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Optimates

The Optimates known as boni, were a conservative political faction in the late Roman Republic. They formed in reaction against the reforms of the Gracchi brothers—two tribunes of the plebs between 133 and 121 BC who tried to pass an agrarian law to help the urban poor, a political reform that would have diminished the influence of the senatorial class; as the Optimates were senators and large landowners, they violently opposed the Gracchi, murdered them, but their program was upheld by several politicians, called the Populares. For about 80 years, Roman politics was marked by the confrontation of these two factions; the Optimates favoured the ancestral Roman laws and customs, as well as the supremacy of the Senate over the popular assemblies and the tribunes of the plebs. They rejected the massive extension of Roman citizenship to Rome's Italian allies advocated by the Populares. Although suspicious of powerful generals, they sided with Pompey when they came to believe that Julius Caesar—himself a Popularis—planned a coup against the Republic.

They disappeared with their defeat in the subsequent Civil War. While several leaders of the Optimates were patricians—belonging to the oldest noble families—such as Sulla or Scipio Nasica Serapio, many were plebeians: the Caecilii Metelli, Cato the Younger, Titus Annius Milo, etc. Cicero—the most famous Optimas—was a novus homo. In general, the Optimates favored the nobiles and opposed the ascension of novi homines into Roman politics, though exceptions exist. For instance, Cicero was himself a novus homo, being the first in his family to enter the Senate—he was thus never accepted by the Optimates. On the other hand, during the civil war of 49 BC Julius Caesar of a respectable old family contended against a Senate championed by Pompey, from a wealthy yet ennobled family. In addition to their political aims, the Optimates opposed the extension of Roman citizenship and sought the preservation of the mos maiorum, the ways of their forefathers, they sought to prevent successful generals such as Gaius Marius and Julius Caesar from using their armies to accrue such power that they might be in a position to challenge the Senate.

They opposed Marius' plan to enlist impoverished Romans who were too poor to provide their own arms and supplies in the legions and the generals' attempts to settle these veterans on state-owned land. John Edwin Sandys detects an Optimates grouping at time of the death of Tiberius Gracchus in 133 BC; the Optimates' cause reached its peak under the dictatorship of Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Sulla's administration stripped the assemblies of nearly all power, raised the number of members of the Senate from 300 to 600, executed an large number of Populares via proscription lists and settled thousands of soldiers in northern Italy. However, after Sulla's withdrawal from public life and subsequent death many of their policies were reversed. Besides Sulla, notable Optimates included Lucullus, Cato the Younger, Titus Annius Milo, Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus and Marcus Junius Brutus the Younger. Though the Optimates had opposed him for the entirety of his political career, Pompey found himself as the leader of the Optimates' faction once their civil war with Julius Caesar began in 49 BC.

Optimates who had carried out Julius Caesar's assassination in 44 BC called. Robert Morstein-Max, a historian of the Late Republic, cautions against understanding the terms populares and optimates as solid factions or as ideological groupings: Our chief contemporary witnesses to the political life of the late Republic and Sallust, are fond of analyzing the political struggles of the period in terms of a distinction between optimates and populares appearing with slight variations in terminology, such as Senate, nobility, or boni versus People or plebs; the polarity corresponds with the dual sources of institutional power in the Republic – Senate and People. It is important to realize that references to populares in the plural do not imply a co-ordinated'party' with a distinctive ideological character, a kind of political grouping for which there is no evidence in Rome, but allude to a recognizable, if statistically quite rare, type of senator whose activities are scattered sporadically across late-Republic history The'life-long' popularis was a new and worrying phenomenon at the time of Julius Caesar's consulship of 59: an underlying reason why the man inspired such profound fears.

This summarizes the dominant interpretation of the Populares in 20th-century scholarship, deriving in large part from Ronald Syme in the Anglophone literature. In the early 21st century and as early as the publication of the ninth volume of The Cambridge Ancient History in 1994, the validity of examining Popularist ideology in the context of Roman political philosophy has been reasserted. In particular, T. P. Wiseman has rehabilitated the use of the word "party" to describe the political opposition between Optimates and Populares, based on Latin usage and pointing to the consistency of a sort of party platform based on the food supply and general welfare of the populus, making land available to those outside the senatorial elite and debt relief. Gnaeus Octavius - Ancestor of emperor Augustus. A conservative member of the Senate that opposed Populares' reforms. Marcus Octavius - Ancestor of emperor Augustus. A major rival of Tiberius Gracchus. Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo - Father of the famous general Pompey Magnus.

Gnaeus

Morning/Evening

Morning/Evening is the eighth album by British electronic musician Kieran Hebden, released under his alias Four Tet in 2015 by Hebden's own Text Records and via the online music store Bandcamp. As a child, Hebden had inherited a collection of Hindu devotional music from his late grandfather but did not listen to it until his maternal grandmother died during the making of his 2013 album, Beautiful Rewind. After sampling the voice of Indian playback singer Lata Mangeshkar, Hebden was inspired to make a record with a similar structure to Indian music the raga mode and decided to break the album into a "Morning Side" and an "Evening Side". Alongside the sampled vocals, Morning/Evening contains complex drum programming, electronic sounds and manipulated found sounds. Morning/Evening was announced in May 2015, with an expected release date of July 2015, it was made available to stream and download from Hebden's Bandcamp page on 21 June 2015 to celebrate the summer solstice. Music critics praised Hebden for continuing to release unique electronic music.

The physical release of Morning/Evening became Hebden's second highest-charting album, peaking at number 48 in the UK Albums Chart. Kieran Hebden, of Indian descent, acquired a collection of Hindu devotional music from his late grandfather when he was ten years old but had never listened to it; when his maternal grandmother died during the making of his 2013 album Beautiful Rewind, Hebden played some of the records and began experimenting by looping a vocal sample of Indian playback singer Lata Mangeshkar for three days before deciding to base an album around it. Hebden wanted to make a record with a similar structure to Indian music the raga mode, decided to divide the album into a "Morning Side" and an "Evening Side" since many ragas relate to certain times of the day. Hebden drew influences from English electronic music group Autechre and early electronic music, including American electronic composer Morton Subotnick's 1967 composition Silver Apples of the Moon, wanted the album's production to sound like a low fidelity recording, while maintaining moments of high fidelity.

Morning/Evening contains two tracks of electronic sounds and "skittering" drum programming with a total running time of 40 minutes. "Morning Side" features prominent vocal samples from Mangeshkar's performance of "Main Teri Chhoti Behana Hoon", recorded for the 1983 Hindi-language feature film Souten, coupled with complex drum programming and arpeggiated synthesizers. "Evening Side", which features a sample of filmi music, begins with guitar, drones and "sparse" keyboards. It contains a conclusion that features a garage rhythm, with Hebden wanting the end of the album to feature "the most hectic, percussive part" to emphasise an evening's relationship with nightclubs; the song fades out "to implicate that the music went to infinity." Hebden recorded the album between August 2014 and February 2015, using a laptop running the digital audio workstation Ableton Live to control VST synthesizers and manipulate found sounds. Hebden announced Morning/Evening on 6 May 2015 with a release date of July 2015.

Although no marketing campaign was used, Hebden performed the album for the first time at the Mayfield Depot in Manchester as part of The Warehouse Project on 17 June 2015. He decided to issue the album early, making it available to stream and download from his page at online music store Bandcamp on 21 June 2015 to celebrate the summer solstice because he thought it was "a lovely day", he included tracks from Morning/Evening in his live set at the 2015 Electric Forest Festival in Rothbury, Michigan. It was released on compact disc and vinyl on 10 July by Text Records. Morning/Evening entered the UK Albums Chart during the week commencing 23 July 2015 and became Hebden's second highest-charting album, peaking at number 48. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalised rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, Morning/Evening received an average score of 77 based on 17 reviews, indicating "generally favorable reviews". Exclaim! Reviewer Chad Barnes called it "a gorgeous, daring album", saying that "Hebden spins intricate sonic gold while subtly exploring a range of moods and moments on the complex morphing compositions".

Kitty Empire, writing for The Observer, said that it was a "low key treat" that contained "effortless prettiness." Pitchfork reviewer Andy Beta called the album "daring and expansive" and said that "the scope and ambition of Morning/Evening is profound, will inspire producers to take bigger chances and not be satisfied with pop- or club-friendly lengths." NME called "Morning Side" "one of the most moving pieces of music Hebden has put his name to" and said the album ranked "alongside Four Tet's best work." Critic Nina Corcoran of Consequence of Sound said that "Hebden has done what he does best: create an atmosphere so encompassing that you lose sight of wherever you are while you're listening". Spin's Dan Weiss called the album "ambitious" and "beautiful in its own right, if you’re patient."In his review for PopMatters, Casey Hardmeyer called the album both "classic Four Tet" and "a step in a new direction for the veteran producer". Hardmeyer felt the vocal sample on "Morning Side" was too prominent in the mix, saying that "Side two,'Evening Side', is where Hebden shines", praised Hebden for continuing to release challenging and unique music "in an electronica landscape that's devoid of it".

XLR8R's Chas Reynolds said that while the album's "narrative ambivalence" might not make Morning/Evening Hebden's most "immediate" record, it lent Morning/Evening a "near infinite replay value". AllMusic's Andy Kellman said that the album "isn't among the most substantive Four Tet albums, but it does reward repeated casual lis

Ottoschulzia rhodoxylon

Ottoschulzia rhodoxylon is a rare species of tree in the family Icacinaceae known by the common name pincho palo de rosa. It is native to Puerto Hispaniola; when it was listed as an endangered species under the United States' Endangered Species Act in 1990 there were only nine individuals remaining on Puerto Rico. This evergreen has thick, leathery oval leaves; the flowers have not been described in the literature. The heartwood is suitable for woodturning. In Puerto Rico, the tree is known from Guánica Commonwealth Forest and one location near Bayamón, there has been a sighting of one individual in Maricao Commonwealth Forest. Deforestation has reduced the amount of suitable habitat remaining for the tree. USDA Plants Profile