingdom. During the First Jewish–Roman War, the seditious took control of the city and destroyed Herod's palace, were able to prevent the city from being pillaged by the army of Agrippa II, the Jewish ruler who had remained loyal to Rome; the seditious were expelled from Tiberias, while most other cities in the provinces of Judaea and Idumea were razed, Tiberias was spared this fate because its inhabitants had decided not to fight against Rome.
It became a mixed city after the fall of Jerusalem in 70 CE. There is no direct indication that Tiberias, as well as the rest of Galilee, took part in the Bar Kokhba revolt of 132–136 CE, thus allowing it to exist, despite a heavy economic decline due to the war. Following the expulsion of Jews from Judea after 135 CE, Tiberias and its neighbor Sepphoris became the major Jewish cultural centres, competing within the Jewish world for status and recognition with Babylon, Alexandria and the Persian Empire. In 145 CE, Rabbi Simeon bar Yochai, familiar with the Galilee, hiding there for over a decade, "cleansed the city of ritual impurity", allowing the Jewish leadership to resettle there from the Judea Province, where they were fugitives; the Sanhedrin, the Jewish court fled from Jerusalem during the Great Jewish Revolt against Rome, after several attempted moves, in search of stability settled in Tiberias in about 150 CE. It was to be its final meeting place before its disbanding in the early Byzantine period.
When Johanan bar Nappaha settled in Tiberias, the city became the focus of Jewish religious scholarship in the land. The Mishnah, the collected theological discussions of generations of rabbis in the Land of Israel – in the academies of Tiberias and Caesarea – was compiled in Tiberias by Rabbi Judah haNasi around 200 CE; the Jerusalem Talmud would follow being compiled by Rabbi Jochanan between 230–270 CE. Tiberias' 13 synagogues served the spiritual needs of a growing Jewish population. In the 6th century Tiberias was still the seat of Jewish religious learning. In light of this, a letter of Syriac bishop Simeon of Beth Arsham urged the Christians of Palaestina to seize the leaders of Judaism in Tiberias, to put them to the rack, to compel them to command the Jewish king, Dhu Nuwas, to desist from persecuting the Christians in Najran. In 614, Tiberias was the site where, during the final Jewish revolt against the Byzantine Empire, parts of the Jewish population supported the Persian invaders.
Islamic Golden Age
The Islamic Golden Age was a period of cultural and scientific flourishing in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century. This period is traditionally understood to have begun during the reign of the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid with the inauguration of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, where scholars from various parts of the world with different cultural backgrounds were mandated to gather and translate all of the world's classical knowledge into the Arabic language; this period is traditionally said to have ended with the collapse of the Abbasid caliphate due to Mongol invasions and the Siege of Baghdad in 1258 AD. A few contemporary scholars place the end of the Islamic Golden Age as late as the end of 15th to 16th centuries; the metaphor of a golden age began to be applied in 19th-century literature about Islamic history, in the context of the western aesthetic fashion known as Orientalism. The author of a Handbook for Travelers in Syria and Palestine in 1868 observed that the most beautiful mosques of Damascus were "like Mohammedanism itself, now decaying" and relics of "the golden age of Islam".
There is no unambiguous definition of the term, depending on whether it is used with a focus on cultural or on military achievement, it may be taken to refer to rather disparate time spans. Thus, one 19th century author would have it extend to the duration of the caliphate, or to "six and a half centuries", while another would have it end after only a few decades of Rashidun conquests, with the death of Umar and the First Fitna. During the early 20th century, the term was used only and referred to the early military successes of the Rashidun caliphs, it was only in the second half of the 20th century that the term came to be used with any frequency, now referring to the cultural flourishing of science and mathematics under the caliphates during the 9th to 11th centuries, but extended to include part of the late 8th or the 12th to early 13th centuries. Definitions may still vary considerably. Equating the end of the golden age with the end of the caliphates is a convenient cut-off point based on a historical landmark, but it can be argued that Islamic culture had entered a gradual decline much earlier.
The various Quranic injunctions and Hadith, which place values on education and emphasize the importance of acquiring knowledge, played a vital role in influencing the Muslims of this age in their search for knowledge and the development of the body of science. The Islamic Empire patronized scholars; the money spent on the Translation Movement for some translations is estimated to be equivalent to about twice the annual research budget of the United Kingdom’s Medical Research Council. The best scholars and notable translators, such as Hunayn ibn Ishaq, had salaries that are estimated to be the equivalent of professional athletes today; the House of Wisdom was a library established in Iraq by Caliph al-Mansur. During this period, the Muslims showed a strong interest in assimilating the scientific knowledge of the civilizations, conquered. Many classic works of antiquity that might otherwise have been lost were translated from Greek, Indian, Chinese and Phoenician civilizations into Arabic and Persian, in turn translated into Turkish and Latin.
Christians the adherents of the Church of the East, contributed to Islamic civilization during the reign of the Ummayads and the Abbasids by translating works of Greek philosophers and ancient science to Syriac and afterwards to Arabic. They excelled in many fields, in particular philosophy and theology. For a long period of time the personal physicians of the Abbasid Caliphs were Assyrian Christians. Among the most prominent Christian families to serve as physicians to the caliphs were the Bukhtishu dynasty. Throughout the 4th to 7th centuries, Christian scholarly work in the Greek and Syriac languages was either newly translated or had been preserved since the Hellenistic period. Among the prominent centers of learning and transmission of classical wisdom were Christian colleges such as the School of Nisibis and the School of Edessa, the pagan University of Harran and the renowned hospital and medical academy of Jundishapur, the intellectual and scientific center of the Church of the East.
The House of Wisdom was founded in Baghdad in 825, modelled after the Academy of Gondishapur. It was led with the support of Byzantine medicine. Many of the most important philosophical and scientific works of the ancient world were translated, including the work of Galen, Plato, Aristotle and Archimedes. Many scholars of the House of Wisdom were of Christian background. Among the various countries and cultures conquered through successive Islamic conquests, a remarkable number of scientists originated from Persia, who contributed immensely to the scientific flourishing of the Islamic Golden Age. According to Bernard Lewis: "Culturally and most remarkable of all religiously, the Persian contribution to this new Islamic civilization is of immense importance; the wo