A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
Richmond is a city in Stearns County, United States. The population was 1,422 at the 2010 census. Richmond is part of the St. Cloud Metropolitan Statistical Area. Richmond was platted in 1856 by Reuben Richardson. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.05 square miles. Minnesota State Highways 22 and 23 are two of the main routes in the city. Richmond is 12 miles west of Interstate 94 along Highway 23; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,422 people, 583 households, 392 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,380.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 627 housing units at an average density of 608.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.0% White, 0.1% African American, 0.6% Asian, 0.6% from other races, 0.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.8% of the population. There were 1,903 households of which 28.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.3% were married couples living together, 6.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 32.8% were non-families.
26.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 14% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.98. The median age in the city was 39.4 years. 23.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 50.6% male and 49.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,213 people, 483 households, 943 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,421.5 people per square mile. There were 1,098 housing units at an average density of 583.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 99.98% White, 0.02% African American, 0.00% Asian, 0.00% from other races, 0.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.33% of the population. There were 483 households out of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.5% were married couples living together, 5.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.8% were non-families. 23.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.95. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.8% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 18.7% from 45 to 64, 19.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $38,400, the median income for a family was $44,464. Males had a median income of $29,315 versus $21,219 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,995. About 4.4% of families and 6.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.0% of those under age 18 and 11.9% of those age 65 or over. Joseph Gimse Andrew Jacobs - blogger and former child star. Lou Mehr - Former CEO of Howard Paper Company City Website Richmond Civic and Commerce Association – Business and Community Information site City-Data.com ePodunk: Profile for Richmond, Minnesota
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Paynesville is a city in Stearns County, United States, on Lake Koronis, in the central part of the state. The population was 2,432 at the 2010 census, it is part of the St. Cloud Metropolitan Statistical Area. Paynesville was platted in 1857 by Edwin E. Payne, named for him. A post office has been in operation at Paynesville since 1857. Paynesville is located along the North Fork of the Crow Lake Koronis. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.32 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,432 people, 1,065 households, 635 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,048.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,148 housing units at an average density of 494.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.0% White, 0.5% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.9% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.2% of the population. There were 1,065 households of which 26.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.9% were married couples living together, 7.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 40.4% were non-families.
35.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.20 and the average family size was 2.83. The median age in the city was 42.4 years. 22.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.7% male and 52.3% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,267 people, 934 households, 594 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,715.2 people per square mile. There were 984 housing units at an average density of 744.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.81% White, 0.04% African American, 0.09% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 0.22% from other races, 0.53% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.28% of the population. There were 934 households out of which 28.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.1% were married couples living together, 6.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.4% were non-families.
32.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.95. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.0% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 24.2% from 25 to 44, 18.9% from 45 to 64, 25.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $34,000, the median income for a family was $42,500. Males had a median income of $30,978 versus $20,219 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,246. About 4.5% of families and 8.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.6% of those under age 18 and 15.2% of those age 65 or over. Minnesota State Highways 4, 23, 55 are three of the main routes in the city. Area: 3014 acres MN DNR Located only one mile south of Paynesville, Lake Koronis offers some of the best fishing in the area, with an abundance of walleye, northern pike, making it one of the premier lakes in central Minnesota.
Area: 1639 acres MN DNR Located about five miles east-southeast of Paynesville, Rice Lake offers excellent walleye and northern pike fishing. Public lake access exists on the northwest shore at the end of 180th Street, on the southwest shore, at the end of 253rd Avenue. City Website Paynesville Area Online website - Link City-Data.com ePodunk: Profile for Paynesville, Minnesota
A civil township is a used unit of local government in the United States, subordinate to a county. The term town is used in New England, New York, Wisconsin to refer to the equivalent of the civil township in these states. Specific responsibilities and the degree of autonomy vary based on each state. Civil townships are distinct from survey townships, but in states that have both, the boundaries coincide and may geographically subdivide a county; the U. S. Census Bureau classifies civil townships as minor civil divisions. There are 20 states with civil townships. Township functions are overseen by a governing board and a clerk or trustee. Township officers include justice of the peace, road commissioner, assessor and surveyor. In the 20th century, many townships added a township administrator or supervisor to the officers as an executive for the board. In some cases, townships run local libraries, senior citizen services, youth services, disabled citizen services, emergency assistance, cemetery services.
In some states, a township and a municipality, coterminous with that township may wholly or consolidate their operations. Depending on the state, the township government has varying degrees of authority. In the Upper Midwestern states near the Great Lakes, civil townships, are but not always, overlaid on survey townships; the degree to which these townships are functioning governmental entities varies from state to state and in some cases within a state. For example, townships in the northern part of Illinois are active in providing public services — such as road maintenance, after-school care, senior services — whereas townships in southern Illinois delegate these services to the county. Most townships in Illinois provide services such as snow removal, senior transportation, emergency services to households residing in unincorporated parts of the county; the townships in Illinois each have a township board, whose board members were called township trustees, a single township supervisor. In contrast, civil townships in Indiana are operated in a consistent manner statewide and tend to be well organized, with each served by a single township trustee and a three-member board.
Civil townships in these states are not incorporated, nearby cities may annex land in adjoining townships with relative ease. In Michigan, general law townships are corporate entities, some can become reformulated as charter townships, a status intended to protect against annexation from nearby municipalities and which grants the township some home rule powers similar to cities. In Wisconsin, civil townships are known as "towns" rather than townships, but they function the same as in neighboring states. In Minnesota, state statute refers to such entities as towns yet requires them to have a name in the form "Name Township". In both documents and conversation, "town" and "township" are used interchangeably. Minnesota townships can be either Non-Urban or Urban, but this is not reflected in the township's name. In Ohio, a city or village is overlaid onto a township unless it withdraws by establishing a paper township. Where the paper township does not extend to the city limits, property owners pay taxes for both the township and municipality, though these overlaps are sometimes overlooked by mistake.
Ten other states allow townships and municipalities to overlap. In Kansas, some civil townships provide services such as road maintenance and fire protection services not provided by the county. In New England, the states are subdivided into towns, which are functioning municipal corporations that provide most local services. While counties exist in New England, for the most part they serve as dividing lines for state judicial systems. With the exception of a few remote areas of New Hampshire and Maine, every square foot of New England lies within the borders of an incorporated town. New England has cities, most of which are towns whose residents have voted to replace the town meeting form of government with a city form. In portions of New Hampshire and Maine, county subdivisions that are not incorporated are referred to as townships, or by other terms such as "gore", "grant", "location", "plantation", or "purchase". In New York, counties are further subdivided into towns and cities, the principal forms of local government.
Towns fulfill a function similar to those of townships in other states. As is the case in most of New England, every square foot of New York's territory is incorporated. New York towns contain one or more incorporated villages, village residents pay both town and village taxes. Towns include a number of unincorporated hamlets. A Pennsylvania township is a unit of local government, responsible for services such as police departments, local road and street maintenance, it acts the same as a borough. Townships were established based on convenient geographical boundaries and vary in size from six to fifty-two square miles. A New Jersey township is similar, in that it is a form of municipal government equal in status to a village, borough, or city, provides similar services to a Pennsylvania township. In the South, outside cities and towns there is no local government other than the county. North Carolina is no exception to that rule, but it does have townships as minor geographical subdivisions of counties, including
Stearns County, Minnesota
Stearns County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 150,642, its county seat is Saint Cloud. The county was founded in 1855, it was named after Isaac Ingalls Stevens changed to Stearns, after Charles Thomas Stearns. Stearns County is part of the St. Cloud, MN Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI Combined Statistical Area; the area, Stearns County was occupied by numerous indigenous tribes, such as the Sioux and Winnebago. The first large immigration was of German Catholics in the 1850s. Early arrivals came from eastern states; the county was supposed to be named Stevens County, after Governor Isaac Ingalls Stevens, who conducted an area expedition in 1853. But due to a clerical error, the county was named Stearns after Charles Thomas Stearns, a member of the Territorial Council. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,390 square miles, of which 1,343 square miles is land and 47 square miles is water.
The eastern border of Stearns County is the Mississippi River. The land consists of rolling hills, scenic lakes, prairies and woodlands of a mixture of coniferous and deciduous trees. Stearns is one of 17 Minnesota savanna region counties with more savanna soils than either prairie or forest soils. There are 166 lakes in Stearns County; as of the 2000 census, there were 133,166 people, 47,604 households, 32,132 families residing in the county. The population density was 99 people per square mile. There were 50,291 housing units at an average density of 37 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.99% White, 0.83% Black or African American, 0.26% Native American, 1.58% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.47% from other races, 0.82% from two or more races. 1.37% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 56.9% were of German and 9.4% Norwegian ancestry. There were 47,604 households out of which 35.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.30% were married couples living together, 7.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.50% were non-families.
23.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.15. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.70% under the age of 18, 16.10% from 18 to 24, 28.00% from 25 to 44, 19.10% from 45 to 64, 11.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $42,426, the median income for a family was $51,553. Males had a median income of $34,268 versus $23,393 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,211. About 4.30% of families and 8.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.70% of those under age 18 and 8.60% of those age 65 or over. Fairhaven In its early history Stearns County was Democratic due to being German Catholic and opposed to the pietistic Scandinavian Lutheran Republican Party of that era.
It did not vote Republican until Theodore Roosevelt swept every Minnesota county in 1904. Anti-Woodrow Wilson feeling from World War I caused the county to shift overwhelmingly to Warren G. Harding in 1920 before swinging to Robert La Follette, coreligionist Al Smith and fellow “wet” Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt. In 1936 the county’s isolationism gave strong support to William Lemke’s Union Party. Stearns County turned Republican until another Catholic nominee, John F. Kennedy, returned it to the Democratic ranks sufficiently to be one of only 130 counties nationwide to back George McGovern in 1972. Since the “Reagan Revolution”, Stearns County has voted reliably Republican, with no Democrat gaining a majority since Jimmy Carter in 1976, Bill Clinton in 1996 the only one to manage a plurality. Crow Lake National Register of Historic Places listings in Stearns County, Minnesota Stearns County official website Sartell Historical Society - Sartell, MN Stearns History Museum official website