Measurement is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events. The scope and application of a measurement is dependent on the context, however, in other fields such as statistics as well as the social and behavioral sciences, measurements can have multiple levels, which would include nominal, ordinal and ratio scales. Measurement is a cornerstone of trade, technology, many measurement systems existed for the varied fields of human existence to facilitate comparisons in these fields. Often these were achieved by local agreements between trading partners or collaborators, since the 18th century, developments progressed towards unifying, widely accepted standards that resulted in the modern International System of Units. This system reduces all physical measurements to a combination of seven base units. The science of measurement is pursued in the field of metrology, the measurement of a property may be categorized by the following criteria, magnitude and uncertainty.
They enable unambiguous comparisons between measurements, the type or level of measurement is a taxonomy for the methodological character of a comparison. For example, two states of a property may be compared by ratio, difference, or ordinal preference, the type is commonly not explicitly expressed, but implicit in the definition of a measurement procedure. The magnitude is the value of the characterization, usually obtained with a suitably chosen measuring instrument. A unit assigns a mathematical weighting factor to the magnitude that is derived as a ratio to the property of a used as standard or a natural physical quantity. An uncertainty represents the random and systemic errors of the measurement procedure, errors are evaluated by methodically repeating measurements and considering the accuracy and precision of the measuring instrument. Measurements most commonly use the International System of Units as a comparison framework, the system defines seven fundamental units, metre, second, ampere and mole.
Instead, the measurement unit can only ever change through increased accuracy in determining the value of the constant it is tied to and this directly influenced the Michelson–Morley experiment and Morley cite Peirce, and improve on his method. With the exception of a few fundamental quantum constants, units of measurement are derived from historical agreements, nothing inherent in nature dictates that an inch has to be a certain length, nor that a mile is a better measure of distance than a kilometre. Over the course of history, first for convenience and for necessity. Laws regulating measurement were originally developed to prevent fraud in commerce.9144 metres, in the United States, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, a division of the United States Department of Commerce, regulates commercial measurements. Before SI units were adopted around the world, the British systems of English units and imperial units were used in Britain, the Commonwealth. The system came to be known as U. S.
customary units in the United States and is still in use there and in a few Caribbean countries. S
A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention. An invention is a solution to a technological problem and is a product or a process. Patents are a form of intellectual property, the procedure for granting patents, requirements placed on the patentee, and the extent of the exclusive rights vary widely between countries according to national laws and international agreements. Typically, however, a patent application must include one or more claims that define the invention. A patent may include many claims, each of which defines a specific property right and these claims must meet relevant patentability requirements, such as novelty and non-obviousness. Nevertheless, there are variations on what is patentable subject matter from country to country, the word patent originates from the Latin patere, which means to lay open. More directly, it is a version of the term letters patent.
Similar grants included land patents, which were land grants by early state governments in the USA, and printing patents, a precursor of modern copyright. In modern usage, the term patent usually refers to the granted to anyone who invents any new, useful. The additional qualification utility patent is used to distinguish the primary meaning from these other types of patents. Particular species of patents for inventions include biological patents, business method patents, chemical patents, the period of protection was 10 years. These were mostly in the field of glass making, as Venetians emigrated, they sought similar patent protection in their new homes. This led to the diffusion of patent systems to other countries, by the 16th century, the English Crown would habitually abuse the granting of letters patent for monopolies. After public outcry, King James I of England was forced to revoke all existing monopolies, the Statute became the foundation for developments in patent law in England and elsewhere.
Important developments in patent law emerged during the 18th century through a process of judicial interpretation of the law. During the reign of Queen Anne, patent applications were required to supply a complete specification of the principles of operation of the invention for public access. Influenced by the philosophy of John Locke, the granting of patents began to be viewed as a form of property right. The English legal system became the foundation for patent law in countries with a common law heritage, including the United States, New Zealand, in the Thirteen Colonies, inventors could obtain patents through petition to a given colonys legislature