National Collegiate Athletic Association
The National Collegiate Athletic Association is a non-profit association which regulates athletes of 1,281 institutions, conferences and individuals. It organizes the programs of many colleges and universities in the United States and Canada. The organization is headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana, in 2014, the NCAA generated almost a billion dollars in revenue. 80 to 90% of this revenue was due to the Division I Mens Basketball Tournament and this revenue is distributed back into various organizations and institutions across the United States. In August 1973, the current three-division setup of Division I, Division II, under NCAA rules, Division I and Division II schools can offer scholarships to athletes for playing a sport. Division III schools may not offer any athletic scholarships, larger schools compete in Division I and smaller schools in II and III. Division I football was divided into I-A and I-AA in 1978. Subsequently, the term Division I-AAA was briefly added to delineate Division I schools which do not field a football program at all, in 2006, Divisions I-A and I-AA were respectively renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision and Football Championship Subdivision.
Inter-collegiate sports began in the US in 1852 when crews from Harvard University, as other sports emerged, notably football and basketball, many of these same concepts and standards were adopted. Football, in particular, began to emerge as a marquee sport, the IAAUS was officially established on March 31,1906, and took its present name, the NCAA, in 1910. For several years, the NCAA was a group and rules-making body, but in 1921, the first NCAA national championship was conducted. Gradually, more rules committees were formed and more championships were created, a series of crises brought the NCAA to a crossroads after World War II. The Sanity Code – adopted to establish guidelines for recruiting and financial aid – failed to curb abuses, postseason football games were multiplying with little control, and member schools were increasingly concerned about how the new medium of television would affect football attendance. The complexity of problems and the growth in membership and championships demonstrated the need for full-time professional leadership.
Walter Byers, previously an executive assistant, was named executive director in 1951. Byers wasted no time placing his stamp on the Association, as college athletics grew, the scope of the nations athletics programs diverged, forcing the NCAA to create a structure that recognized varying levels of emphasis. In 1973, the Associations membership was divided into three legislative and competitive divisions – I, II, and III, five years in 1978, Division I members voted to create subdivisions I-A and I-AA in football. Until the 1980s, the association did not offer womens athletics, the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women, with nearly 1000 member schools, governed womens collegiate sports in the United States
Oakland Oaks (ABA)
The Oakland Oaks were a charter member of the original American Basketball Association. Formed in February 1967 as the Oakland Americans, the changed its name to the Oaks prior to play that fall. Playing in the ABA during the 1967–68 and 1968–69 seasons at the Oakland-Alameda County Coliseum, on February 2,1967, pop singer Pat Boone, S. Kenneth Davidson and Dennis A. Murphy were awarded a team in exchange for $30,000, the team had widely varying performances in its two years of existence. He joined the Oaks in the year, leading the franchise to the ABA championship in 1968–69. The road to the championship was led by pioneering owner, S, kenneth Davidson, who aggressively pursued top NBA talent Rick Barry and head coach Alex Hannum, signing them for an unprecedented $85,000 per year. His efforts drove a historic turnaround, from last place to first in one year, unfortunately for Barry, he tore ligaments in his knee after colliding with Kenny Wilburn late in a game versus the New York Nets on December 27,1968.
He tried to return in January, but he aggravated the injury and he subsequently sat out the rest of the season. Regardless, the Oaks won 60 games on the season, in the playoffs, they narrowly escaped the Denver Rockets in the Semifinals, but swept the New Orleans Buccaneers in the Division Finals to advance to the ABA Finals versus the Indiana Pacers. After splitting the first two games, the Oaks won an overtime thriller 134–126 to take a 2–1 lead in the series and they won the fourth game to set up a clinching opportunity in Oakland. In the nine games in Oakland, the Oaks averaged just 3,401 attendance a game, with 30,615 total attendance. With or without Barry, the proved to be a poor investment for Boone. Despite winning the ABA championship, the Oaks were a failure at the box office, the team was sold and moved to Washington, D. C. for the 1969–70 season, where it was renamed the Washington Caps. After one season in the capital, the team moved to Norfolk, Virginia for the 1970–71 season. The team disbanded after the 1975–76 season, keeping it out of the ABA–NBA merger which occurred just weeks later, note, W = Wins, L = Losses, % = Win–Loss % Oakland Oaks site at remembertheaba.
com Year-to-Year Franchise Notes
Seating capacity is the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, in terms of both the physical space available, and limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats hundreds of thousands of people. The International Fire Code, portions of which have adopted by many jurisdictions, is directed more towards the use of a facility than the construction. It specifies, For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms and it requires that every public venue submit a detailed site plan to the local fire code official, including details of the means of egress, seating capacity, arrangement of the seating. Once safety considerations have been satisfied, determinations of seating capacity turn on the size of the venue. For sports venues, the decision on maximum seating capacity is determined by several factors, chief among these are the primary sports program and the size of the market area.
Seating capacity of venues plays a role in what media they are able to provide, in contracting to permit performers to use a theatre or other performing space, the seating capacity of the performance facility must be disclosed. Seating capacity may influence the kind of contract to be used, the seating capacity must be disclosed to the copyright owner in seeking a license for the copyrighted work to be performed in that venue. Venues that may be leased for private functions such as ballrooms and auditoriums generally advertise their seating capacity, seating capacity is an important consideration in the construction and use of sports venues such as stadiums and arenas. The seating capacity for restaurants is reported as covers, a restaurant that can seat 99 is said to have 99 covers, seating capacity differs from total capacity, which describes the total number of people who can fit in a venue or in a vehicle either sitting or standing. Use of the term public capacity indicates that a venue is allowed to more people than it can actually seat.
Again, the total number of people can refer to either the physical space available or limitations set by law
Oakland /ˈoʊklənd/ is the largest city and the county seat of Alameda County, United States. The city was incorporated in 1852, Oaklands territory covers what was once a mosaic of California coastal terrace prairie, oak woodland, and north coastal scrub. Its land served as a resource when its hillside oak and redwood timber were logged to build San Francisco. In the late 1860s, Oakland was selected as the terminal of the Transcontinental Railroad. Following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, many San Francisco citizens moved to Oakland, enlarging the citys population, increasing its housing stock and it continued to grow in the 20th century with its busy port, and a thriving automobile manufacturing industry. Oakland is known for its sustainability practices, including a top-ranking for usage of electricity from renewable resources, in addition, due to a steady influx of immigrants during the 20th century, along with thousands of African-American war-industry workers who relocated from the Deep South during the 1940s.
Oakland is the most ethnically diverse city in the country. The earliest known inhabitants were the Huchiun Indians, who lived there for thousands of years, the Huchiun belonged to a linguistic grouping called the Ohlone. In Oakland, they were concentrated around Lake Merritt and Temescal Creek, in 1772, the area that became Oakland was claimed, with the rest of California, by Spanish settlers for the King of Spain. In the early 19th century, the Spanish crown granted the East Bay area to Luis María Peralta for his Rancho San Antonio, the grant was confirmed by the successor Mexican republic upon its independence from Spain. Upon his death in 1842, Peralta divided his land among his four sons, Most of Oakland fell within the shares given to Antonio Maria and Vicente. The portion of the parcel that is now Oakland was called encinal—Spanish for oak grove—due to the oak forest that covered the area. In 1851, three men—Horace Carpentier, Edson Adams, and Andrew Moon—began developing what is now downtown Oakland, on May 4,1852, the Town of Oakland incorporated.
Two years later, on March 25,1854, Oakland re-incorporated as the City of Oakland, with Horace Carpentier elected the first mayor, the city and its environs quickly grew with the railroads, becoming a major rail terminal in the late 1860s and 1870s. In 1868, the Central Pacific constructed the Oakland Long Wharf at Oakland Point, a number of horsecar and cable car lines were constructed in Oakland during the latter half of the 19th century. The first electric streetcar set out from Oakland to Berkeley in 1891, at the time of incorporation, Oakland consisted of the territory that lay south of todays major intersection of San Pablo Avenue and Fourteenth Street. The city gradually annexed farmlands and settlements to the east and the north, Oaklands rise to industrial prominence, and its subsequent need for a seaport, led to the digging of a shipping and tidal channel in 1902. This resulted in the town of Alameda being made an island
Interstate 880 is an Interstate Highway in the San Francisco Bay Area connecting San Jose and Oakland, running parallel to the northeastern shore of San Francisco Bay. For most of its route, I-880 is officially known as the Nimitz Freeway, after World War II fleet admiral Chester Nimitz and this route is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System. The southern terminus of I-880 is at its interchange with Interstate 280, from there, it heads roughly northeast past the San Jose International Airport to U. S. Route 101. In Oakland, I-880 passes by Oakland International Airport, Oakland-Alameda County Coliseum, the northern terminus of I-880 is in Oakland at the junction with Interstate 80 and Interstate 580, near the eastern approach of the Bay Bridge. I-880 between I-238 in San Leandro and the MacArthur Maze is used as a truck route. Officially, the Nimitz Freeway designation is Route 880 from Route 101 to Route 80, as named by Senate Concurrent Resolution 23 and it turned north at Cypress Street, passing through the Bay Bridge Distribution Structure and following a newly constructed alignment to El Cerrito.
The first short piece of the new Eastshore Freeway opened to traffic on July 22,1949 and it was extended to 98th Avenue on June 1,1950, Lewelling Boulevard on June 13,1952, and Jackson Street on June 5,1953. At the San Jose end, the overlap with Route 5 between Bayshore Highway and Warm Springs was bypassed on July 2,1954, within Oakland, the double-decker Cypress Street Viaduct opened on June 11,1957, connecting the freeway with the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge. As these sections opened, Sign Route 17 was moved from its old surface routing, other than Route 5 south of Warm Springs, the portion from San Leandro into Oakland was kept as part of Route 105. Prior to 1984, the known as I-880 used to be part of State Route 17. SR17 used to run from Santa Cruz all the way through San Jose, Oakland, in 1947, construction commenced on a freeway to replace the street routing of SR17 through the East Bay. In 1958, the south of the MacArthur Maze was renamed the Nimitz Freeway in honor of WWII Admiral Nimitz.
The northern portion of I-880 was designated Business U. S. Route 50 for a time between the I-80 interchange and downtown Oakland, from 1971 to 1983, Interstate 880 was the original route designation for the Beltline Freeway, the northern bypass freeway for the Sacramento area. The now-designated Capital City Freeway was the original I-80 routing, continuing southwest directly into downtown Sacramento, I-80 was re-routed along the Beltline Freeway in 1983, while the Capital City Freeway became Interstate 80 Business. This was the greatest loss of life caused by that earthquake, the freeway reopened in July 1997 on a new route parallel to railroad tracks around the outskirts of West Oakland with the entire project being completed shortly before 2000. Although only about three miles in length, the replacement freeway cost over $1, the former path of the structure, Cypress Street, was renamed Mandela Parkway, and the median where the freeway stood became a landscaped linear park. Several aspects of the I-880 facility have been constructed in designated floodplains such as the 1990 interchange improvements at Dixon Landing Road, in that case the Federal Highway Administration was required to make a finding that there was no feasible alternative to the new ramp system as designed.
In that same study, the FHWA produced an analysis to support the fact that adequate wetlands mitigation had been designed into the improvement project and this activity has occurred in Oakland, San Leandro, Hayward and Fremont
Bay Area Rapid Transit
Bay Area Rapid Transit is a public transportation system serving the San Francisco Bay Area. The rapid transit elevated and subway system connects San Francisco with cities in Alameda, Contra Costa, BART operates 5 routes on 104 miles of track connecting 45 stations, plus a 3. 2-mile automated guideway transit line to the Oakland International Airport which adds an additional station. A spur line in eastern Contra Costa County will utilize other rail technologies, with an average of 433,000 weekday passengers and 128.5 million annual passengers in fiscal year 2016, BART is the fifth-busiest heavy rail rapid transit system in the United States. The systems acronym is pronounced Bart, like the name, BART is operated by the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District, formed in 1957. As of 2017, it is being expanded to San Jose with the consecutive Warm Springs, some of the Bay Area Rapid Transit Systems current coverage area was once served by an electrified streetcar and suburban train system called the Key System.
This early 20th-century system once had regular trans-bay traffic across the deck of the Bay Bridge. By the mid-1950s, that system had been dismantled in favor of highway travel, a new rapid-transit system was proposed to take the place of the Key System during the late 1940s, and formal planning for it began in the 1950s. Some funding was secured for the BART system in 1959, passenger service began on September 11,1972, initially just between MacArthur and Fremont. All nine Bay Area counties were involved in the planning and envisioned to be connected by BART, before the system began revenue service, serious problems in the design and operation of the Automatic Train Control system were observed. Three engineers working for BART, Max Blankenzee, Robert Bruder, BART management was dismissive of their concerns, so the three took the issue to the board of directors. All but two of the directors voted in February 1972 to support management and reject the safety concerns, management retaliated against the engineers, firing them in March 1972.
The IEEE filed the first amicus brief in its history to support the engineers. The California Society of Professional Engineers reported to the California State Senate in June 1972 that there were serious safety risks with the ATC. Legislative analyst A. Alan Post, opened an investigation immediately, an ATC failure caused the train to run off the end of the elevated track and crash to the ground, injuring four people on-board, and drawing national and international attention. The “Fremont Flyer” led to a redesign of the train controls. The California State Public Utilities Commission imposed stringent oversight over train operations, the legislative analyst issued the first of three “Post Reports” in November 1972. The report was “sharply critical” of BART, finding that the ATC system was unreliable, the ATC program was mismanaged, and “no solution was in sight. ”The report accused BART of paying excessive fees for engineering services. BART’s general manager called the indictment of safety in the Post Report “not only disappointing, telephone calls were placed manually between stations, instead
National Hockey League
Headquartered in New York City, the NHL is considered to be the premier professional ice hockey league in the world, and one of the major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. The Stanley Cup, the oldest professional sports trophy in North America, is awarded annually to the playoff champion at the end of each season. At its inception, the NHL had four teams—all in Canada, the league expanded to the United States in 1924, when the Boston Bruins joined, and has since consisted of American and Canadian teams. After a labour-management dispute that led to the cancellation of the entire 2004–05 season, in 2009, the NHL enjoyed record highs in terms of sponsorships and television audiences. The league draws many highly skilled players from all over the world, canadians have historically constituted the majority of the players in the league, with an increasing percentage of American and European players in recent seasons. The National Hockey League was established in 1917 as the successor to the National Hockey Association, founded in 1909, the NHA began play one year with seven teams in Ontario and Quebec, and was one of the first major leagues in professional ice hockey.
Realizing the NHA constitution left them unable to force Livingstone out, the four teams voted instead to suspend the NHA, frank Calder was chosen as its first president, serving until his death in 1943. The Bulldogs were unable to play, and the remaining owners created a new team in Toronto, the first games were played on December 19,1917. The Montreal Arena burned down in January 1918, causing the Wanderers to cease operations, the NHL replaced the NHA as one of the leagues that competed for the Stanley Cup, which was an interleague competition back then. Toronto won the first NHL title, and defeated the Vancouver Millionaires of the Pacific Coast Hockey Association for the 1918 Stanley Cup. The Canadiens won the title in 1919, however their Stanley Cup Final against the PCHAs Seattle Metropolitans was abandoned as a result of the Spanish Flu epidemic. Montreal in 1924 won their first Stanley Cup as a member of the NHL, the Hamilton Tigers, won the regular season title in 1924–25 but refused to play in the championship series unless they were given a C$200 bonus.
The league refused and declared the Canadiens the league champion after defeated the Toronto St. Patricks in the semi-final. Montreal was defeated by the Victoria Cougars of the Western Canada Hockey League for the 1925 Stanley Cup and it was the last time a non-NHL team won the trophy, as the Stanley Cup became the de facto NHL championship in 1926 after the WCHL ceased operation. The National Hockey League embarked on rapid expansion in the 1920s, adding the Montreal Maroons, the Bruins were the first American team in the league. The New York Americans began play in 1925 after purchasing the assets of the Hamilton Tigers, the New York Rangers were added in 1926. The Chicago Black Hawks and Detroit Cougars were added after the league purchased the assets of the defunct WCHL, a group purchased the Toronto St. Patricks in 1927 and immediately renamed them the Maple Leafs. The first NHL All-Star Game was held in 1934 to benefit Ace Bailey, the second was held in 1937 in support of Howie Morenzs family when he died of a coronary embolism after breaking his leg during a game
California Golden Bears
The California Golden Bears are the athletic teams that represent the University of California, Berkeley. Over the course of the history, California has won team national titles in 13 mens and 3 womens sports and 104 team titles overall. Cal athletes have competed in the Olympics for a host of different countries. Notable facilities used by the Bears include California Memorial Stadium and Haas Pavilion, Cal finished the 2010–11 athletic season with 1,219.50 points, earning third place in the Directors Cup standings, the Golden Bears highest finish ever. Cal did not receive any points for its national championships in rugby, Cal finished 12th in the 2014-15 standings. In 2014, Cal instituted a strict standard for an athletes admission to the university. Cal Berkeley sponsors varsity teams in 14 mens and 16 womens sports, Notes As of December 4,2016, the program has produced numerous NFL stars, including Aaron Rodgers, Ryan Longwell, Marshawn Lynch, DeSean Jackson, Desmond Bishop, and Jahvid Best.
Tony Gonzalez, the NFLs all-time receptions leader among tight ends, head coach Justin Wilcox began his tenure in 2017. The California mens basketball team has represented the University of California intercollegiately since 1907, Cal basketballs home court is Haas Pavilion, which was constructed atop of the old Harmon Gymnasium using money donated in the late 1990s in part by the owners of Levi-Strauss. The program has seen throughout the years culminating in a national championship in 1959 under legendary coach Pete Newell and have reached the final four two other times in 1946 and 1960. The 1926–27 team finished the season with a 17–0 record and was named the national champion by the Premo-Porretta Power Poll. The current head coach of the California mens basketball program is Cuonzo Martin, some notable NBA players that spent time playing in Berkeley include Jason Kidd, Kevin Johnson, and Darrall Imhoff. The Cal baseball team plays at Evans Diamond, located between Haas Pavilion, the Recreational Sports Facility, and Edwards Track Stadium.
Cal has appeared in the post-season a total of nine times, including five times in the College World Series, shortstop Geoff Blum of Cals 1992 College World Series team hit the game-winning home run in the 14th inning of a 2005 World Series game for the Chicago White Sox. In September 2010, the university announced that baseball would be one of five sports cut as a cost-cutting measure, however, in April 2011, after receiving more than $9 million in pledges from supporters of the program, the program was reinstated. Mens bowling was an intercollegiate sport at the University of California in the 1970s and won a national championship in 1979. The first significant coach in Cal mens crew was Carroll Ky Ebright, during his tenure, Cal crew became known for success on both the collegiate and the international levels. Cal would represent the United States at two other Olympic games and winning the gold each time, the 1932 and 1948 Summer Games