Heraldry is a broad term, encompassing the design and study of armorial bearings, as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony and pedigree. Armory, the best-known branch of heraldry, concerns the design and transmission of the heraldic achievement; the achievement, or armorial bearings includes a coat of arms on an shield and crest, together with any accompanying devices, such as supporters, heraldic banners, mottoes. Although the use of various devices to signify individuals and groups goes back to antiquity, both the form and use of such devices varied and the concept of regular, hereditary designs, constituting the distinguishing feature of heraldry, did not develop until the High Middle Ages, it is often that the use of helmets with face guards during this period made it difficult to recognize one's commanders in the field when large armies gathered together for extended periods, necessitating the development of heraldry as a symbolic language but there is little actual support for this view.
The beauty and pageantry of heraldic designs allowed them to survive the gradual abandonment of armour on the battlefield during the seventeenth century. Heraldry has been described poetically as "the handmaid of history", "the shorthand of history", "the floral border in the garden of history". In modern times, individuals and private organizations, cities and regions use heraldry and its conventions to symbolize their heritage and aspirations. Various symbols have been used to represent groups for thousands of years; the earliest representations of distinct persons and regions in Egyptian art show the use of standards topped with the images or symbols of various gods, the names of kings appear upon emblems known as serekhs, representing the king's palace, topped with a falcon representing the god Horus, of whom the king was regarded as the earthly incarnation. Similar emblems and devices are found in ancient Mesopotamian art of the same period, the precursors of heraldic beasts such as the griffin can be found.
In the Bible, the Book of Numbers refers to the standards and ensigns of the children of Israel, who were commanded to gather beneath these emblems and declare their pedigrees. The Greek and Latin writers describe the shields and symbols of various heroes, units of the Roman army were sometimes identified by distinctive markings on their shields; until the nineteenth century, it was common for heraldic writers to cite examples such as these, metaphorical symbols such as the "Lion of Judah" or "Eagle of the Caesars" as evidence of the antiquity of heraldry itself. The Book of Saint Albans, compiled in 1486, declares that Christ himself was a gentleman of coat armour, but these fabulous claims have long since been dismissed as the fantasy of medieval heralds, for there is no evidence of a distinctive symbolic language akin to that of heraldry during this early period. The medieval heralds devised arms for various knights and lords from history and literature. Notable examples include the toads attributed to Pharamond, the cross and martlets of Edward the Confessor, the various arms attributed to the Nine Worthies and the Knights of the Round Table.
These too are now regarded as a fanciful invention, rather than evidence of the antiquity of heraldry. The development of the modern heraldic language cannot be attributed to a single individual, time, or place. Although certain designs that are now considered heraldic were evidently in use during the eleventh century, most accounts and depictions of shields up to the beginning of the twelfth century contain little or no evidence of their heraldic character. For example, the Bayeux Tapestry, illustrating the Norman invasion of England in 1066, commissioned about 1077, when the cathedral of Bayeux was rebuilt, depicts a number of shields of various shapes and designs, many of which are plain, while others are decorated with dragons, crosses, or other heraldic figures, yet no individual is depicted twice bearing the same arms, nor are any of the descendants of the various persons depicted known to have borne devices resembling those in the tapestry. An account of the French knights at the court of the Byzantine emperor Alexius I at the beginning of the twelfth century describes their shields of polished metal, utterly devoid of heraldic design.
A Spanish manuscript from 1109 describes both plain and decorated shields, none of which appears to have been heraldic. The Abbey of St. Denis contained a window commemorating the knights who embarked on the Second Crusade in 1147, was made soon after the event. In England, from the time of the Norman conquest, official documents had to be sealed. Beginning in the twelfth century, seals assumed a distinctly heraldic character. A notable example of an early armorial seal is attached to a charter granted by Philip I, Count of Flanders, in 1164. Seals from the latter part of the eleventh and early twelfth centuries show no evidence of heraldic symbolism, but by t
Yellow is the color between orange and green on the spectrum of visible light. It is evoked by light with a dominant wavelength of 570–590 nm, it is a primary color in subtractive color systems, used in color printing. In the RGB color model, used to create colors on television and computer screens, yellow is a secondary color made by combining red and green at equal intensity. Carotenoids give the characteristic yellow color to autumn leaves, canaries and lemons, as well as egg yolks and bananas, they protect plants from photodamage. Sunlight has a slight yellowish hue, due to the surface temperature of the sun; because it was available, yellow ochre pigment was one of the first colors used in art. Ochre and orpiment pigments were used to represent gold and skin color in Egyptian tombs in the murals in Roman villas. In the early Christian church, yellow was the color associated with the Pope and the golden keys of the Kingdom, but was associated with Judas Iscariot and was used to mark heretics.
In the 20th century, Jews in Nazi-occupied Europe were forced to wear a yellow star. In China, bright yellow was the color of the Middle Kingdom, could be worn only by the Emperor and his household. According to surveys in Europe and the United States, yellow is the color people most associate with amusement, gentleness and spontaneity, but with duplicity, jealousy, and, in the U. S. with cowardice. In Iran it has connotations of pallor/sickness, but wisdom and connection. In China and many Asian countries, it is seen as the color of happiness, glory and wisdom; the word yellow comes from the Old English geolu, meaning "yellow, yellowish", derived from the Proto-Germanic word gelwaz "yellow". It has the same Indo-European base, gʰel -, as yell; the English term is related to other Germanic words for yellow, namely Scots yella, East Frisian jeel, West Frisian giel, Dutch geel, German gelb, Swedish and Norwegian gul. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the oldest known use of this word in English is from The Epinal Glossary in 700.
Yellow is found between orange on the spectrum of visible light. It is the color the human eye sees when it looks at light with a dominant wavelength between 570 and 590 nanometers. In color printing, yellow is one of the three colors of ink, along with magenta and cyan, along with black, can be overlaid in the right combination, along with black, to print any full color image.. A particular yellow is used, called Process yellow subtractive primary colors, along with magenta and cyan. Process yellow is not an RGB color, there is no fixed conversion from CMYK primaries to RGB. Different formulations are used for printer's ink, so there can be variations in the printed color, pure yellow ink; the yellow on a color television or computer screen is created in a different way. Traditionally, the complementary color of yellow is purple. Vincent Van Gogh, an avid student of color theory, used combinations of yellow and purple in several of his paintings for the maximum contrast and harmony. Hunt defines that "two colors are complementary when it is possible to reproduce the tristimulus values of a specified achromatic stimulus by an additive mixture of these two stimuli."
That is, when two colored lights can be mixed to match a specified white light, the colors of those two lights are complementary. This definition, does not constrain what version of white will be specified. In the nineteenth century, the scientists Grassmann and Helmholtz did experiments in which they concluded that finding a good complement for spectral yellow was difficult, but that the result was indigo, that is, a wavelength that today's color scientists would call violet or purple. Helmholtz says "indigo blue" are complements. Grassmann reconstructs Newton's category boundaries in terms of wavelengths and says "This indigo therefore falls within the limits of color between which, according to Helmholtz, the complementary colors of yellow lie."Newton's own color circle has yellow directly opposite the boundary between indigo and violet. These results, that the complement of yellow is a wavelength shorter than 450 nm, are derivable from the modern CIE 1931 system of colorimetry if it is assumed that the yellow is about 580 nm or shorter wavelength, the specified white is the color of a blackbody radiator of temperature 2800 K or lower.
More with a daylight-colored or around 5000 to 6000 K white, the complement of yellow will be in the blue wavelength range, the standard modern answer for the complement of yellow. Because of the characteristics of paint pigments and use of different color wheels, painters traditionally regard the complement of yellow as the color indigo or blue-violet. Lasers emitting in the yellow part of the spectrum are less common and more expensive than most other colors. In commercial products diode pumped. An infrared laser diode at 808 nm is used to pump a crystal of neodymium-doped yttrium vanadium oxide or neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet and induces it to emit at
Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard flat surface by cutting grooves into it with a burin. The result may be a decorated object in itself, as when silver, steel, or glass are engraved, or may provide an intaglio printing plate, of copper or another metal, for printing images on paper as prints or illustrations. Engraving is one of the oldest and most important techniques in printmaking. Wood engraving is not covered in this article. Engraving was a important method of producing images on paper in artistic printmaking, in mapmaking, for commercial reproductions and illustrations for books and magazines, it has long been replaced by various photographic processes in its commercial applications and because of the difficulty of learning the technique, is much less common in printmaking, where it has been replaced by etching and other techniques. "Engraving" is loosely but incorrectly used for any old black and white print. Many old master prints combine techniques on the same plate, further confusing matters.
Line engraving and steel engraving cover use for reproductive prints, illustrations in books and magazines, similar uses in the 19th century, not using engraving. Traditional engraving, by burin or with the use of machines, continues to be practised by goldsmiths, glass engravers and others, while modern industrial techniques such as photoengraving and laser engraving have many important applications. Engraved gems were an important art in the ancient world, revived at the Renaissance, although the term traditionally covers relief as well as intaglio carvings, is a branch of sculpture rather than engraving, as drills were the usual tools. Other terms used for printed engravings are copper engraving, copper-plate engraving or line engraving. Steel engraving is the same technique, on steel or steel-faced plates, was used for banknotes, illustrations for books and reproductive prints and similar uses from about 1790 to the early 20th century, when the technique became less popular, except for banknotes and other forms of security printing.
In the past, "engraving" was used loosely to cover several printmaking techniques, so that many so-called engravings were in fact produced by different techniques, such as etching or mezzotint. "Hand engraving" is a term sometimes used for engraving objects other than printing plates, to inscribe or decorate jewellery, trophies and other fine metal goods. Traditional engravings in printmaking are "hand engraved", using just the same techniques to make the lines in the plate; each graver has its own use. Engravers use a hardened steel tool called a burin, or graver, to cut the design into the surface, most traditionally a copper plate. However, modern hand engraving artists use burins or gravers to cut a variety of metals such as silver, steel, gold and more, in applications from weaponry to jewellery to motorcycles to found objects. Modern professional engravers can engrave with a resolution of up to 40 lines per mm in high grade work creating game scenes and scrollwork. Dies used in mass production of molded parts are sometimes hand engraved to add special touches or certain information such as part numbers.
In addition to hand engraving, there are engraving machines that require less human finesse and are not directly controlled by hand. They are used for lettering, using a pantographic system. There are versions for the insides of rings and the outsides of larger pieces; such machines are used for inscriptions on rings and presentation pieces. Gravers come in a variety of sizes that yield different line types; the burin produces a unique and recognizable quality of line, characterized by its steady, deliberate appearance and clean edges. The angle tint tool has a curved tip, used in printmaking. Florentine liners are flat-bottomed tools with multiple lines incised into them, used to do fill work on larger areas or to create uniform shade lines that are fast to execute. Ring gravers are made with particular shapes that are used by jewelry engravers in order to cut inscriptions inside rings. Flat gravers are used for fill work on letters, as well as "wriggle" cuts on most musical instrument engraving work, remove background, or create bright cuts.
Knife gravers are for line engraving and deep cuts. Round gravers, flat gravers with a radius, are used on silver to create bright cuts, as well as other hard-to-cut metals such as nickel and steel. Square or V-point gravers are square or elongated diamond-shaped and used for cutting straight lines. V-point can be anywhere depending on purpose and effect; these gravers have small cutting points. Other tools such as mezzotint rockers and burnishers are used for texturing effects. Burnishing tools can be used for certain stone setting techniques. Musical instrument engraving on American-made brass instruments flourished in the 1920s and utilizes a specialized engraving technique where a flat graver is "walked" across the surface of the instrument to make zig-zag lines and patterns; the method for "walking" the graver may be referred to as "wriggle" or "wiggle" cuts. This technique is necessary due to the thinness of metal used to make musical instruments versus firearms or jewelry. Wriggle cuts are found on
Sir John Bernard Burke, was a British genealogist and Ulster King of Arms, who helped publish Burke's Peerage. Burke, of Irish descent, was educated in London and France, his father, John Burke was a notable genealogist who first produced, in 1826, a Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerage and Baronetage of the United Kingdom. This work known as Burke's Peerage, was issued annually starting in 1847. While practising as a barrister Bernard Burke assisted his father in his genealogical work, including the two volumes entitled The Royal Families of England and Wales, with their Descendants &c. which were not published until after his father's death, following which he took control of his publications. In 1853 Burke was appointed Ulster King of Arms. In 1854 he was knighted and in 1855 he became Keeper of the State Papers in Ireland. After having devoted his life to genealogical studies he died in Dublin on 12 December 1892, he was succeeded as editor of Burke's Peerage and Landed Gentry by his fourth son, Ashworth Peter Burke.
Continuing his strong family tradition of genealogy and heraldry, another of Burke's sons, Sir Henry Farnham Burke, would attain the office of Garter Principal King of Arms. In addition to editing Burke's Peerage from 1847 until his death, Sir Bernard brought out several editions of a companion volume, Burke's Landed Gentry, first published between 1833 and 1838. In 1866 and 1883 he published editions of his father's Dictionary of the Peerages of England and Ireland, dormant and in abeyance. Integral to the study of historians was the publication in 1878 of his Encyclopaedia of Heraldry, or General Armory of England and Ireland was published in 1848. Sir Bernard's own works include: The Roll of Battle Abbey The Romance of the Aristocracy The Romance of the Forum Vicissitudes of Families The Rise of Great Families A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Colonial Gentry. Vols 1 & 2 King of Arms College of Arms Genealogical Office Heraldry This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Burke, Sir John Bernard". Encyclopædia Britannica. 4. Cambridge University Press. P. 835. Burke's Peerage website College of Arms website
Puy-de-Dôme is a department in the centre of France named after the famous dormant volcano, the Puy de Dôme. Inhabitants were called Puydedomois until December 2005. With effect from Spring 2006, in response to a letter writing campaign, the name used for the inhabitants was changed by the Puy-de-Dôme General Council to Puydômois, this is the name that has since been used in all official documents and publications. Puy-de-Dôme is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790, it was created from part of the former province of Auvergne. The department was to be called Mont-d'Or, but this was changed to Puy-de-Dôme following the intervention of Jean-François Gaultier de Biauzat, a local deputy, because of a concern that the name chosen risked attracting excessive unwelcome attention from the national taxation authorities. Puy-de-Dôme is part of the current region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes and is surrounded by the departments of Loire, Haute-Loire, Corrèze, Creuse.
The department boasts more than 80 volcanic craters. It is three hours from Paris and an hour from Lyon by highways A71 and A89; the A75 links it to the Mediterranean Sea. Its main cities are Clermont-Ferrand, Riom, Issoire and Cournon-d'Auvergne. Parts of the department belong to the Parc naturel régional Livradois-Forez; the departmental seat, Clermont-Ferrand, is home to one of the country's best known manufacturing businesses and brands, Michelin. Thiers is the oldest industry place in Auvergne with its cutlery tradition from the 14th century; the countryside lends itself to tourism and Puy-de-Dôme is a popular weekend destination for city dwellers. The 1999 census found that 11.7% of the usable homes in the department were being kept as second homes. The department was the electoral constituency of Valery Giscard d'Estaing, who served as President of the Republic from 1974 to 1981. Cantons of the Puy-de-Dôme department Communes of the Puy-de-Dôme department Arrondissements of the Puy-de-Dôme department Maurice Persat Prefecture website Departmental Council website Puy-de-Dome at Curlie
Tricking is a method for indicating the tinctures used in a coat of arms by means of text abbreviations written directly on the illustration. Tricking and hatching are the two primary methods employed in the system of heraldry to show colour in black and white illustrations; the system of heraldry has always had some methods to designate the tinctures of arms. The earliest such method was blazon, describing the arms by words and is as old as heraldry itself. We can find the first blazon in the work of Chrétien de Troyes titled Lancelot ou le Chevalier de la Charette; the English heraldry system still uses a form of blazon unchanged since the reign of Edward I. Traditionally, the images of heraldic manuscripts like the rolls of arms and armorial books are all coloured; however on, with the development of book printing as with the invention of woodcuts and copperplate engravings, there arose the need for designating the colours on uncoloured illustrations as well. As a rule, two main methods were applied to achieve this – tricking or giving designations to the tinctures after the initials of the given colours, hatching, ascribing designations to the tinctures by means of lines and dots.
While the first method was introduced and developed by the heralds, the second model was developed and adopted by the heraldists. In addition, some other methods were in use such as giving designations to tinctures by using the numbers from 1 to 7. In the beginning, tinctures were designated with the given names of the colours as described in the 1576 book by Martin Schrot, titled Wappenbuch. In his book Baselische Chronik Cristian Urstis named the tinctures after the initials of the given colours. Earlier, this method was applied by Virgil Solis, Johann von Francolin. With Urstis, Don Alphonsus Ciacconius, a Rome-based Spanish Dominican scholar, named the tinctures after their Latin initials. Or was designated with A, argent or white with a, azure with c, gules with r, vert by v. Though the sign for sable was not present in his system traditionally it was designated with the black colour itself; the letters of tricking were traced badly since they were not of immediate understanding for the reader always, thus leading to erroneous interpretations.
Heralds did not like hatching, the College of Arms gave preference to tricking beyond the 17th century, sometimes on the coloured and hatched images. It was so because the tricking was a simpler way to the drawer than hatching to designate the tinctures. Otto Titan von Hefner maintained that the first traces of hatching on the woodcuts began during the 15th and 16th centuries. Both tricking as well as hatching was applied by the Benedictine monk and outstanding historian Vincenzo Borghini, he drew a difference between the metals and the colours on the woodcuts of his work by leaving the places blank on the arms for all metals. Besides this, tinctures were designated in the fields and on the ordinaries and charges by tricking: R–rosso–gules, A–azure–azure, N–nigro–sable, G–gialbo–yellow, B–biancho–white. Notably, the vert was not present on the arms presented by him. Since the early 17th century, tricking declined. However, it is sometimes still in use in British heraldry
Hatchings are distinctive and systematic patterns of lines and dots used for designating heraldic tinctures or other colours on uncoloured surfaces, such as woodcuts or engravings and coins. Several systems of hatchings were developed during the Renaissance as an alternative to tricking, the earlier method of indicating heraldic tinctures by use of written abbreviations; the present day hatching system was developed during the 1630s by Silvester Petra Sancta and Marcus Vulson de la Colombière. Some earlier hatching methods were developed, but did not come into wide use. Hatching developed. For copperplate engravers and artists such as Zangrius and Franquart, it served as a natural method to designate heraldic tinctures. Copper plate engravers faced difficulties producing coloured illustrations; the first tests of colour copperplate engravings were done by François Perrier around the middle of the 17th century. According to some views, multi-coloured copperplate engravings were invented by Abraham Bosse, as described in his 1645 treatise.
Heralds did not like hatching, the College of Arms gave preference to tricking beyond the 17th century. Tricking was a quicker way than hatching to designate the tinctures. Otto Titan von Hefner maintained that the first traces of hatching on the woodcuts began during the 15th and 16th centuries. Both tricking and hatching were applied by the Benedictine monk and historian Vincenzo Borghini, he drew a difference between metals and colours of arms on his woodcuts by leaving the places for metals blank. Besides this, tinctures were designated in the fields and on the ordinaries and charges by tricking: R for rosso, A for azure, N for nigro, G for gialbo, B for biancho. Vert was not represent among his works. Painting and graphics advanced in the Low Countries during the 15-18th centuries. For this reason, different hatching methods emerged in the system of heraldry in these territories, such as the methods of Zangrius, Butkens, de Rouck; the four other authors to produce hatching systems in the 17th century – de la Colombière, Petra Sancta and Lobkowitz – had close connection with heraldists and artists in these territories.
The earliest hatching system was developed by Jan Baptist Zangrius, a copperplate engraver, publisher and bookseller from Leuven, in 1600. The hatching systems of Petra Sancta and de la Colombière differed from Zangrius's method only in their hatchings of the colour Sable; the primacy of developing a hatching method belongs undoubtedly to Zangrius. In comparison to his system, Petra Sancta and de la Colombière made only minor changes to Zangrius‘ system such as different hatching for the colour Sable, it seems that de la Colombière preceded Petra Sancta and the armorial chart of Zangrius published in French could be known to him pretty well. The artists from the Spanish Low Countries, to say from the neighbouring territories to France, visited Paris often. We have only some fragmental data about the life of Marcus Vulson de la Colombière, he visited Paris in 1618, but by all probability, until 1635 he was staying in Grenoble as he was a royal counselor in the Dauphiné parliament. He published a book in the spirit of the Gallicanism in Geneva that year.
Colombière’s ideas suited the king’s taste too, as a result he departed Grenoble and settled in Paris, where he devoted his entire energy to study heraldry. His next book was published in Paris in 1638, he had wide-ranging correspondence with the most renowned heraldists of his time. For this reason, it could be concluded that de la Colombière was right in claiming the title of the inventor of the hatching system, accusing Petra Sancta of copying his method and incorrectly publishing it in his 1638 work, one year before the same hatching system was published by de la Colombière. However, the earlier book of Petra Sancta from 1634 had a hatching table as well. On page 37 of his title La Science Heroїque, Colombière maintains that Petra Sancta copied his system without any changes. De la Colombière mentions the book publishers and copperplate engravers as the users of the hatching system. Ottfried Neubecker maintains that the hatching system in heraldry was invented by de la Colombière and not Petra Sancta who only popularized the system through his second treatise titled Tesserae gentilitia, published in 1638.
On the other hand, it’s true that Silvester Petra Sancta provided though preliminary, comprehensive studies on his heraldic work in Germany and the Netherlands and that it’s likely that he was acquainted with the idea of hatching and the earlier existing hatching methods from the Dutch engravers before he developed his own hatching system. He was the confessor of the Cardinal Pier Luigi Carafa. Between 1624 and 1634, Petra Sancta stayed with his lord in Cologne where he fought against the rising Protestantism through his sermons and religious discussions, including through two of his emblematic books published in 1634 and 1638, respectively, he settled down in Rome and published his famous treatise on heraldry there, but during the late 1620s and the early 1630s he stayed in the Spanish Low Countries and the neighbouring territories. In 1634 he published his first book touching the topic of heraldry, containing a hatching table, hi