In lexical semantics, opposites are words lying in an inherently incompatible binary relationship. For example, something, long entails that it is not short, it is referred to as a ` binary' relationship. The relationship between opposites is known as opposition. A member of a pair of opposites can be determined by the question What is the opposite of X? The term antonym is taken to be synonymous with opposite, but antonym has other more restricted meanings. Graded antonyms are word. Complementary antonyms are word pairs whose meanings are opposite but whose meanings do not lie on a continuous spectrum. Relational antonyms are word pairs where opposite makes sense only in the context of the relationship between the two meanings; these more restricted meanings may not apply in all scholarly contexts, with Lyons defining antonym to mean gradable antonyms, Crystal warns that antonymy and antonym should be regarded with care. Opposition is a semantic relation in which one word has a sense or meaning that negates or is, in the sense of scale, distant from a related word.
Other words are capable of being opposed, but the language in question has an accidental gap in its lexicon. For example, the word devout lacks a lexical opposite, but it is easy to conceptualize a parameter of devoutness where devout lies at the positive pole with a missing member at the negative pole. Opposites of such words can sometimes be formed with the prefixes un- or non-, with varying degrees of naturalness. For example, the word undevout appears in Webster's dictionary of 1828, while the pattern of non-person could conceivably be extended to non-platypus. Conversely, some words appear to be a prefixed form of an opposite, but the opposite term does not exist, such as inept, which appears to be in- + *ept. Opposites may be viewed as a special type of incompatibility. Words that are incompatible create the following type of entailment: sentence A is X entails sentence A is not Y An example of an incompatible pair of words is cat: dog: It's a cat entails It's not a dog This incompatibility is found in the opposite pairs fast: slow and stationary: moving, as can be seen below: It's fast entails It's not slow It's stationary entails It's not movingCruse identifies some basic characteristics of opposites: binarity, the occurrence of opposites as a lexical pair inherentness, whether the relationship may be presumed implicitly patency, the quality of how obvious a pair isSome planned languages abundantly use such devices to reduce vocabulary multiplication.
Esperanto has mal-, Damin has kuri- and Newspeak has un-. Some classes of opposites include: antipodals, pairs of words which describe opposite ends of some axis, either literal or figurative or abstract disjoint opposites, members of a set which are mutually exclusive but which leave a lexical gap unfilled, such as "red" and "blue," "one" and "ten," or "monday" and "friday." Reversives, pairs of verbs which denote opposing processes, in which one is the reverse of the other. They are performed by the same or similar subject without requiring an object of the verbs, such as "rise" and "fall," "accelerate" and "decelerate," or "shrink" and "grow." Converses, pairs in which one describes a relationship between two objects and the other describes the same relationship when the two objects are reversed, such as parent and child and student, or buy and sell. Overlapping antonyms, a pair of comparatives in which one, but not the other, implies the positive: An example is "better" and "worse." The sentence "x is better than y" does not imply that x is good, but "x is worse than y" implies that x is bad.
Other examples are "faster" and "slower" and "dirtier" and "cleaner". The relationship between overlapping antonyms is not inherent, but arises from the way they are interpreted most in a language. There is no inherent reason that an item be presumed to be bad when it is compared to another as being worse, but English speakers have combined the meaning semantically to it over the development of the language. An antonym is one of a pair of words with opposite meanings; each word in the pair is the antithesis of the other. A word may have more than one antonym. There are three categories of antonyms identified by the nature of the relationship between the opposed meanings. Where the two words have definitions that lie on a continuous spectrum of meaning, they are gradable antonyms. Where the meanings do not lie on a continuous spectrum and the words have no other lexical relationship, they are complementary antonyms. Where the two meanings are opposite only within the context of their relationship, they are relational antonyms.
A gradable antonym is one of a pair of words with opposite meanings where the two meanings lie on a continuous spectrum. Temperature is such a continuous spectrum so hot and cold, two meanings on opposite ends of the spectrum, are gradable antonyms. Other examples include: heavy: light, fat: skinny, dark: light, young: old, early: late, empty: full, dull: interesting. A complementary
Daniel L. Norris was Commissioner of the Northwest Territories from October 2, 1989 until September 30, 1994. Norris was raised in Aklavik. Norris died on August 5, 2008 from heart failure, a complication of his long-time struggle with diabetes. Norris was born on August 1935 near Inuvik in the Mackenzie Delta. Raised in Aklavik, Norris aspired to become a trapper like his father. Norris served for 27 years in the Northwest Territories government's public service, including four years spent as a regional administrator in the Beaufort Delta, he began in the public sector in what was the Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources, rose within that Department to become its Regional Superintendent of Personnel. On October 2, 1989, Norris was appointed as the territory's 11th Commissioner, making him the first Aboriginal born in the north of Canada to be appointed to that role. Between his appointment in 1989 and his leaving his role on September 30, 1994, Norris was forced to set out new protocols for the role of the Commissioner, as the position had some legislative function up until three years prior to Norris taking up the job.
On August 5, 2008, Daniel Norris died in an Edmonton, Alberta hospital of heart failure, following a protracted struggle with diabetes. On August 7, Northwest Territories government buildings with flagpoles flew their flags at half-mast in memory of Norris, on August 11, the day of his funeral, the same protocol was adopted
Desperate Characters is a 1970 novel by Paula Fox. Sophie and Otto Bentwood are a middle-aged, middle class, childless Brooklyn Heights couple trapped in a loveless marriage, he is an attorney, she a translator of books. Their existence is affected not only by their disintegrating relationship but by the threats of urban crime and vandalism that surround them everywhere they turn, leaving them feeling paranoid and helpless; the novel details their fragile emotional and psychological states as they interact with each other and their friends. The novel received good reviews both upon its release and in subsequent printings. Irving Howe, in his afterword to the 1980 reissue, placed it within "a major American tradition, the line of the short novel exemplified by Billy Budd, The Great Gatsby, Miss Lonelyhearts and Seize the Day": a tradition in which "everything—action, language—is fiercely compressed, enough, dark-grained as well." It fell out of print until it was republished in 1999. In the preface to the new edition, Jonathan Franzen called it the greatest realist novel of the postwar era.
The book was made into a movie starring Shirley MacLaine in 1971. "Big City Book Club Discussion of Desperate Characters with Paula Fox", The New York Times, 10 October 2012. Desperate Characters, WW Norton, archived from the original on 2013-02-10, retrieved 2012-10-11
Brandjacking is an activity whereby someone acquires or otherwise assumes the online identity of another entity for the purposes of acquiring that person's or business's brand equity. The term combines the notions of'branding' and'hijacking', has been used since at least 2007 when it appeared in Business Week referencing the term used in a publication by the firm MarkMonitor; the tactic is associated with use of individual and corporate identities on social media or Web 2.0 sites, as described in Quentin Langley's 2014 book Brandjack, may be used alongside more conventional campaign activities. While similar to cybersquatting, identity theft or phishing in nature and in possible tactics, brandjacking is particular to a politician, celebrity or business and more indirect in its nature. A brandjacker may attempt to use the reputation of its target for selfish reasons or seek to damage the reputation of its target for hostile, malicious or for political or campaigning reasons; these reasons may not be directly financial, but the effects on the original brand-holder may include financial loss - for example, negative publicity may result in the termination of a celebrity's sponsorship deal, or, for a corporation lead to lost sales or a reduced share price.
Coca-Cola - in 2013, a commercial, "The Bitter Taste of Sugar", for Oxfam parodied a Coca-Cola Zero commercial, drawing attention to its unsustainable business practices. Starbucks - in 2006, a YouTube-hosted video presented a spoof advert for a Starbucks Frappuccino underlining the contrast between consumption and poverty. Nestle - in March 2010, Greenpeace campaigners used a YouTube video that parodied Nestlé's KitKat'Take a Break' advertising, to draw attention to the multinational's use of palm oil from unsustainable operations in Indonesia and the consequent impact on Orangutan habitats. Protesters outside Nestlé's UK head office in Croydon carried signs with the words'Give me a break' and'Killer' printed in the distinctive red and white Gill Sans. Exxon Mobil - in 2008, a Twitter account was set up purporting to be the views of an official spokesperson for the oil company, only for it to be exposed as fake. On Twitter, @BPglobalPR is not an official voice for BP, but a satirical account that has grown in popularity during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, attracting more followers than the official BP Twitter account.
Politicians - fake Facebook pages were created for US President Barack Obama and US Republican governor Sarah Palin. Major corporations have been the subject of brandjack-based protests on Facebook. Fake blogs - may be considered a form of brandjacking if created by a critic or opponent of the person or brand supposed to be behind the blog. Affiliate Brand Bidding - This is a tactic used by some affiliate marketers; some consider Black Hat. The method is to bid on keywords related to your site / product, but to do so as a competitor. Colleges and Universities - In 2008, college guidebook company College Prowler created hundreds of Facebook groups purporting to consist of actual incoming first-year students of various universities in order to surreptitiously gather their personal data and promote the business. In June 2011, Greenpeace activists launched a campaign against Mattel's use of a packaging supplier, APP, said to be desecrating Indonesian rainforests, using images of Mattel dolls Barbie and Ken.
A Greenpeace video showed Ken dumping Barbie, the group created a mock Twitter feud and a stunt involving Barbie in a pink bulldozer, unfurled a banner on the wall of Mattel’s Los Angeles headquarters. In October 2011, Mattel announced a global policy to keep rainforest destruction out of its supply chains. Brandjack author Quentin Langley praised Greenpeace for its integration of offline. Brandjacking avoidance may include: Pre-emptive registration of brand names and sub-brands as screen names on social media sites. Staying vigilant Use of social media and general media monitoring tools to seek evidence of infringement Legal action against those seen as responsible for the infringement. However, action against the brandjackers and their supporters can draw attention to the problem. For example, following Greenpeace's KitKat campaign, Nestlé had the video removed from YouTube, but Greenpeace re-posted it to video-sharing site Vimeo.com and highlighted the attempted censorship using Twitter and other social media.
Attempts by Nestlé to constrain user activity on its Facebook fan page further fanned the controversy. Culture jamming Cybersquatting Fake blog Identity theft Phishing Subvertising Online brand-jacking increasing
The Mind Trust is a non-profit organization based in Indianapolis whose mission is to “dramatically improve public education for underserved students by empowering education entrepreneurs to develop or expand transformative education initiatives.” The Mind Trust was founded in 2006 by Bart Peterson, the former Mayor of Indianapolis, David Harris, Mayor Peterson's former charter schools director. Bart Peterson is now board chair, David Harris is a board member, VP, Brandon Brown is now The Mind Trust's CEO; the Mind Trust is an outgrowth of the Mayor Peterson's charter schools initiative. In 2001, the Mayor of Indianapolis became the nation's only mayor with the authority to charter schools. In July 2006, the initiative won Harvard University’s Innovations in American Government Award; the summer 2007 issue of Education Next, a publication of the Hoover Institution described The Mind Trust's formation in an article by David Skinner: In January, David Harris left the mayor’s office to work on another side of the charter school problem: ‘stimulating supply,’ as he puts it.
If Indianapolis is going to continue being a leader in school innovation, it must, Harris reasons, become the place to develop new ideas. So he has built a nonprofit—IPS superintendent White, among others, sits on the board—to fund paid fellowships for education entrepreneurs, it is called Mind Trust, along with trying to find the next Michael Feinberg or the next Wendy Kopp, Harris will be trying to draw the cream of education reform organizations to establish a presence in Indianapolis. To achieve its mission, The Mind Trust has three strategies: the Education Entrepreneur Fellowship that serves as an incubator for transformative education ventures; the Education Entrepreneur Fellowship offers promising education entrepreneurs the opportunity to develop and launch their break-the-mold education ventures. Fellows receive two years of support The Mind Trust has selected six Fellows since its inception. Fellows and their programs include Dr. Michael Bitz and Youth Music Exchange, Dr. Celine Coggins and Teach Plus, Ms. Abigail Falik and Global Citizen Year, Earl Martin Phalen and Summer Advantage USA, Stephanie Saroki de Garcia and Seton Education Partners, Jesse Hahnel and FosterEd.
John Ketzenberger, the business columnist for the Indianapolis Star, wrote about the Fellowship in a column on May 20, 2008: Indianapolis is on the vanguard of the education reform movement. Really. A big reason is The Mind Trust, a local nonprofit, its Education Entrepreneur Fellowship; the Mind Trust has used the Venture Fund to bring Teach For America, The New Teacher Project, pilotED Schools, College Summit Diploma Plus, Stand for Children to Indianapolis. The Mind Trust has invested over $5 million in the organizations they have recruited through the Venture Fund; the Charter School Incubator is the newest initiative of The Mind Trust. In 2012 the Incubator will award three to four $1,000,000 start-up grants to leadership teams that intend to launch networks of charter schools in Indianapolis; the deadline for the first application round is February 17, 2012, awards will be made by June 2012. The editorial staff of the Indianapolis Business Journal wrote about the Incubator in a column on October 15, 2011: If a meaningful turnaround in public education is going to happen here, it’s going to come from the fresh ideas and innovative thinking the grants are trying to leverage.
Getting the desired results won’t be easy, but the odds improve when groups such as The Mind Trust make their bold moves. Official website
Chanel Mata'utia-Leifi is an Australian former professional rugby league footballer. He plays for the Cessnock Goannas in the Newcastle Rugby League, his positions are centre. He played for the Newcastle Knights in the National Rugby League. Mata'utia was born in Australia, he is of Samoan descent. He is the younger brother of Knights teammate Peter Mata'utia and older brother of Knights teammates Pat Mata'utia and Sione Mata'utia, he played his junior football for the Bankstown Cougars, before moving to Newcastle, New South Wales at a young age and playing for the South Newcastle Lions in the Newcastle Rugby League. He was signed by the Newcastle Knights. From 2010 to 2012, Mata'utia played for the Newcastle Knights' NYC team. On 21 April 2012, he played for the New South Wales Under-20s team against the Queensland Under-20s team and scored a try. In 2013, he moved on to the Knights' New South Wales Cup team. On 16 October 2013, he re-signed with the Knights on a 1-year contract extending it by another year in 2014.
On 9 July 2014, he played for the New South Wales Residents against the Queensland Residents and scored two tries. In Round 20 of the 2014 NRL season, Mata'utia made his NRL debut for the Knights against the Sydney Roosters, alongside his brother Sione Mata'utia who debuted for the Knights in the same game; this was the first time since Round 1 of the 1942 NSWRFL season, that two brothers had debuted in the same game together and Doug McRitchie debuting for the St. George Dragons on that day. On 9 September 2014, he was named in the Samoa train-on squad for the 2014 Four Nations, but didn't make the final 24-man squad. Late in September 2014, he signed a letter of intent to join the Canterbury-Bankstown Bulldogs on a 4-year contract starting in 2016, along with his brothers Sione and Pat. However, the NRL's rules didn't allow the Bulldogs to register the contracts until 30 June 2015, leaving the option of staying at the Knights open for the Mata'utias. On 19 March, Mata'utia re-signed with the Knights on a 3-year contract, along with his brothers Sione and Pat.
In May, he again played for the New South Wales Residents against the Queensland Residents and scored two tries, this time alongside his brother Peter. Chanel managed to play only 1 NRL game in the 2015 season. After impressing the new coaching staff in pre-season, Mata'utia was selected to play in the Knights' round 1 side against the Gold Coast Titans, though he was injured during the game. Multiple injuries throughout the year meant the round 1 match would be his only NRL match for the season. After another injury plagued season, Mata'utia was able to break back into the Knights' NRL side in round 18 of the 2017 season, going on to play 4 NRL matches for the year and scoring two tries. On 23 November, it was announced that he would be retiring from the professional level of the game and joining the local Newcastle Rugby League, after being granted a release from the final year of the Knights contract. Mata'utia said after being released “The club has been great to me and I will miss everyone, but it is the right time for me to step away from the game at this level”.
In 2018, Mata'utia joined the Cessnock Goannas. Newcastle Knights profile