Travel is the movement of people between distant geographical locations. Travel can be done by foot, automobile, boat, airplane, ship or other means, with or without luggage, can be one way or round trip. Travel can include short stays between successive movements; the origin of the word "travel" is most lost to history. The term "travel" may originate from the Old French word travail, which means'work'. According to the Merriam Webster dictionary, the first known use of the word travel was in the 14th century, it states that the word comes from Middle English travailen and earlier from Old French travailler. In English we still use the words "travail", which means struggle. According to Simon Winchester in his book The Best Travelers' Tales, the words "travel" and "travail" both share an more ancient root: a Roman instrument of torture called the tripalium; this link may reflect the extreme difficulty of travel in ancient times. Today, travel may or may not be much easier depending upon the destination you choose, how you plan to get there, whether you decide to "rough it".
"There's a big difference between being a tourist and being a true world traveler", notes travel writer Michael Kasum. This is, however, a contested distinction as academic work on the cultures and sociology of travel has noted. Reasons for traveling include recreation, tourism or vacationing, research travel, the gathering of information, visiting people, volunteer travel for charity, migration to begin life somewhere else, religious pilgrimages and mission trips, business travel, trade and other reasons, such as to obtain health care or waging or fleeing war or for the enjoyment of traveling. Travellers may use human-powered transport such as bicycling. Motives for travel include: Pleasure Relaxation Discovery and exploration Getting to know other cultures Taking personal time for building interpersonal relationships. Travel dates back to antiquity where wealthy Greeks and Romans would travel for leisure to their summer homes and villas in cities such as Pompeii and Baiae. While early travel tended to be slower, more dangerous, more dominated by trade and migration and technological advances over many years have tended to mean that travel has become easier and more accessible.
Mankind has come a long way in transportation since Christopher Columbus sailed to the new world from Spain in 1492, an expedition which took over 10 weeks to arrive at the final destination. Travel in the Middle Ages offered hardships and challenges, however, it was important to the economy and to society; the wholesale sector depended on merchants dealing with/through caravans or sea-voyagers, end-user retailing demanded the services of many itinerant peddlers wandering from village to hamlet and wandering friars brought theology and pastoral support to neglected areas, travelling minstrels practiced the never-ending tour, armies ranged far and wide in various crusades and in sundry other wars. Pilgrimages were common in both the European and Islamic world and involved streams of travellers both locally and internationally. In the late 16th century it became fashionable for young European aristocrats and wealthy upper class men to travel to significant European cities as part of their education in the arts and literature.
This was known as the Grand Tour, it included cities such as London, Venice and Rome. However, The French revolution brought with it the end of the Grand Tour. Travel by water provided more comfort and speed than land-travel, at least until the advent of a network of railways in the 19th century. Travel for the purpose of tourism is reported to have started around this time when people began to travel for fun as travel was no longer a hard and challenging task; this was capitalised on by people like Thomas Cook selling tourism packages where trains and hotels were booked together. Airships and airplanes took over much of the role of long-distance surface travel in the 20th century, notably after the second World War where there was a surplus of both aircraft and pilots. Travel may be local, national or international. In some countries, non-local internal travel may require an internal passport, while international travel requires a passport and visa. A trip may be part of a round-trip, a particular type of travel whereby a person moves from one location to another and returns.
Authorities emphasize the importance of taking precautions to ensure travel safety. When traveling abroad, the odds favor a safe and incident-free trip, travelers can be subject to difficulties and violence; some safety considerations include being aware of one's surroundings, avoiding being the target of a crime, leaving copies of one's passport and itinerary information with trusted people, obtaining medical insurance valid in the country being visited and registering with one's national embassy when arriving in a foreign country. Many countries do not recognize drivers' licenses from other countries. Automobile insurance policies issued in one's own country are invalid in foreign countries, it is a requirement to obtain temporary auto insurance valid in the coun
A periplus or periplous is a manuscript document that lists the ports and coastal landmarks, in order and with approximate intervening distances, that the captain of a vessel could expect to find along a shore. In that sense the periplus was a type of log, it served the same purpose as the Roman itinerarium of road stops. The form of the periplus is at least as old as the earliest Greek historian, the Ionian Hecataeus of Miletus; the works of Herodotus and Thucydides contain passages. Periplus is the Latinization of the Greek word περίπλους, is "a sailing-around." Both segments, peri- and -plous, were independently productive: the ancient Greek speaker understood the word in its literal sense. Several examples of peripli that are known to scholars: The Periplus of Himilco the Navigator, parts which are preserved in Pliny the Elder and Avienus; the Periplus of Hanno the Navigator, Carthaginian colonist and explorer who explored the coast of Africa from present-day Morocco southward at least as far as Senegal in the sixth or fifth century BCE.
The Periplus of the Greek Scylax of Caryanda, in Caria, who sailed down the Indus River and to Suez on the initiative of Darius I. This voyage is mentioned by Herodotus, his pleriplus is quoted by Hecataeus of Miletus, Aristotle and Avienus; the Massaliote Periplus, a description of trade routes along the coasts of Atlantic Europe, by anonymous Greek navigators of Massalia dates to the sixth century BCE preserved in Avienus Pytheas of Massilia, On the Ocean, has not survived. The Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax is thought to date to the fourth or third century BCE; the Pleriplus of Nearchus surveyed the area between the Indus and the Persian Gulf under orders from Alexander the Great. He was a source for Arrian, among others. On the Red Sea by Agatharchides. Fragments preserved in Diodorus Photius; the Periplus of Scymnus of Chios is dated to around 110 BCE. The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea or Red Sea was written by a Greek of the Hellenistic/Romanized Alexandrian in the first century CE, it provides a shoreline itinerary of the Red Sea, starting at the port of Berenice.
Beyond the Red Sea, the manuscript describes the coast of India as far as the Ganges River and the east coast of Africa. The unknown author of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea claims that Hippalus, a mariner, was knowledgeable about the "monsoon winds" that shorten the round-trip from India to the Red Sea. According to the manuscript, the Horn of Africa was called, "the Cape of Spices," and modern day Yemen was known as the "Frankincense Country." The Periplus Ponti Euxini, a description of trade routes along the coasts of the Black Sea, written by Arrian in the early second century CE. Persian sailors had long had their own sailing guide books, called Rahnāmag in Middle Persian, they listed the ports and coastal distances along the shores. The lost but much-cited sailing directions go back at least to the 12th century; some described the Indian Ocean as "a hard sea to get out of" and warned of the "circumambient sea," with all return impossible. A periplus was an ancient naval manoeuvre in which attacking triremes would outflank or encircle the defenders to attack them in the rear.
List of Graeco-Roman geographers Liu, Xinru. The Silk Road in World History. New York: Oxford University Press; the dictionary definition of periplus at Wiktionary
Geography is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes. Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of Earth and its human and natural complexities—not where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. Geography is defined in terms of two branches: human geography and physical geography. Human geography deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place. Physical geography deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere, hydrosphere and geosphere; the four historical traditions in geographical research are: spatial analyses of natural and the human phenomena, area studies of places and regions, studies of human-land relationships, the Earth sciences. Geography has been called "the world discipline" and "the bridge between the human and the physical sciences".
Geography is a systematic study of its features. Traditionally, geography has been associated with place names. Although many geographers are trained in toponymy and cartology, this is not their main preoccupation. Geographers study the space and the temporal database distribution of phenomena and features as well as the interaction of humans and their environment; because space and place affect a variety of topics, such as economics, climate and animals, geography is interdisciplinary. The interdisciplinary nature of the geographical approach depends on an attentiveness to the relationship between physical and human phenomena and its spatial patterns. Names of places...are not geography...know by heart a whole gazetteer full of them would not, in itself, constitute anyone a geographer. Geography has higher aims than this: it seeks to classify phenomena, to compare, to generalize, to ascend from effects to causes, and, in doing so, to trace out the laws of nature and to mark their influences upon man.
This is ` a description of the world' --. In a word Geography is a Science—a thing not of mere names but of argument and reason, of cause and effect. Just as all phenomena exist in time and thus have a history, they exist in space and have a geography. Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main subsidiary fields: human geography and physical geography; the former focuses on the built environment and how humans create, view and influence space. The latter examines the natural environment, how organisms, soil and landforms produce and interact; the difference between these approaches led to a third field, environmental geography, which combines physical and human geography and concerns the interactions between the environment and humans. Physical geography focuses on geography as an Earth science, it aims to understand the physical problems and the issues of lithosphere, atmosphere and global flora and fauna patterns. Physical geography can be divided into many broad categories, including: Human geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape the human society.
It encompasses the human, cultural and economic aspects. Human geography can be divided into many broad categories, such as: Various approaches to the study of human geography have arisen through time and include: Behavioral geography Feminist geography Culture theory Geosophy Environmental geography is concerned with the description of the spatial interactions between humans and the natural world, it requires an understanding of the traditional aspects of physical and human geography, as well as the ways that human societies conceptualize the environment. Environmental geography has emerged as a bridge between the human and the physical geography, as a result of the increasing specialisation of the two sub-fields. Furthermore, as human relationship with the environment has changed as a result of globalization and technological change, a new approach was needed to understand the changing and dynamic relationship. Examples of areas of research in the environmental geography include: emergency management, environmental management and political ecology.
Geomatics is concerned with the application of computers to the traditional spatial techniques used in cartography and topography. Geomatics emerged from the quantitative revolution in geography in the mid-1950s. Today, geomatics methods include spatial analysis, geographic information systems, remote sensing, global positioning systems. Geomatics has led to a revitalization of some geography departments in Northern America where the subject had a declining status during the 1950s. Regional geography is concerned with the description of the unique characteristics of a particular region such as its natural or human elements; the main aim is to understand, or define the uniqueness, or character of a particular region that consists of natural as well as human elements. Attention is paid to regionalization, which covers the proper techniques of space delimitation into regions. Urban planning, regional planning, spatial planning: Use the science of geography to assist in determining how to develop the land to meet particular criteria, such as safety, economic opportunities, the preservation of the built or natural heritage, so on.
The planning of towns, c
Albion is the oldest known name of the island of Great Britain. Today, it is still sometimes used poetically to refer to the island; the name for Scotland in the Celtic languages is related to Albion: Alba in Scottish Gaelic, Albain in Irish, Nalbin in Manx and Alban in Welsh and Breton. These names were Latinised as Albania and Anglicised as Albany, which were once alternative names for Scotland. New Albion and Albionoria were suggested as names of Canada during the period of the Canadian Confederation. Arthur Phillip, first leader of the colonisation of Australia named Sydney Cove "New Albion", but the colony acquired the name "Sydney"; the Common Brittonic name for the island, Hellenised as Albíōn and Latinised as Albiōn, derives from the Proto-Celtic nasal stem *Albi̯iū and survived in Old Irish as Albu. The name referred to Britain as a whole, but was restricted to Caledonia; the root *albiio- is found in Gaulish and Galatian albio- and Welsh elfydd. It may be related to other European and Mediterranean toponyms such as Alpes, Albania.
It has two possible etymologies. It may derive from the Proto-Indo-European root *albho-, meaning "white"; this is in reference to the white southern shores of the island, though Celtic linguist Xavier Delamarre argued that it meant "the world above, the visible world", in opposition to "the world below", i.e. the underworld. Alternatively it may derive from the Proto-Indo-European root *alb-, meaning "hill". Judging from Avienus's Ora Maritima to which it is considered to have served as a source, the Massaliote Periplus, does not use the name Britannia. Pytheas, as directly or indirectly quoted in the surviving excerpts of his works in writers, speaks of Albiōn and Iernē. Pytheas's grasp of the νῆσος Πρεττανική is somewhat blurry, appears to include anything he considers a western island, including Thule; the name Albion was subsequently by many classical writers. By the 1st century AD, the name refers unequivocally to Great Britain, but this "enigmatic name for Britain, revived much by Romantic poets like William Blake, did not remain popular among Greek writers.
It was soon replaced by Πρεττανία and Βρεττανία, Βρεττανός, Βρεττανικός. From these words the Romans derived the Latin forms Britannia and Britannicus respectively"; the Pseudo-Aristotelian text On the Universe has: Ἐν τούτῳ γε μὴν νῆσοι μέγισται τυγχάνουσιν οὖσαι δύο, Βρεττανικαὶ λεγόμεναι, Ἀλβίων καὶ Ἰέρνη"There are two large islands in it, called the British Isles and Ierne". Pliny the Elder, in his Natural History has: "It was itself named Albion, while all the islands about which we shall soon speak were called the Britanniae". In his 2nd century Geography, Ptolemy uses the name Ἀλουΐων instead of the Roman name Britannia following the commentaries of Marinus of Tyre, he calls both Albion and Ierne νῆσοι Βρεττανικαὶ. In 930, the English king Æthelstan used the title, his nephew, Edgar the Peaceful, styled himself Totius Albionis imperator augustus "Augustus Emperor of all Albion" in 970. A legend exists in various forms that giants were either the original inhabitants, or the founders of the land named Albion.
According to the 12th-century Historia Regum Britanniae by Geoffrey of Monmouth, the exiled Brutus of Troy was told by the goddess Diana. Notwithstanding this, the pleasant situation of the places, the plenty of rivers abounding with fish, the engaging prospect of its woods, made Brutus and his company desirous to fix their habitation in it." After dividing up the island between themselves "at last Brutus called the island after his own name Britain, his companions Britons. Geoffrey goes on to recount how the last of the giants are defeated, the largest one called Goëmagot is flung over a cliff by Corineus. In the 14th century, a more elaborate tale was developed, claiming that Albina and her sisters founded Albion and procreated there a race of giants; the "Albina story" survives in several forms, including the octosyllabic Anglo-Norman poem "Des grantz geanz" dating to 1300—1334. A prose English translation is given in Richard Barber's anthology. According to the poem, in the 3970th year of the creation of the world, a king of Greece married his thirty daughters into royalty, but the haughty brides colluded to eliminate their husbands so they would be subservient to no one.
The youngest would not be party to the crime and divulged the plot, so the other princesses were confined to an unsteerable rudderless ship and
Venice is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region. It is situated on a group of 118 small islands that are separated by canals and linked by over 400 bridges; the islands are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave rivers. In 2018, 260,897 people resided in the Comune di Venezia, of whom around 55,000 live in the historical city of Venice. Together with Padua and Treviso, the city is included in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area, considered a statistical metropolitan area, with a total population of 2.6 million. The name is derived from the ancient Veneti people who inhabited the region by the 10th century BC; the city was the capital of the Republic of Venice. The 697–1797 Republic of Venice was a major financial and maritime power during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, a staging area for the Crusades and the Battle of Lepanto, as well as an important center of commerce and art in the 13th century up to the end of the 17th century.
The city-state of Venice is considered to have been the first real international financial center, emerging in the 9th century and reaching its greatest prominence in the 14th century. This made Venice a wealthy city throughout most of its history. After the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna, the Republic was annexed by the Austrian Empire, until it became part of the Kingdom of Italy in 1866, following a referendum held as a result of the Third Italian War of Independence. Venice has been known as "La Dominante", "La Serenissima", "Queen of the Adriatic", "City of Water", "City of Masks", "City of Bridges", "The Floating City", "City of Canals"; the lagoon and a part of the city are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Parts of Venice are renowned for the beauty of their settings, their architecture, artwork. Venice is known for several important artistic movements—especially during the Renaissance period—has played an important role in the history of symphonic and operatic music, is the birthplace of Antonio Vivaldi.
Although the city is facing some major challenges, Venice remains a popular tourist destination, an iconic Italian city, has been ranked the most beautiful city in the world. The name of the city, deriving from Latin forms Venetia and Venetiae, is most taken from "Venetia et Histria", the Roman name of Regio X of Roman Italy, but applied to the coastal part of the region that remained under Roman Empire outside of Gothic and Frankish control; the name Venetia, derives from the Roman name for the people known as the Veneti, called by the Greeks Enetoi. The meaning of the word is uncertain, although there are other Indo-European tribes with similar-sounding names, such as the Celtic Veneti and the Slavic Vistula Veneti. Linguists suggest that the name is based on an Indo-European root *wen, so that *wenetoi would mean "beloved", "lovable", or "friendly". A connection with the Latin word venetus, meaning the color'sea-blue', is possible. Supposed connections of Venetia with the Latin verb venire, such as Marin Sanudo's veni etiam, the supposed cry of the first refugees to the Venetian lagoon from the mainland, or with venia are fanciful.
The alternative obsolete form is Vinegia. Although no surviving historical records deal directly with the founding of Venice and the available evidence have led several historians to agree that the original population of Venice consisted of refugees—from nearby Roman cities such as Padua, Treviso and Concordia, as well as from the undefended countryside—who were fleeing successive waves of Germanic and Hun invasions; this is further supported by the documentation on the so-called "apostolic families", the twelve founding families of Venice who elected the first doge, who in most cases trace their lineage back to Roman families. Some late Roman sources reveal the existence of fishermen, on the islands in the original marshy lagoons, who were referred to as incolae lacunae; the traditional founding is identified with the dedication of the first church, that of San Giacomo on the islet of Rialto —said to have taken place at the stroke of noon on 25 March 421. Beginning as early as AD 166–168, the Quadi and Marcomanni destroyed the main Roman town in the area, present-day Oderzo.
This part of Roman Italy was again overrun in the early 5th century by the Visigoths and, some 50 years by the Huns led by Attila. The last and most enduring immigration into the north of the Italian peninsula, that of the Lombards in 568, left the Eastern Roman Empire only a small strip of coastline in the current Veneto, including Venice; the Roman/Byzantine territory was organized as the Exarchate of Ravenna, administered from that ancient port and overseen by a viceroy appointed by the Emperor in Constantinople. Ravenna and Venice were connected only by sea routes, with the Venetians' isolated position came increasing autonomy. New ports were built, including those at Torcello in the Venetian lagoon; the tribuni maiores formed the earliest central standing governing committee of the islands in the lagoon, dating from c. 568. The traditional first doge of Venice, Paolo Lucio A
An itinerarium was an Ancient Roman road map in the form of a listing of cities and other stops, with the intervening distances. One surviving example is the Peutinger Table; the Romans and ancient travelers in general did not use maps. They may have existed as specialty items in some of the libraries, but they were hard to copy and were not in general use. On the Roman road system, the traveller needed some idea of where he or she was going, how to get there, how long it would take; the itinerarium filled this need. In origin it was a list of cities along a road: "at their most basic, itineraria involve the transposition of information given on milestones, which were an integral feature of the major Roman roads, to a written script." It was only a short step from lists to a master list. To sort out the lists, the Romans drew diagrams of parallel lines showing the branches of the roads. Parts of these were sold on the streets; the best featured symbols for cities, way stations, water courses, so on.
The maps did not represent landforms but they served the purpose of a simple schematic diagram for the user. The Roman government from time to time undertook to produce a master itinerary of all Roman roads. Julius Caesar and Mark Antony commissioned the first known such effort in 44 BC. Zenodoxus and Polyclitus, three Greek geographers, were hired to survey the system and compile a master itinerary; this task required over 25 years. The result was a stone engraved master itinerarium set up near the Pantheon, from which travelers and itinerary sellers could make copies. Archaeology has turned up some itinerary material in unexpected places; the Cups of Cadiz, four silver cups found by workmen excavating a foundation at Bracciano in 1852, are engraved with the names and distances of stations between Cadiz and Rome. The term itinerary changed meaning over the centuries. In the Itinerarium Burdigalense, the itinerary is a description of what route to take to the Holy Land; the Itinerarium Alexandri is a list of the conquests of Alexander the Great.
Today it means either a list of recommended stops. The term refers to medieval guide-books written by travellers: most of these are accounts of pilgrimages to the Holy Land. Antonine Itinerary Itinerarium Burdigalense Tabula Peutingeriana Periplus
Tarragona is a port city located in northeast Spain on the Costa Daurada by the Mediterranean Sea. Founded before the 5th century BC, it is the capital of the Province of Tarragona, part of Tarragonès and Catalonia. Geographically, it is bordered on the north by the Province of Lleida; the city has a population of 201,199. One Catalan legend holds that it was named for Tarraho, eldest son of Tubal in c. 2407 BC. The real founding date of Tarragona is unknown; the city may have begun as an Iberic town called Kesse or Kosse, named for the Iberic tribe of the region, the Cossetans, though the identification of Tarragona with Kesse is not certain. William Smith suggests that the city was founded by the Phoenicians, who called it Tarchon, according to Samuel Bochart, means a citadel; this name was derived from its situation on a high rock, between 75–90 m above the sea. It was seated on the river Sulcis or Tulcis, on a bay of the Mare Internum, between the Pyrenees and the river Iberus. Livy mentions a portus Tarraconis.
This better reflects its present condition. During the Roman Republic, the city was fortified and much enlarged as a Roman colony by the brothers Publius Cornelius Scipio and Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, who converted it into a fortress and arsenal against the Carthaginians; the city was first named Colonia Iulia Urbs Triumphalis Tarraco and was capital of the province of Hispania Citerior. Subsequently, it became the capital of the province named after it, Hispania Tarraconensis, in the Roman Empire and conventus iuridicus. Augustus wintered at Tarraco after his Cantabrian campaign, bestowed many marks of honour on the city, among which were its honorary titles of Colonia Victrix Togata and Colonia Julia Victrix Tarraconensis. Tarraco lies on the main road along the southeastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula. According to Mela it was the richest town on that coast, Strabo represents its population as equal to that of Carthago Nova, its fertile plain and sunny shores are celebrated by other poets.
The city minted coins. An inscribed stone base for a now lost statue of Tiberius Claudius Candidus was found in Tarragona during the nineteenth century; the 24-line Latin inscription describes the Governor and Senator's career as an ally of the future Roman emperor Septimius Severus, who fought in the civil war following the assassination of Commodus in 192 AD. This important marble block was purchased by the British Museum in 1994. After the demise of the Western Roman Empire, it was captured first by the Vandals and by the Visigoths; the Visigothic Kingdom's rule of Tarracona was ended by the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 714. It was an important border city of the Caliphate of Córdoba between 750 and 1013. After the demise of the Caliphate, it was part of the Taifa of Zaragoza between 1013 and 1110 and under the control of the Almoravid dynasty between 1110 and 1117, it was taken by the County of Barcelona in 1117. After the dynastic union of Aragon and Barcelona, it was part of the Kingdom of Aragon from 1164-1412.
After dynastic union of Aragon and the Crown of Castile, it remained a part of Aragon until the foundation of the Spanish Empire in 1516. During the Catalan revolt, Tarragon was captured by Catalan insurgents with French support in 1641, but it was retaken by Spanish troops in 1644, it was captured by allied Portuguese and British troops in 1705 during the War of the Spanish Succession and remained in their hands until Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. During the war, the Catalans supported the unsuccessful claim of Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen against the victorious Bourbon Duke of Anjou, became Philip V of Spain, he signed the Nueva Planta decrees, which abolished the Crown of Aragon and all remaining Catalan institutions and prohibited the administrative use of Catalan language on 16 January 1716. During the Peninsular War, in the first siege of Tarragona from 5 May to 29 June 1811, Louis-Gabriel Suchet's Army of Aragon of the First French Empire laid siege to a Spanish garrison led by Lieutenant general Juan Senen de Contreras.
A British naval squadron commanded by Admiral Edward Codrington harassed the French besiegers with cannon fire and transported large numbers of reinforcements into the city by sea. Suchet's troops stormed into the defenses and killed or captured all the defenders, it became a subprefecture center in Bouches-de-l'Èbre department of French empire. In the second siege of Tarragona, an overwhelming Anglo-Spanish force under the command of Lieutenant General John Murray, 8th Baronet failed to wrest Tarragona from a small Franco-Italian garrison led by Brigadier general Antoine Marc Augustin Bertoletti. Murray was subsequently removed from command for his contradictory leadership; the Anglo-Spanish forces captured Tarragona on 19 August. During the Spanish Civil War, Tarragona was in the hands of the Second Spanish Republi