The Mojave Desert is an arid rain-shadow desert and the driest desert in North America. It is in the southwestern United States within southeastern California and southern Nevada, it occupies 47,877 sq mi. Small areas extend into Utah and Arizona, its boundaries are noted by the presence of Joshua trees, which are native only to the Mojave Desert and are considered an indicator species, it is believed to support an additional 1,750 to 2,000 species of plants. The central part of the desert is sparsely populated, while its peripheries support large communities such as Las Vegas, Lancaster, Victorville, St. George; the Mojave Desert is bordered by the Great Basin Desert to its north and the Sonoran Desert to its south and east. Topographical boundaries include the Tehachapi Mountains to the west, the San Gabriel Mountains and San Bernardino Mountains to the south; the mountain boundaries are distinct because they are outlined by the two largest faults in California – the San Andreas and Garlock faults.
The Mojave Desert displays typical range topography. Higher elevations above 2,000 ft in the Mojave are referred to as the High Desert; the Mojave Desert occupies less than 50,000 sq mi, making it the smallest of the North American deserts. The Mojave Desert is referred to as the "high desert", in contrast to the "low desert", the Sonoran Desert to the south; the Mojave Desert, however, is lower than the Great Basin Desert to the north. The spelling Mojave originates from the Spanish language while the spelling Mohave comes from modern English. Both are used today, although the Mojave Tribal Nation uses the spelling Mojave; the Mojave Desert receives less than 2 inches of rain a year and is between 2,000 and 5,000 feet in elevation. The Mojave Desert contains the Mojave National Preserve, as well as the lowest and hottest place in North America: Death Valley at 282 ft below sea level, where the temperature surpasses 120 °F from late June to early August. Zion National Park in Utah lies at the junction of the Mojave, the Great Basin Desert, the Colorado Plateau.
Despite its aridity, the Mojave has long been a center of alfalfa production, fed by irrigation coming from groundwater and from the California Aqueduct. The Mojave is a desert of two distinct seasons. Winter months bring comfortable daytime temperatures, which drop to around 25 °F on valley floors, below 0 °F at the highest elevations. Storms moving from the Pacific Northwest can bring rain and in some places snow. More the rain shadow created by the Sierra Nevada as well as mountain ranges within the desert such as the Spring Mountains, bring only clouds and wind. In longer periods between storm systems, winter temperatures in valleys can approach 80 °F. Spring weather continues to be influenced by Pacific storms, but rainfall is more widespread and occurs less after April. By early June, it is rare for another Pacific storm to have a significant impact on the region's weather. Summer weather is dominated by heat. Temperatures on valley floors can soar above 130 °F at the lowest elevations. Low humidity, high temperatures, low pressure, draw in moisture from the Gulf of Mexico creating thunderstorms across the desert southwest known as the North American monsoon.
While the Mojave does not get nearly the amount of rainfall the Sonoran desert to the south receives, monsoonal moisture will create thunderstorms as far west as California's Central Valley from mid-June through early September. Autumn is pleasant, with one to two Pacific storm systems creating regional rain events. October is one of the sunniest months in the Mojave. After temperature, wind is the most significant weather phenomenon in the Mojave. Across the region windy days are common. During the June Gloom, cooler air can be pushed into the desert from Southern California. In Santa Ana wind events, hot air from the desert blows into the Los Angeles basin and other coastal areas. Wind farms in these areas generate power from these winds; the other major weather factor in the region is elevation. The highest peak within the Mojave is Charleston Peak at 11,918 feet, while the Badwater Basin in Death Valley is 279 feet below sea level. Accordingly and precipitation ranges wildly in all seasons across the region.
The Mojave Desert has not supported a fire regime because of low fuel loads and connectivity. However, in the last few decades, invasive annual plants such as some within the genera Bromus and Brassica have facilitated fire; this has altered many areas of the desert. At higher elevations, fire regimes are infrequent; the Mojave Desert is defined by numerous mountain ranges creating its xeric conditions. These ranges create valleys, endorheic basins, salt pans, seasonal saline lakes when precipitation is high enough. These
Joshua Tree, California
Joshua Tree is a census-designated place in San Bernardino County, United States. The population was 7,414 at the 2010 census. At 2,700 feet above sea level, Joshua Tree and its surrounding communities are located in the High Desert of California; the center of the business district in Joshua Tree is on California State Route 62. Joshua Tree is located in the Mojave Desert at 34°8′N 116°19′W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total all land area of 95.9 km². Joshua Tree, California is home to Joshua Tree National Park. Joshua Tree shares the border to its east with Twentynine Palms, its western border with Yucca Valley, its northwestern border with Landers and its southern border is Coachella Valley, California; the 2010 United States Census reported that Joshua Tree had a population of 7,414. The population density was 200.1 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Joshua Tree was 6,176 White, 234 African American, 84 Native American, 104 Asian, 18 Pacific Islander, 368 from other races, 430 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1,308 persons. The Census reported that 7,263 people lived in households, 30 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 121 were institutionalized. There were 3,088 households, out of which 862 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 1,209 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 431 had a female householder with no husband present, 162 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 237 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 30 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 1,018 households were made up of individuals and 358 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35. There were 1,802 families; the population was spread out with 1,626 people under the age of 18, 813 people aged 18 to 24, 1,756 people aged 25 to 44, 2,056 people aged 45 to 64, 1,163 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.8 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.3 males.
There were 3,808 housing units at an average density of 102.8 per square mile, of which 1,872 were owner-occupied, 1,216 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 3.9%. 4,178 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 3,085 people lived in rental housing units. According to the 2010 United States Census, Joshua Tree had a median household income of $39,492, with 21.8% of the population living below the federal poverty line. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,207 people, 1,765 households, 1,057 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 265.4/km². There were 2,112 housing units at an average density of 133.2/km². The racial makeup of the CDP was 86.38% White, 1.76% African American, 1.57% Native American, 1.12% Asian, 0.62% Pacific Islander, 4.61% from other races, 3.95% from two or more races. 12.36% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,765 households out of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.8% were married couples living together, 16.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.1% were non-families.
33.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.98. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 27.5% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 26.4% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, 18.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.8 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $26,535, the median income for a family was $33,333. Males had a median income of $27,465 versus $29,375 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $13,856. 21.2% of the population and 18.0% of families were below the poverty line. 31.5% of those under the age of 18 and 5.4% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. In the California State Legislature, Joshua Tree is in the 16th Senate District, represented by Republican Shannon Grove, in the 42nd Assembly District, represented by Republican Chad Mayes.
In the United States House of Representatives, Joshua Tree is located in California's 8th congressional district, which has a Cook PVI of R+10 and is represented by Republican Paul Cook. Joshua Tree is represented by San Bernardino County 3rd District Supervisor James Ramos – 2012; the Joshua Tree Visitor Center is located at the junction of Highway 62 and Park Boulevard in "downtown" Joshua Tree and the parks West Entrance is located 5 mi south. The community of Joshua Tree is not an incorporated city. Joshua Tree community is represented by the Joshua Tree Municipal Advisory Counsel as the official liaison between the community and the San Bernardino County government. Joshua Tree Chamber of Commerce Joshua Tree: The Complete Guide The Joshua Tree Visitors Guide
IUCN Red List
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, founded in 1965, has evolved to become the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species. It uses a set of criteria to evaluate the extinction risk of thousands of subspecies; these criteria are relevant to all species and all regions of the world, With its strong scientific base, the IUCN Red List is recognized as the most authoritative guide to the status of biological diversity. A series of Regional Red List are produced by countries or organizations, which assess the risk of extinction to species within a political management unit; the IUCN Red List is set upon precise criteria to evaluate the extinction risk of thousands of species and subspecies. These criteria are relevant to all regions of the world; the aim is to convey the urgency of conservation issues to the public and policy makers, as well as help the international community to try to reduce species extinction. According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature, the formally stated goals of the Red List are to provide scientifically based information on the status of species and subspecies at a global level, to draw attention to the magnitude and importance of threatened biodiversity, to influence national and international policy and decision-making, to provide information to guide actions to conserve biological diversity.
Major species assessors include BirdLife International, the Institute of Zoology, the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, many Specialist Groups within the IUCN Species Survival Commission. Collectively, assessments by these organizations and groups account for nearly half the species on the Red List; the IUCN aims to have the category of every species re-evaluated every five years if possible, or at least every ten years. This is done in a peer reviewed manner through IUCN Species Survival Commission Specialist Groups, which are Red List Authorities responsible for a species, group of species or specific geographic area, or in the case of BirdLife International, an entire class; as of 2018, 26,197 species are now classified critical or endangered. The 1964 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants used the older pre-criteria Red List assessment system. Plants listed may not, appear in the current Red List. IUCN advise that it is best to check both the online Red List and the 1997 plants Red List publication.
The 2006 Red List, released on 4 May 2006 evaluated 40,168 species as a whole, plus an additional 2,160 subspecies, aquatic stocks, subpopulations. On 12 September 2007, the World Conservation Union released the 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. In this release, they have raised their classification of both the western lowland gorilla and the Cross River gorilla from endangered to critically endangered, the last category before extinct in the wild, due to Ebola virus and poaching, along with other factors. Russ Mittermeier, chief of Swiss-based IUCN's Primate Specialist Group, stated that 16,306 species are endangered with extinction, 188 more than in 2006; the Red List includes the Sumatran orangutan in the Critically Endangered category and the Bornean orangutan in the Endangered category. The 2008 Red List was released on 6 October 2008, at the IUCN World Conservation Congress in Barcelona, "has confirmed an extinction crisis, with one in four at risk of disappearing forever"; the study shows at least 1,141 of the 5,487 mammals on Earth are known to be threatened with extinction, 836 are listed as Data Deficient.
The Red List of 2012 was released 19 July 2012 at Rio+20 Earth Summit. The IUCN assessed a total of 63,837 species. 3,947 were described as "critically endangered" and 5,766 as "endangered," while more than 10,000 species are listed as "vulnerable." At threat are 41% of amphibian species, 33% of reef-building corals, 30% of conifers, 25% of mammals, 13% of birds. The IUCN Red List has listed 132 species of plants and animals from India as "Critically Endangered." Species are classified by the IUCN Red List into nine groups, specified through criteria such as rate of decline, population size, area of geographic distribution, degree of population and distribution fragmentation. There is an emphasis on the acceptability of applying any criteria in the absence of high quality data including suspicion and potential future threats, "so long as these can reasonably be supported." Extinct – beyond reasonable doubt that the species is no longer extant. Extinct in the wild – survives only in captivity, cultivation and/or outside native range, as presumed after exhaustive surveys.
Critically endangered – in a and critical state. Endangered – high risk of extinction in the wild, meets any of criteria A to E for Endangered. Vulnerable – meets one of the 5 red list criteria and thus considered to be at high risk of unnatural extinction without further human intervention. Near threatened – close to being at high risk of extinction in the near future. Least concern – unlikely to become extinct in the near future. Data deficient Not evaluated In the IUCN Red List, "threatened" embraces the categories of Critically Endangered and Vulnerable; the older 1994 list has only a single "Lower Risk" category which contained three subcategories: Conservation Depe
The Tohono Oʼodham are a Native American people of the Sonoran Desert, residing in the U. S. state of Arizona and the Mexican state of Sonora. Tohono Oʼodham means "Desert People"; the federally recognized tribe is known as the Tohono Oʼodham Nation. The Tohono Oʼodham tribal government and most of the people have rejected the customary English name Papago, used by Europeans after being adopted by Spanish conquistadores from hearing other Piman bands call them this; the Pima were competitors and referred to the people as Ba꞉bawĭkoʼa, meaning "eating tepary beans". That word was pronounced papago by the Spanish and adopted by English speakers; the Tohono Oʼodham Nation, or Tohono Oʼodham Indian Reservation, is a major reservation located in southern Arizona, encompassing portions of Pima County, Pinal County, Maricopa County. The Tohono Oʼodham share linguistic and cultural roots with the related Akimel Oʼodham, whose lands lie just south of present-day Phoenix, along the lower Gila River; the Sobaipuri are ancestors to both the Tohono Oʼodham and the Akimel Oʼodham, they resided along the major rivers of southern Arizona.
Ancient pictographs adorn a rock wall. Debates surround the origins of the Oʼodham. Claims that the Oʼodham moved north as as 300 years ago compete with claims that the Hohokam, who left the Casa Grande Ruins, are their ancestors. Recent research on the Sobaipuri, the now extinct relatives of the Oʼodham, shows that they were present in sizable numbers in the southern Arizona river valleys in the fifteenth century. In the Santa Barbara Mission Archive-Library are materials collected by a Franciscan friar who worked among the Tohono Oʼodham; these include scholarly monographs. The Office of Ethnohistorical Research, located at the Arizona State Museum on the campus of the University of Arizona, has undertaken a documentary history of the Oʼodham, offering translated colonial documents that discuss Spanish relations with the Oʼodham in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; the Oʼodham-speaking peoples were at odds with the nomadic Apache from the late seventeenth until the beginning of the twentieth centuries.
The Oʼodham were a settled agricultural people. According to their history, the Apache would raid when they ran short on food. Conflict with European settlers encroaching on their lands resulted in the Oʼodham and the Apache finding common interests; the Oʼodham word for the Apache'enemy' is ob. The relationship between the Oʼodham and Apache was strained after 92 Oʼodham joined the Mexicans and Anglo-Americans and killed close to 144 Apaches during the Camp Grant massacre in 1871. All but eight of the dead were children. Considerable evidence suggests that the Oʼodham and Apache were friendly and engaged in exchange of goods and marriage partners before the late seventeenth century. Oʼodham oral history, suggests that intermarriages resulted from raiding between the two tribes, it was typical for women and children to be taken captive in raids, to be used as slaves by the victors. Women married into the tribe in which they were held captive and assimilated under duress. Both tribes thus their children into their cultures.
Oʼodham musical and dance activities lack "grand ritual paraphernalia that call for attention" and grand ceremonies such as pow-wows. Instead, they wear muted white clay. Oʼodham songs are accompanied by hard wood rasps and drumming on overturned baskets, both of which lack resonance and are "swallowed by the desert floor". Dancing features skipping and shuffling in bare feet on dry dirt, the dust raised being believed to rise to atmosphere and assist in forming rain clouds; the original Oʼodham diet consisted of regionally available wild game and plants. Through foraging, Oʼodham ate a variety of regional plants, such as: ironwood seed, honey mesquite, hog potato, organ-pipe cactus fruit. While the Southwestern United States did not have an ideal climate for cultivating crops, Oʼodham cultivated crops of white tepary beans, papago peas, Spanish watermelons, they hunted pronghorn antelope, gathered hornworm larvae, trapped pack rats for sources of meat. Preparation of foods included roasting meat on an open fire.
The San Xavier District is the location of a major tourist attraction near Tucson, Mission San Xavier del Bac, the "White Dove of the Desert", founded in 1700 by the Jesuit missionary and explorer Eusebio Kino. Both the first and current church building were constructed by the Tohono Oʼodham; the second building was constructed by Franciscan priests during a period extending from 1783 to 1797. The oldest European building in the current Arizona, it is considered a premier example of Spanish colonial design, it is one of many missions built in the southwest by the Spanish on their then-northern frontier. The beauty of the mission leads tourists to assume that the desert people had embraced the Catholicism of the Spanish conquistadors. Tohono Oʼodham villages resisted change for hundreds of years. During the 1660s and in 1750s, two major rebellions rivaled in scale the 1680 Pueblo Rebellion, their armed resistance prevented the Spanish from increasing their incursions into the lands of Pimería Alta.
The Spanish retreated to. As a result, the desert people preserved their traditions intact for generations, it was not until more numerous Americans of Anglo-European ancestry began moving into the Arizona territory that the outsiders began to oppress the people's traditional ways. Unlike many tribes in the Unite
The Tamaulipan matorral is an ecoregion in the deserts and xeric shrublands biome on the eastern slopes of the Sierra Madre Oriental range in northeastern Mexico. It is a transitional ecoregion between the Tamaulipan mezquital and the Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests to the west and the Veracruz moist forests to the south, it is a desert shrubland where the flora consists of woody shrubs, small trees and succulents. Piedmont scrub occurs in shallow hollows and montane chaparral occurs above about 1,700 m. There are a number of resident bird species and the mammals include Mexican prairie dog, Saussure's shrew, yellow-faced pocket gopher, Allen's squirrel, collared peccary and coyote; the Tamaulipan matorral extends along the eastern slopes of the Sierra Madre Oriental range in northeastern Mexico, extending from central Tamaulipas state across central Nuevo León. The ecoregion covers an area of 16,300 km2; the humid Veracruz moist forests lie to the southeast, on the Gulf Coastal Plain of southern Tamaulipas and Veracruz states.
The Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests occupy higher elevations of the Sierra Madre Oriental range to the west. The ecoregion is predominantly a desert shrubland made up of woody shrubs, small trees and succulents. Dominant plant species include Cylindropuntia leptocaulis, Opuntia engelmannii var. lindheimeri, Prosopis juliflora, P. laevigata, Yucca treculeana, Salvia ballotiflora, Jatropha dioica, Mammillaria heyderi hemisphaerica and Mimosa aculeaticarpa var. biuncifera. Piedmont scrub is found in shallow soils derived from sedimentary rocks at the base of the Sierra Madre and receives 450–900 mm of annual rainfall, it is composed of short plants such as Helietta parvifolia, Neopringlea integrifolia and Acacia spp. Montane chaparral is a distinct plant community found above 1,700 m in the Sierra Madre Oriental, composed of oaks, Yucca and Bauhinia. Mammals present in this ecoregion include the Mexican prairie dog, Saussure's shrew, yellow-faced pocket gopher, Allen's squirrel, collared peccary and coyote.
Birds such as the burrowing owl, hooded oriole, eastern meadowlark, long-billed thrasher, hooded yellowthroat, blue bunting and olive sparrow are resident. World Wildlife Fund, ed.. "Tamaulipan matorral". WildWorld Ecoregion Profile. National Geographic Society. Archived from the original on 2010-03-08