A spoonerism is an error in speech in which corresponding consonants, vowels, or morphemes are switched between two words in a phrase. These are named after the Oxford don and ordained minister William Archibald Spooner, famous for doing this. An example is saying "The Lord is a shoving leopard" instead of "The Lord is a loving shepherd." While spoonerisms are heard as slips of the tongue, getting one's words in a tangle, they can be used intentionally as a play on words. It is named after the Reverend William Archibald Spooner, Warden of New College, notoriously prone to this mistake; the term "Spoonerism" was well established by 1921. An article in The Times from that year reports that, The boys of Aldro School, Eastbourne... have been set the following task for the holidays: Discover and write down something about: The Old Lady of Threadneedle-street, a Spoonerism, a Busman's Holiday... In 1937, The Times quoted a detective describing a man as "a bricklabourer's layer" and used "Police Court Spoonerism" as the headline.
A spoonerism is known as a marrowsky, purportedly after a Polish count who suffered from the same impediment. Most of the quotations attributed to Spooner are apocryphal. Spooner himself claimed that "The Kinquering Congs Their Titles Take" was his sole spoonerism. Most spoonerisms were never uttered by William Spooner himself but rather made up by colleagues and students as a pastime. Richard Lederer, calling "Kinkering Kongs their Titles Take" one of the "few" authenticated Spoonerisms, dates it to 1879, he gives nine examples "attributed to Spooner, most of them spuriously." They are as follows: "Three cheers for our queer old dean!" "Is it kisstomary to cuss the bride?" "The Lord is a shoving leopard." "A blushing crow." "A well-boiled icicle" "You were fighting a liar in the quadrangle." "Is the bean dizzy?" "Someone is occupewing my pie. Please sew me to another sheet." "You have hissed all my mystery lectures. You have tasted a whole worm. Please leave Oxford on the next town drain." A newspaper column attributes this additional example to Spooner: "A nosey little cook.".
In modern terms, "spoonerism" refers to any changing of sounds in this manner. On the TV series Hee Haw, comedian/writer Archie Campbell was well known for using spoonerisms in his skits, most famously the "Pee Little Thrigs" and "Rindercella" skits, as well as doing so in his own comedy recordings well before the country/western-themed TV variety series, such as his "Beeping Sleauty" sketch. In Maisie and the Pinny Gig by Ursula Dubosarsky, a little girl named Maisie has a recurrent dream about a giant guinea pig, which she calls a "pinny gig." The Washington, D. C. political comedy sketch group Capitol Steps has a long-standing tradition of performing a routine called "Lirty Dies" during every performance, which features a 10-minute-long barrage of rapid-fire topical spoonerisms. A few examples over the years range from "Resident Pagan" and the US's periodic practice of "Licking their Peaders" to the NSA "poopin' on Snutin" and "phugging everybody's bones". Comedienne Jane Ace was notorious for her spoonerisms and other similar plays on words during her run as star of the radio sitcom Easy Aces.
"Puck Flattsburgh" is a common rallying cry in the sports rivalry between Oswego and Plattsburgh State Universities' men's ice hockey teams when Oswego is victorious. The phrase is a double entendre: if read at face value, indicates the sport and the Plattsburgh team playing "flat. To the above example, "Buck Fama" is a popular slogan in the rivalry between Louisiana State University and the University of Alabama; this slogan can be heard often from LSU fans. In the Robert McCloskey books Homer Price and Centerburg Tales, the sheriff uses spoonerisms, such as "sarber bhop" for "barber shop" and "waul them ahay" for "haul them away." Former Swansea City manager Bob Bradley was referred to as'Brad Bobley's Megnuts' by Swansea supporters and football-related TV shows such as Soccer AM, who poked fun at his American accent and terminology The dialogue in Jim Henson's The Frog Prince included a partly-spoonerized instruction to disable a disguised witch's enchantment on a princess: the spoonerism was spoken by the princess herself as "Bake the hall in the candle of her brain", when the actual phrase was meant to say, "Break the ball in the handle of her cane", referring to a crystal ball that held the disguised witch's powers.
In Gummi Bears, Zummi Gummi speaks in spoonerisms. Sir Stafford Cripps was once mistakenly called Sir Stifford Crapps by McDonald Hobley on the BBC. Shel Silverstein's book Runny Babbit is completely written in spoonerisms, from character names to anything else. In his poem "Translation," Brian P. Cleary describes a boy named Alex. Humorously, Cl
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. The English language draws a terminological distinction between interpreting. A translator always risks inadvertently introducing source-language words, grammar, or syntax into the target-language rendering. On the other hand, such "spill-overs" have sometimes imported useful source-language calques and loanwords that have enriched target languages. Translators, including early translators of sacred texts, have helped shape the languages into which they have translated; because of the laboriousness of the translation process, since the 1940s efforts have been made, with varying degrees of success, to automate translation or to mechanically aid the human translator. More the rise of the Internet has fostered a world-wide market for translation services and has facilitated "language localization"; the English word "translation" derives from the Latin word translatio, which comes from trans, "across" + ferre, "to carry" or "to bring".
Thus translatio is "a carrying across" or "a bringing across": in this case, of a text from one language to another. The Germanic languages and some Slavic languages have calqued their words for the concept of "translation" on translatio; the Romance languages and the remaining Slavic languages have derived their words for the concept of "translation" from an alternative Latin word, itself derived from traducere. The Ancient Greek term for "translation", μετάφρασις, has supplied English with "metaphrase" —as contrasted with "paraphrase". "Metaphrase" corresponds, in one of the more recent terminologies, to "formal equivalence". Speaking, the concept of metaphrase—of "word-for-word translation"—is an imperfect concept, because a given word in a given language carries more than one meaning. "metaphrase" and "paraphrase" may be useful as ideal concepts that mark the extremes in the spectrum of possible approaches to translation. Discussions of the theory and practice of translation reach back into antiquity and show remarkable continuities.
The ancient Greeks distinguished between paraphrase. This distinction was adopted by English poet and translator John Dryden, who described translation as the judicious blending of these two modes of phrasing when selecting, in the target language, "counterparts," or equivalents, for the expressions used in the source language: When appear... graceful, it were an injury to the author that they should be changed. But since... What is beautiful in one is barbarous, nay sometimes nonsense, in another, it would be unreasonable to limit a translator to the narrow compass of his author's words:'tis enough if he choose out some expression which does not vitiate the sense. Dryden cautioned, against the license of "imitation", i.e. of adapted translation: "When a painter copies from the life... he has no privilege to alter features and lineaments..."This general formulation of the central concept of translation—equivalence—is as adequate as any, proposed since Cicero and Horace, who, in 1st-century-BCE Rome and cautioned against translating "word for word".
Despite occasional theoretical diversity, the actual practice of translation has hardly changed since antiquity. Except for some extreme metaphrasers in the early Christian period and the Middle Ages, adapters in various periods, translators have shown prudent flexibility in seeking equivalents—"literal" where possible, paraphrastic where necessary—for the original meaning and other crucial "values" as determined from context. In general, translators have sought to preserve the context itself by reproducing the original order of sememes, hence word order—when necessary, reinterpreting the actual grammatical structure, for example, by shifting from active to passive voice, or vice versa; the grammatical differences between "fixed-word-order" languages and "free-word-order" languages have been no impediment in this regard. The particular syntax characteristics of a text's source language are adjusted to the syntactic requirements of the target language; when a target language has lacked terms that are found in a source language, translators have borrowed those terms, thereby enriching the target language.
Thanks in great measure to the exchange of calques and loanwords between languages, to their importation from other languages, there are few concepts that are "untranslatable" among the modern European languages. A greater problem, however, is translating terms relating to cultural concepts that have no equivalent in the target language. For full comprehension, such situations require the provision of a gloss; the greater the contact and exchange that have existed between two languages, or between those lang
Hugo Brandt Corstius
Hugo Brandt Corstius was a Dutch author, known for his achievements in both literature and science. In 1970, he was awarded a PhD on the subject of computational linguistics, he was employed at the Mathematisch Centrum in Amsterdam. However, to the general public he is known for his writing, in particular as a columnist for Vrij Nederland and de Volkskrant and as linguist and literary critic for Vrij Nederland, de Volkskrant, NRC Handelsblad. Hugo Brandt Corstius wrote under over sixty different pseudonyms and aliases, he claimed each them to be a component of his character. In Vrij Nederland he used the pseudonym Piet Grijs and between 1979 and 1986 in de Volkskrant he used the pseudonym Stoker, his other pseudonyms include Battus, Raoul Chapkis, Victor Baarn, Dolf Cohen, Maaike Helder, Peter Malenkov and Talisman. The Battus name was reserved for writing on linguistics and language play, in columns and books. Many forms of word play were bundled in the volume Opperlandse taal- & letterkunde, twenty years a sequel Opperlans!.
Both books are concerned with the form of Dutch words with little regard to meaning. He wrote De Encyclopedie, a book parodying encyclopedias, containing about 300 pages numbered 1 through 40000 or thereabouts, with many puns, references to non-existent pages and other jokes. 1966 - Anne Frank Prize for Ik sta op mijn hoofd 1978 - Cestoda-prijs 1978 - Burgemeester van Grunsven-prijs for his entire works 1985 - Busken Huetprijs for Rekenen op taal 1987 - P. C. Hooft Award for his entire works His daughter Aaf is a columnist and his son Jelle is an author, was a correspondent in Russia. Brandt Corstius died in Amsterdam after a long illness. 1966 - De reizen van Pater Key 1966 - Zes dagen onbedachtzaamheid kan maken dat men eeuwig schreit 1966 - Ik sta op mijn hoofd 1970 - Exercises in Computational Linguistics 1970 - Grijsboek, of de nagelaten bekentenissen van Raoul Chapkis 1971 - Zinnig tuig 1972 - Blijf met je fikken van de luizepoten af! 1974 - Algebraïsche taalkunde 1975 - A is een letter 1975 - Piet Grijs is gek 1978 - Computer-taalkunde 1978 - Televisie, computers en andere griezelverhalen 1978 - De encyclopedie 1981 -...honderd.
Ik kom! 1981 - Opperlandse taal- & letterkunde 1988 - Denk na 1995 - De hoofdredacteur 1995 - Water en vuur 1999 - Het bewustzijn Hugo Brandt Corstius: briljant gelijkhebber, hartstochtelijk hater - Volkskrant
Word play or wordplay is a literary technique and a form of wit in which words used become the main subject of the work for the purpose of intended effect or amusement. Examples of word play include puns, phonetic mix-ups such as spoonerisms, obscure words and meanings, clever rhetorical excursions, oddly formed sentences, double entendres, telling character names. Word play is quite common in oral cultures as a method of reinforcing meaning. Examples of text-based word play are found in languages without alphabet-based scripts; some techniques used in word play include interpreting idioms and creating contradictions and redundancies, as in Tom Swifties: "Hurry up and get to the back of the ship," Tom said sternly. Linguistic fossils and set phrases are manipulated for word play, as in Wellerisms: "We'll have to rehearse that," said the undertaker as the coffin fell out of the car. Another use of fossils is in using antonyms of unpaired words – "I was well-coiffed and sheveled,". Most writers engage in word play to some extent, but certain writers are committed to, or adept at, word play as a major feature of their work.
Shakespeare's "quibbles" have made him a noted punster. P. G. Wodehouse was hailed by The Times as a "comic genius recognized in his lifetime as a classic and an old master of farce" for his own acclaimed wordplay. James Joyce, author of Ulysses, is another noted word-player. For example, in his Finnegans Wake Joyce's phrase "they were yung and freudened" implies the more conventional "they were young and frightened". An epitaph unassigned to any grave, demonstrates use in rhyme. Here lie the bones of one'Bun', his name was not'Bun' but'Wood' But'Wood' would not rhyme with gun But'Bun' would. Crossword puzzles employ wordplay to challenge solvers. Cryptic crosswords are based on elaborate systems of wordplay. An example of modern word play can be found on line 103 of Childish Gambino's "III. Life: The Biggest Troll". H2O plus my D, that's my hood, I'm living in itYoung Thug used a play on words in his verse on "Sacrifices" by Drake featuring 2 Chainz and Young Thug. I'ma use her name, like, "Who is he?"
You get it? I said I'ma username, like, "Who is he?" Word play can enter common usage as neologisms. Word play is related to word games. See language game for a linguist's variation. Word play can cause problems for translators: e.g. in the book Winnie-the-Pooh a character mistakes the word "issue" for the noise of a sneeze, a resemblance which disappears when the word "issue" is translated into another language. Etymology False Etymology Figure of speech List of forms of word play Metaphor Phono-semantic matching Simile Pun A categorized taxonomy of word play composed of record-holding words
In metal typesetting, a font was a particular size and style of a typeface. Each font was a matched set of type, one piece for each glyph, a typeface consisting of a range of fonts that shared an overall design. In modern usage, with the advent of digital typography, "font" is synonymous with "typeface"; each style is in a separate "font file"—for instance, the typeface "Bulmer" may include the fonts "Bulmer roman", "Bulmer italic", "Bulmer bold" and "Bulmer extended"—but the term "font" might be applied either to one of these alone or to the whole typeface. In both traditional typesetting and modern usage, the word "font" refers to the delivery mechanism of the typeface design. In traditional typesetting, the font would be made from wood. Today, the font is a digital file; the word font derives from Middle French fonte " melted. The term refers to the process of casting metal type at a type foundry. In a manual printing house the word "font" would refer to a complete set of metal type that would be used to typeset an entire page.
Upper- and lowercase letters get their names because of which case the metal type was located in for manual typesetting: the more distant upper case or the closer lower case. The same distinction is referred to with the terms majuscule and minuscule. Unlike a digital typeface, a metal font would not include a single definition of each character, but used characters would have more physical type-pieces included. A font when bought new would be sold as 12pt 14A 34a, meaning that it would be a size 12-point font containing 14 uppercase "A"s, 34 lowercase "A"s; the rest of the characters would be provided in quantities appropriate for the distribution of letters in that language. Some metal type characters required in typesetting, such as dashes and line-height spacers, were not part of a specific font, but were generic pieces which could be used with any font. Line spacing is still called "leading", because the strips used for line spacing were made of lead; the reason for this spacing strip being made from "lead" was because lead was a softer metal than the traditional forged metal type pieces and would compress more when "locked-up" in the printing "chase".
In the 1880s–1890s, "hot lead" typesetting was invented, in which type was cast as it was set, either piece by piece or in entire lines of type at one time. In addition to the character height, when using the mechanical sense of the term, there are several characteristics which may distinguish fonts, though they would depend on the script that the typeface supports. In European alphabetic scripts, i.e. Latin and Greek, the main such properties are the stroke width, called weight, the style or angle and the character width; the regular or standard font is sometimes labeled roman, both to distinguish it from bold or thin and from italic or oblique. The keyword for the default, regular case is omitted for variants and never repeated, otherwise it would be Bulmer regular italic, Bulmer bold regular and Bulmer regular regular. Roman can refer to the language coverage of a font, acting as a shorthand for "Western European". Different fonts of the same typeface may be used in the same work for various degrees of readability and emphasis, or in a specific design to make it be of more visual interest.
The weight of a particular font is the thickness of the character. A typeface may come from ultra-light to extra-bold or black. Many typefaces for office and non-professional use come with just a normal and a bold weight which are linked together. If no bold weight is provided, many renderers support faking a bolder font by rendering the outline a second time at an offset, or just smearing it at a diagonal angle; the base weight differs among typefaces. For example, fonts intended to be used in posters are quite bold by default while fonts for long runs of text are rather light. Therefore, weight designations in font names may differ in regard to the actual absolute stroke weight or density of glyphs in the font. Attempts to systematize a range of weights led to a numerical classification first used by Adrian Frutiger with the Univers typeface: 35 Extra Light, 45 Light, 55 Medium or Regular, 65 Bold, 75 Extra Bold, 85 Extra Bold, 95 Ultra Bold or Black. Deviants of these were the "6 series", e.g. 46 Light Italics etc. the "7 series", e.g. 57 Medium Condensed etc. and the "8 series", e.g. 68 Bold Condensed Italics.
From this brief numerical system it is easier to determine what a font's characteristics are, for instance "Helvetica 67" translates to "Helvetica Bold Condensed". The first algorithmic description of fonts was made by Donald Knuth in his Metafont description language and interpreter; the TrueType font format introduced a scale from 100 through 900, used in CSS and OpenType, where 400 is regular. There are many names used to describe the weight of a font in its name, differing among type foundries and designers, but their relative order is fixed, something like this: The terms normal, regular
A palindrome is a word, phrase, or other sequence of characters which reads the same backward as forward, such as madam or racecar or the number 10801. Sentence-length palindromes may be written when allowances are made for adjustments to capital letters and word dividers, such as "A man, a plan, a canal, Panama!", "Was it a car or a cat I saw?" or "No'x' in Nixon". Composing literature in palindromes is an example of constrained writing; the word "palindrome" was coined by the English playwright Ben Jonson in the 17th century from the Greek roots palin and dromos. Palindromes date back at least to 79 AD, as a palindrome was found as a graffito at Herculaneum, a city buried by ash in that year; this palindrome, called the Sator Square, consists of a sentence written in Latin: "Sator Arepo Tenet Opera Rotas". It is remarkable for the fact that the first letters of each word form the first word, the second letters form the second word, so forth. Hence, it can be arranged into a word square that reads in four different ways: horizontally or vertically from either top left to bottom right or bottom right to top left.
As such, they can be referred to as palindromatic. A palindrome with the same square property is the Hebrew palindrome, "We explained the glutton, in the honey was burned and incinerated", credited to Abraham ibn Ezra in 1924, referring to the halachic question as to whether a fly landing in honey makes the honey treif; the palindromic Latin riddle "In girum imus nocte et consumimur igni" describes the behavior of moths. It is that this palindrome is from medieval rather than ancient times; the second word, borrowed from Greek, should properly be spelled gyrum. Byzantine Greeks inscribed the palindrome, "Wash sins, not only face" ΝΙΨΟΝ ΑΝΟΜΗΜΑΤΑ ΜΗ ΜΟΝΑΝ ΟΨΙΝ, on baptismal fonts; this practice was continued in many English churches. Examples include the font at St. Mary's Church and the font in the basilica of St. Sophia, the font of St. Stephen d'Egres, Paris; some well-known English palindromes are, "Able was I ere I saw Elba", "A man, a plan, a canal – Panama", "Madam, I'm Adam" and "Never odd or even".
English palindromes of notable length include mathematician Peter Hilton's "Doc, note: I dissent. A fast never prevents a fatness. I diet on cod" and Scottish poet Alastair Reid's "T. Eliot, top bard, notes putrid tang emanating, is sad; the most familiar palindromes in English are character-unit palindromes. The characters read the same backward as forward; some examples of palindromic words are redivider, civic, level, kayak, racecar, redder and refer. There are word-unit palindromes in which the unit of reversal is the word. Word-unit palindromes were made popular in the recreational linguistics community by J. A. Lindon in the 1960s. Occasional examples in English were created in the 19th century. Several in French and Latin date to the Middle Ages. There are line-unit palindromes. Palindromes consist of a sentence or phrase, e.g. "Mr. Owl ate my metal worm", "Was it a car or a cat I saw?", "Murder for a jar of red rum" or "Go hang a salami, I'm a lasagna hog". Punctuation and spaces are ignored.
Some, such as "Rats live on no evil star", "Live on time, emit no evil", "Step on no pets", include the spaces. Semordnilap is a name coined for words; the word was coined by Martin Gardner in his notes to C. C. Bombaugh's book Oddities and Curiosities of Words and Literature in 1961. An example of this is the word stressed, desserts spelled backward; some semordnilaps are deliberate. An example in electronics is the mho, a unit of electrical conductance, ohm spelled backwards, the unit of electrical resistance and the reciprocal of conductance; the daraf, a unit of elastance, is farad spelled backwards, the unit of capacitance and the reciprocal of elastance. In fiction, many characters have names deliberately made to be semordnilaps of other names or words, the most used of, Alucard. Semordnilaps are known as emordnilaps, word reversals, reversible anagrams, heteropalindromes, semi-palindromes, half-palindromes, mynoretehs, volvograms, or anadromes, they have sometimes been called antigrams, though this term refers to anagrams which have opposite meanings.
In 2017, a six-year-old Canadian named Levi Budd called this a levidrome, which garnered support into making it a word from celebrities William Shatner and Patricia Arquette As of October 2018, none of these terms have been accepted as official entries in the Oxford English Dictionary. Some names are palindromes, such as the given names Hannah, Anna, Bob and Otto, or the surnames Harrah, Renner and Nenonen. Lon Nol was Prime Minister of Cambodia. Nisio Isin is a Japanese novelist and manga writer, whose pseudonym is a pal