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Oprah Winfrey Network

Oprah Winfrey Network is an American basic cable channel jointly owned by Discovery Inc. and Harpo Studios that launched on January 1, 2011, replacing the Discovery Health Channel. The network is led by Oprah Winfrey and features entertainment and lifestyle programming targeting African American audiences, reruns of talk show programming from the Harpo Studios library. A 50/50 joint venture, Discovery acquired a larger stake in the network in 2017. Harpo remains a "significant" minority stakeholder and Winfrey is contracted with the channel through at least 2025; as of February 2015, OWN is available to 81.9 million pay television households in the United States. After becoming Discovery Communications' new CEO in 2007, David Zaslav found Discovery Health to be underperforming, taking in lower carriage fees in comparison to the company's namesake; as a result, he began to explore the possibility of re-launching the channel as a joint venture with another partner. Zaslav's wife was an avid reader of Oprah Winfrey's O magazine.

On January 15, 2008, Discovery Communications announced that it had entered into a joint venture with Winfrey's studio Harpo Productions, under which it would re-launch Discovery Health as "OWN: The Oprah Winfrey Network", in the second half of 2009. Winfrey would serve as the chairwoman of the channel, expected to deal in factual programming oriented towards her personal philosophy of "living your best life". Discovery provided $100 million in funding, Harpo provided access to its library and Winfrey's website, As it was still under contract with CBS Television Distribution through May 2011, her existing syndicated talk show The Oprah Winfrey Show was not expected to air on OWN, but there was a possibility that a continuation of it could air on OWN in the future. Winfrey and her long-time partner Stedman Graham had discussed the idea of forming her own channel as early as 1992. After Winfrey demonstrated discontent over "confrontational" talk shows on television, Graham suggested that she should form an "Oprah Winfrey Network" if she were dissatisfied with the current state of television.

OWN was not Winfrey's first cable television venture, having been co-founder of the women's cable network Oxygen. However, her involvement was limited to being an investor. In November 2008, Zazlav stated that Winfrey had planned to not renew her contract with CBS for The Oprah Winfrey Show beyond the 2010-11 season, that the show could move to OWN in some form following the end of the syndicated run. Harpo Productions denied the report, stating that Winfrey "has not made a final decision as to whether she will continue her show in syndication beyond "; the development of OWN was affected by internal conflicts, as well as Winfrey's continued commitment to her talk show. Its launch was pushed back from its originally-announced target of 2009 to an unspecified date. Zaslav pressured Oprah into moving her talk show to the channel, believing that it could boost its business. In November 2009, Lisa Erspamer—a Harpo executive, a co-executive producer of The Oprah Winfrey Show since 2006—was named chief creative officer of OWN.

Due to her history of working with Winfrey, the appointment of Erspamer was seen as having stabilized OWN's development: network CEO Christina Norman described Erspamer's arrival as being an "injection of Oprah's DNA" into the upcoming channel. On November 20, Winfrey announced that The Oprah Winfrey Show would conclude in 2011, after its 25th and final season. With the end of her talk show, Winfrey's commitments with Discovery were revised; the official launch of OWN was set for January 1, 2011, so that it would occur while Oprah's talk show was still on the air. Plans now called for at least 600 hours of original programming in 2011, as well as acquired and library programming. After the launch of OWN, Discovery Health's programming was merged into another Discovery-owned channel, FitTV—which rebranded as Discovery Fit & Health a month on February 1, 2011, it was subsequently re-branded again as Discovery Life in 2015. During its first year of operation, OWN struggled to build an audience and viewership, with most of its programs being low-rated besides Our America with Lisa Ling, Season 25: Oprah Behind The Scenes.

Its average viewership was 135,000 during its second month on air, lower than that of Discovery Health. Norman defended the network's ratings, stating that first-run broadcasts of its original series were drawing larger audiences than those of Discovery Health, that Discovery's goal was to improve OWN's monthly audience to between 50 and 60 million viewers by the end of the year. In

Rescue of Stutthof victims in Denmark

The rescue of Stutthof victims in Denmark took place on 5 May 1945 at Klintholm Havn, a small fishing village on the south coast of the island of Møn, when a barge full of famished Nazi concentration camp prisoners was towed into harbour. On 5 May 1945, the day Denmark was liberated from German occupation during World War II, a barge with 370 starving prisoners from the Stutthof concentration camp near Danzig was brought into Klintholm Havn; when Russian forces moved into the areas close to Stutthof on 25 April 1945, those in control of the concentration camp forced the remaining prisoners to march to the coast and commanded them to board river barges. After a few days, they were taken ashore in Rügen, but were again forced onto another barge on 3 May; this was allowed to drift across the Baltic Sea until it was towed into the harbour at Klintholm Havn by a German tug two days later. The local inhabitants managed to rescue 351 of the prisoners; the other 19 died of disease or starvation during the next few days.

Some of them are buried in nearby Magleby churchyard. The prisoners on the barge were nearly all political prisoners, most of whom had been involved in resistance operations. There were several members of Jehovah's Witnesses, banned by the Nazi regime. Danish Red Cross archives, which draw on an analysis undertaken by Zygmunt Szatkowski, show that the majority of the prisoners were Poles followed by a large number of Russians. There were small numbers of Czechoslovakians, Estonians, Lithuanians and Frenchmen as well as a few citizens from the Free State of Danzig. One of the Poles had a U. S. passport. Shortly after the barge was towed into the harbour, Rasmus Fenger, the local doctor, boarded the vessel and assessed the health of the prisoners, they were nearly all suffering from diseases such as dysentery, typhus and the effects of malnutrition. In addition, they all had fleas; the top priority the first day was to find emergency food supplies for them all. Bread and butter were found in the surrounding area and large quantities of fresh water were provided.

A rescue committee was set up consisting of members of the Red Cross and the Danish resistance movement. The most critically ill prisoners were moved to Stege hospital or to Hotel Søbad, a few hundred metres from the harbour; the remainder stayed on the barge for up to 10 days until accommodation could be found for them in community centres or hostels. The local Red Cross organised the rescue operation assisted by Danish doctors and nurses and by those prisoners who were fit enough to help. Within a few days, the spirits of the prisoners improved as they received nutrition and medical care. A memorial stone now stands on the shore of Klinthom Havn at the point, it was erected on 5 May 1995. The Danish inscription on the stone reads: Fra sult og nød, tortur og død De mødte på en fremmed kyst I hjælpsom ånd, en udstrakt hånd.which translated, means: From hunger and peril and death, They encountered on a foreign shore In helping vein, an outstretched hand. The board beside the stone carries explanations in four languages including English.

The English reads: On the day of the Liberation of Denmark, 5 May 1945, a barge was washed up on this spot, carrying 370 prisoners from the Nazi concentration camp of Stutthof near Danzig. Close to death from starvation and illness, they had been ordered by their captors to their fate on the Baltic Sea. On the 50th anniversary of the landing, this memorial was erected to commemorate those people who, with no thought for their own safety, saved the lives of 351 of the prisoners; this memorial honours the memory of those victims who never reached the outstretched hands of the rescuers of Klintholm. In her autobiography Unfettered Joy, Hermine Schmidt, a German woman, a prisoner at Stutthof because of her religious beliefs as a member of Jehovah's Witnesses, tells her own story of the desperate voyage across the Baltic Sea, she recounts how on 25 April 1945 she and 370 other inmates from Stutthof were pushed out into the Baltic in a derelict barge. For 10 days the barge drifted around south of Denmark.

But on the 10th day the vessel was sighted from a little Danish island. It was soon brought into Klitholm Havn harbour on Møn; the date was Denmark's liberation day. "It was unbelievable. We had lice and fleas and looked like walking skeletons but they came down to the harbour and hugged us; the following day you could read in the local paper: Go down to the harbour and see the floating coffin." The following article, drafted by prisoners Szatkowski and Sister Hilda, appeared in Møn's local newspapers and in one national Danish paper between 25 and 30 May 2009: "We thank you Danes for our lives. Thank you for the heartfelt welcome you gave us unfortunate souls from Stutthof when we arrived after months or years of suffering, culminating in 11 days of extreme peril; as a result of poor sanitation and terrible conditions, there was typhus on our ship. Disease spread terrifyingly among us. Without food, we were driven through wind and storm until we landed on the little Danish island of Møn, its inhabitants received us.

You took care of us with real concern, you took the sick off the ship and did your best for us. Our story is full of gratitude. Special thanks to the Red Cross which, under Mrs Mortensen's leadership, all the time and strength she devoted to us, has given us back both spiritually and physically so much of what we missed in Stutthof. Just as warmly, we thank the do

Saudi Arabian cuisine

Saudi Arabian cuisine encompasses the cuisines and foods of Saudi Arabia. In spite of the existence of many common dishes, Saudi Arabian dishes vary from a region to another as the culture itself varies; some of the common food items in Saudi Arabian cuisine include wheat, lamb, yogurt, potatoes and dates. Some additional foods and dishes include: Traditional coffeehouses used to be ubiquitous, but are now being displaced by food-hall style cafes. According to the Saudi Arabian Cultural Mission, "serving Gahwah in Saudi Arabia is a sign of hospitality and generosity". Traditionally, the coffee beans were roasted and ground in front of the guests using a mortar and pestle; the host would add cardamom pods to the coffee beans during the grinding process. Once the coffee was brewed, it would be poured for the guests. Today, Gahwah is not prepared in front of the guests. Yoghurt is made into a drink called LabanSobia is a cold drink made in the Hijaz but now available all over Saudi Arabia during Ramadan.

It's made from a light fermented mixture of Barley/Brown bread, Date palm sap and Spices. It may be either colored depending on the flavor. It's found to have health benefits. Islamic dietary laws forbid the drinking of alcoholic beverages; this law is enforced throughout Saudi Arabia. According to Islamic law, animals must be butchered in a halal way and blessed before they can be eaten. According to the Saudi Arabian cultural mission, "guests are served hot coffee and dates as a symbol of generosity and hospitality; the same practice is carried out in the month of Ramadan. Muslims in Saudi Arabia break their fast with dates and Arabian coffee; the caffeine in the coffee and the carbohydrates and iron in dates nourishes the fasting person with a lot of energy. This helps them perform the Tarawih held in the evenings during Ramadan." Arab cuisine Davies, Catriona. "Saudi foodies ditch fast food for fine dining." CNN. Wednesday March 28, 2012. Saudi Cooking

Denver Diamonds

Denver Diamonds was an American women's soccer team, founded in 1996. In its debut season the team won its USL W-League conference finished second four years in succession, before folding after the 2000 season; the team was a member of the Women's Premier Soccer League, the second tier of women’s soccer in the United States and Canada. Starting play in the 2002 season, they went on hiatus in 2005 folded again after the 2009 season; the team played its home games at the Gates Soccer Complex in the city of Centennial, Colorado, 15 miles south of downtown Denver. The club's colors were black. Homare Sawa Dayna Smith W-League West Region Champions 1996 WPSL Southern Southwest Division Champions 2007 WPSL Southern Southwest Division Champions 2006 Tom Stone Scott De Dycker Gates Soccer Complex in Centennial, Colorado WPSL Denver Diamonds page W-League page

History of South Africa (1815–1910)

During the Napoleonic Wars, the Cape Colony was annexed by the British and became their colony in 1815. Britain encouraged settlers to the Cape, in particular, sponsored the 1820 Settlers to farm in the disputed area between the colony and the Xhosa in what is now the Eastern Cape; the changing image of the Cape from Dutch to British excluded the Dutch farmers in the area, the Boers who in the 1820s started their Great Trek to the northern areas of modern South Africa. This period marked the rise in power of the Zulu under their king Shaka Zulu. Subsequently, several conflicts arose between the British and Zulus, which led to the Zulu defeat and the ultimate Boer defeat in the Second Anglo-Boer War. However, the Treaty of Vereeniging established the framework of South African limited independence as the Union of South Africa. At the tip of the continent, the British found an established colony with 25,000 slaves, 20,000 white colonists, 15,000 Khoisan, 1,000 freed black slaves. Power resided with a white élite in Cape Town, differentiation on the basis of race was entrenched.

Outside Cape Town and the immediate hinterland, isolated black and white pastoralists populated the country. Like the Dutch before them, the British had little interest in the Cape Colony, other than as a strategically located port; as one of their first tasks they tried to resolve a troublesome border dispute between the Boers and the Xhosa on the colony's eastern frontier. In 1820 the British authorities persuaded about 5,000 middle-class British immigrants to leave England behind and settle on tracts of land between the feuding groups with the idea of providing a buffer zone; the plan was singularly unsuccessful. Within three years half of these 1820 Settlers had retreated to the towns, notably Grahamstown and Port Elizabeth, to pursue the jobs they had held in Britain. While doing nothing to resolve the border dispute, this influx of settlers solidified the British presence in the area, thus fracturing the relative unity of white South Africa. Where the Boers and their ideas had before gone unchallenged, European Southern Africa now had two language groups and two cultures.

A pattern soon emerged whereby English-speakers became urbanised, dominated politics, finance and manufacturing, while the uneducated Boers were relegated to their farms. The gap between the British settlers and the Boers further widened with the abolition of slavery in 1833, not because the slaves were freed, but the way in which they were freed, yet the British settlers' conservatism and sense of racial superiority stopped any radical social reforms, in 1841 the authorities passed a Masters and Servants Ordinance, which perpetuated white control. Meanwhile, British numbers increased in Cape Town, in the area east of the Cape Colony, in Natal and, after the discovery of gold and diamonds, in parts of the Transvaal around present-day Gauteng; the early 19th century saw a time of immense upheaval relating to the military expansion of the Zulu kingdom. Sotho-speakers know this period as the difaqane; the full causes of the difaqane remain in dispute. The rise of a unified Zulu kingdom had particular significance.

In the early 19th century, Nguni tribes in KwaZulu-Natal began to shift from a loosely organised collection of kingdoms into a centralised, militaristic state. Shaka Zulu, son of the chief of the small Zulu clan, became the driving force behind this shift. At first something of an outcast, Shaka proved himself in battle and succeeded in consolidating power in his own hands, he built large armies, breaking from clan tradition by placing the armies under the control of his own officers rather than of the hereditary chiefs. Shaka set out on a massive programme of expansion, killing or enslaving those who resisted in the territories he conquered, his impis were rigorously disciplined: failure in battle meant death. Peoples in the path of Shaka's armies moved out of his way, becoming in their turn aggressors against their neighbours; this wave of displacement spread beyond. It accelerated the formation of several states, notably those of the Sotho and of the Swazi. In 1828 Shaka was killed by Umthlangana.

The weaker and less-skilled Dingaan became king, relaxing military discipline while continuing the despotism. Dingaan attempted to establish relations with the British traders on the Natal coast, but events had started to unfold that would see the demise of Zulu independence. Meanwhile, the Boers had started to grow dissatisfied with British rule in the Cape Colony. Various factors contributed to the migration, including Anglicization policies and restrictive laws on slavery. Beginning in 1835, several groups of Boers, together with large numbers of Khoikhoi and black servants, decided to trek off into the interior in search of greater independence. North and east of the Orange River these Boers or Voortrekkers found vast tracts of uninhabited grazing lands, they had, it seemed, entered their promised land, with space enough for their cattle to graze and their culture of anti-urban independence to flourish. Little did they know that what they found – deserted pasture lands, disorganised bands of refugees, tales of brutality – resulted from the difaqane, rather than representing the normal state of affairs.

With the exception of the more

Ma Chao

Ma Chao, courtesy name Mengqi, was a military general and warlord who lived in the late Eastern Han dynasty and early Three Kingdoms period of China. A descendant of the general Ma Yuan, Ma Chao was the eldest son of Ma Teng, a prominent warlord in Liang Province. In 211, he formed a coalition with Han Sui and other northwestern warlords and revolted against the Han central government, led by the warlord Cao Cao; the coalition broke up after losing the Battle of Tong Pass against Cao Cao's forces. Ma Chao retreated, but returned to attack and seize control of Liang Province by killing the provincial inspector Wei Kang and forcing Wei Kang's subordinates to submit to him. About a year after Ma Chao started his uprising, Emperor Xian issued an imperial decree ordering the execution of Ma Chao's family members, who were in Ye city at the time. In the meantime, Wei Kang's subordinates, led by Zhao Ang, Yang Fu and others, rebelled against Ma Chao and forced him out of Liang Province. Ma Chao retreated to Hanzhong Commandery, where he borrowed troops from the warlord Zhang Lu, returned to attack Liang Province but was defeated and driven back.

Ma Chao took shelter under Zhang Lu for a while until around 214, when he heard that the warlord Liu Bei was fighting for control over Yi Province with Yi Province's governor, Liu Zhang. He assisted Liu Bei in capturing Yi Province from Liu Zhang. Ma Chao had served as a general under Liu Bei since and participated in the Hanzhong Campaign in 219, he died in 222. Historians and Ma Chao's contemporaries have a negative view of him. Apart from committing treason against the Han government under Cao Cao's control, Ma Chao was notorious for committing a number of acts of cruelty: he betrayed his father when he persuaded Han Sui to join him in his rebellion. In the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Ma Chao is romanticised as a heroic warrior and one of the Five Tiger Generals under Liu Bei. In the novel, the descriptions of his character and personality, as well as the order of some events involving him, have been modified for dramatic effect. For example, in the novel he started the Battle of Tong Pass to take revenge against Cao Cao for murdering his family, but he waged war against Cao Cao first, his family members were implicated and executed about one year later.

In the novel, he engaged Xu Chu and Zhang Fei in one-on-one duels at the Battle of Tong Pass and Battle of Jiameng Pass but the duels never took place and the Battle of Jiameng Pass is a fictional battle. Ma Chao was from Maoling County, Youfufeng Commandery, located northeast of present-day Xingping, Shaanxi, he was the eldest son of Ma Teng, who descended from Ma Yuan, a general who lived in the early Eastern Han dynasty. Ma Teng's father, Ma Ping, whose courtesy name was Zishuo, served as a military officer in Tianshui Commandery during the reign of Emperor Huan. After losing his post, Ma Ping went to live among the Qiang tribes in the region, married a Qiang woman and had a son, Ma Teng. Ma Teng, along with Han Sui and others, were warlords who held considerable influence in Liang Province towards the end of the Eastern Han dynasty and were reluctant to submit to Han rule. In 192, Ma Teng accepted the appointment of General Who Attacks the West from the Han imperial court and garrisoned his army at Mei County.

However, he rebelled against the Han dynasty and attacked the city of Chang'an but failed to conquer it so he retreated back to Liang Province. In 197, the warlord Cao Cao – who had become the de facto head of the Han central government – placed Zhong Yao, the Colonel-Director of Retainers, in charge of guarding the Guanzhong region. Zhong Yao wrote to Ma Teng and Han Sui, explaining to them the benefits of submitting to the Han court and the negative consequences of not doing so; when Cao Cao became the Imperial Chancellor, he wanted to recruit Ma Chao to serve in the Han government, but Ma refused. In 202, when Cao Cao was on a series of campaigns to unify northern China after his victory over Yuan Shao at the Battle of Guandu two years earlier, he ordered Zhong Yao to attack Yuan's allies Gao Gan and Guo Yuan in Pingyang. Ma Teng sent Ma Chao to assist Zhong Yao. Ma Chao served as an Assistant Officer. During the battle, he was hit by a stray arrow in the foot, but he wrapped his foot in a pouch and continued fighting.

His subordinate Pang De slew Guo Yuan and they defeated the enemy. Ma Teng got into conflict with Han Sui so he requested to leave Liang Province and work in the capital, he was appointed as the Minister of the Guards by the Han court. Ma Chao was appointed as a Lieutenant-General, made a Marquis of a Chief Village, placed in charge of his father's troops in Liang Province. Ma Chao's younger brothers Ma Xiu and Ma Tie were appointed as a Commandant of Equipage and a Commandant of Iron Cavalry and were ordered to bring all their family members with them to Ye. Only Ma Chao remained behind in Liang Province. In 211, Cao Cao sent Zhong Yao and Xiahou Yuan to lead an army to attack Zhang Lu in Hanzhong Commandery