Roman Osipovich Jakobson was a Russian–American linguist and literary theorist. Influenced by the work of Ferdinand de Saussure, Jakobson developed, with Nikolai Trubetzkoy, techniques for the analysis of systems in languages. He went on to apply the techniques of analysis to syntax and morphology. He made numerous contributions to Slavic linguistics, most notably two studies of Russian case and an analysis of the categories of the Russian verb and he studied at the Lazarev Institute of Oriental Languages and at the Historical-Philological Faculty of Moscow University. As a student he was a figure of the Moscow Linguistic Circle and took part in Moscows active world of avant-garde art. The linguistics of the time was overwhelmingly neogrammarian and insisted that the scientific study of language was to study the history. Jakobson was known for his critique of the emergence of sound in film. Jakobson received a degree from Moscow University in 1918. 1920 was a year of conflict in Russia, and Jakobson relocated to Prague as a member of the Soviet diplomatic mission to continue his doctoral studies.
He immersed himself both into the academic and cultural life of pre-World War II Czechoslovakia and established relationships with a number of Czech poets. Jakobson received his Ph. D. from Charles University in 1930 and he became a professor at Masaryk University in Brno in 1933. He made an impression on Czech academics with his studies of Czech verse, in 1926, together with Vilém Mathesius and others he became one of the founders of the Prague school of linguistic theory. There his numerous works on phonetics helped continue to develop his concerns with the structure and this mode of analysis has been since applied to the plane of Saussurean sense by his protégé Michael Silverstein in a series of foundational articles in functionalist linguistic typology. Jakobson escaped from Prague in early March 1939 via Berlin for Denmark, where he was associated with the Copenhagen linguistic circle and he fled to Norway on 1 September 1939, and in 1940 walked across the border to Sweden, where he continued his work at the Karolinska Hospital.
In New York, he began teaching at The New School, at the École libre des hautes études, a sort of Francophone university-in-exile, he met and collaborated with Claude Lévi-Strauss, who would become a key exponent of structuralism. He made the acquaintance of many American linguists and anthropologists, such as Franz Boas, Benjamin Whorf, when the American authorities considered repatriating him to Europe, it was Franz Boas who actually saved his life. After the war, he became a consultant to the International Auxiliary Language Association, in 1949 Jakobson moved to Harvard University, where he remained until his retirement in 1967. In his last decade he maintained an office at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in the early 1960s Jakobson shifted his emphasis to a more comprehensive view of language and began writing about communication sciences as a whole
In phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language, with two competing definitions. There is no build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis and this contrasts with consonants, such as the English sh, which have a constriction or closure at some point along the vocal tract. In the other, phonological definition, a vowel is defined as syllabic, a phonetically equivalent but non-syllabic sound is a semivowel. In oral languages, phonetic vowels normally form the peak of many to all syllables, whereas consonants form the onset and coda. Some languages allow other sounds to form the nucleus of a syllable, the word vowel comes from the Latin word vocalis, meaning vocal. In English, the vowel is commonly used to mean both vowel sounds and the written symbols that represent them. The phonetic definition of vowel does not always match the phonological definition, the approximants and illustrate this, both are produced without much of a constriction in the vocal tract, but they occur at the onset of syllables. A similar debate arises over whether a word like bird in a dialect has an r-colored vowel /ɝ/ or a syllabic consonant /ɹ̩/.
The American linguist Kenneth Pike suggested the terms vocoid for a vowel and vowel for a phonological vowel, so using this terminology. Nonetheless, the phonetic and phonemic definitions would still conflict for the syllabic el in table, or the syllabic nasals in button, daniel Jones developed the cardinal vowel system to describe vowels in terms of the features of tongue height, tongue backness and roundedness. These three parameters are indicated in the schematic quadrilateral IPA vowel diagram on the right, there are additional features of vowel quality, such as the velum position, type of vocal fold vibration, and tongue root position. This conception of vowel articulation has been known to be inaccurate since 1928, Peter Ladefoged has said that early phoneticians. Thought they were describing the highest point of the tongue, and they were actually describing formant frequencies. The IPA Handbook concedes that the quadrilateral must be regarded as an abstraction. Vowel height is named for the position of the tongue relative to either the roof of the mouth or the aperture of the jaw.
However, it refers to the first formant, abbreviated F1. Height is defined by the inverse of the F1 value, The higher the frequency of the first formant, however, if more precision is required, true-mid vowels may be written with a lowering diacritic. Although English contrasts six heights in its vowels, they are interdependent with differences in backness and it appears that some varieties of German have five contrasting vowel heights independently of length or other parameters
The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics. In studying articulation, phoneticians explain how humans produce speech sounds via the interaction of different physiological structures, articulatory phonetics is concerned with the transformation of aerodynamic energy into acoustic energy. Aerodynamic energy refers to the airflow through the vocal tract and its potential form is air pressure, its kinetic form is the actual dynamic airflow. Acoustic energy is variation in the air pressure that can be represented as sound waves, the main air cavities present in the articulatory system are the supraglottal cavity and the subglottal cavity. They are so-named because the glottis, the space between the vocal folds internal to the larynx, separates the two cavities. The supraglottal cavity or the orinasal cavity is divided into an oral subcavity, the subglottal cavity consists of the trachea and the lungs. The atmosphere external to the stem may be considered an air cavity whose potential connecting points with respect to the body are the nostrils.
The term initiator refers to the fact that they are used to initiate a change in the volumes of air cavities, and, by Boyles Law, the term initiation refers to the change. Since changes in air pressures between connected cavities lead to airflow between the cavities, initiation is referred to as an airstream mechanism. The three pistons present in the system are the larynx, the tongue body, and the physiological structures used to manipulate lung volume. The lung pistons are used to initiate a pulmonic airstream, the larynx is used to initiate the glottalic airstream mechanism by changing the volume of the supraglottal and subglottal cavities via vertical movement of the larynx. Ejectives and implosives are made with this airstream mechanism, the tongue body creates a velaric airsteam by changing the pressure within the oral cavity, the tongue body changes the mouth subcavity. Click consonants use the velaric airstream mechanism, pistons are controlled by various muscles. Airflow occurs when an air valve is open and there is a difference between the connecting cavities.
When an air valve is closed, there is no airflow, like the pistons, the air valves are controlled by various muscles. To produce any kind of sound, there must be movement of air. To produce sounds that people today can interpret as words, the movement of air must pass through the chords, up through the throat and. Different sounds are formed by different positions of the mouth—or, as linguists call it, sounds of all languages fall under two categories and Vowels
Clicks are speech sounds that occur as consonants in many languages of Southern Africa and in three languages of East Africa. Examples familiar to English-speakers are the tsk. tsk. or tut-tut used to express disapproval or pity, used to spur on a horse, and the clip-clop. Sound children make with their tongue to imitate a horse trotting, clicks are obstruents articulated with two closures in the mouth, one forward and one at the back. The enclosed pocket of air is rarefied by an action of the tongue. Click consonants occur at five places of articulation. IPA represents a click by placing the assigned symbol for the place of click articulation adjacent to a symbol for a sound at the rear place of articulation. The IPA symbols are used in writing most Khoisan languages, but Bantu languages such as Zulu typically use Latin ⟨c⟩, ⟨x⟩ and ⟨q⟩ for dental, the easiest clicks for English speakers are the dental clicks written with a single pipe, ǀ. They are all sharp squeaky sounds made by sucking on the front teeth, a simple dental click is used in English to express pity or to shame someone, and sometimes to call an animal, and is written tsk.
in American English and tut. in British English. Curiously, in Italian this sound means no used as an answer to a direct question, next most familiar to English speakers are the lateral clicks written with a double pipe, ǁ. They are sounds, though less sharp than ǀ. A simple lateral click is made in English to get a horse moving, there are the labial clicks, written with a bulls eye, ʘ. These are lip-smacking sounds, but without the pursing of the found in a kiss. The above clicks sound like affricates, in that they involve a lot of friction, the other two families are more abrupt sounds that do not have this friction. Like a cork being pulled from an empty bottle and these sounds can be quite loud. Finally, the clicks, ǂ, are made with a flat tongue. Clicks occur in all three Khoisan language families of southern Africa, where they may be the most numerous consonants, to a lesser extent they occur in three neighbouring groups of Bantu languages—which borrowed them, directly or indirectly, from Khoisan.
These sounds occur not only in borrowed vocabulary, but have spread to native Bantu words as well, some creolized varieties of Afrikaans, such as Oorlams, retain clicks in Khoekhoe words. Three languages in East Africa use clicks and Hadza of Tanzania, and Dahalo and it is thought the latter may remain from an episode of language shift
Manner of articulation
In articulatory phonetics, the manner of articulation is the configuration and interaction of the articulators when making a speech sound. One parameter of manner is stricture, that is, how closely the speech organs approach one another, others include those involved in the r-like sounds, and the sibilancy of fricatives. For consonants, the place of articulation and the degree of phonation of voicing are considered separately from manner, homorganic consonants, which have the same place of articulation, may have different manners of articulation. Often nasality and laterality are included in manner, but some phoneticians, such as Peter Ladefoged, from greatest to least stricture, speech sounds may be classified along a cline as stop consonants, fricative consonants and vowels. Affricates often behave as if they were intermediate stops and fricatives, but phonetically they are sequences of a stop and fricative. Over time, sounds in a language may move along this cline toward less stricture in a process called lenition, sibilants are distinguished from other fricatives by the shape of the tongue and how the airflow is directed over the teeth.
Fricatives at coronal places of articulation may be sibilant or non-sibilant and flaps are similar to very brief stops. However, their articulation and behavior are enough to be considered a separate manner, rather than just length. Trills involve the vibration of one of the speech organs, since trilling is a separate parameter from stricture, the two may be combined. Increasing the stricture of a typical trill results in a trilled fricative, nasal airflow may be added as an independent parameter to any speech sound. It is most commonly found in nasal occlusives and nasal vowels, but nasalized fricatives, when a sound is not nasal, it is called oral. Laterality is the release of airflow at the side of the tongue and this can be combined with other manners, resulting in lateral approximants, lateral flaps, and lateral fricatives and affricates. Stop, an oral occlusive, where there is occlusion of the vocal tract. Examples include English /p t k/ and /b d ɡ/, if the consonant is voiced, the voicing is the only sound made during occlusion, if it is voiceless, a stop is completely silent.
What we hear as a /p/ or /k/ is the effect that the onset of the occlusion has on the vowel, as well as the release burst. The shape and position of the tongue determine the resonant cavity that gives different stops their characteristic sounds, nasal, a nasal occlusive, where there is occlusion of the oral tract, but air passes through the nose. The shape and position of the tongue determine the resonant cavity that gives different nasals their characteristic sounds, nearly all languages have nasals, the only exceptions being in the area of Puget Sound and a single language on Bougainville Island. Fricative, sometimes called spirant, where there is continuous frication at the place of articulation, examples include English /f, s/, /v, z/, etc
The amplitude of a periodic variable is a measure of its change over a single period. There are various definitions of amplitude, which are all functions of the magnitude of the difference between the extreme values. In older texts the phase is called the amplitude. Peak-to-peak amplitude is the change between peak and trough, with appropriate circuitry, peak-to-peak amplitudes of electric oscillations can be measured by meters or by viewing the waveform on an oscilloscope. Peak-to-peak is a measurement on an oscilloscope, the peaks of the waveform being easily identified and measured against the graticule. This remains a common way of specifying amplitude, but sometimes other measures of amplitude are more appropriate. In audio system measurements, telecommunications and other areas where the measurand is a signal that swings above and below a value but is not sinusoidal. If the reference is zero, this is the absolute value of the signal, if the reference is a mean value. Semi-amplitude means half the peak-to-peak amplitude, some scientists use amplitude or peak amplitude to mean semi-amplitude, that is, half the peak-to-peak amplitude.
It is the most widely used measure of orbital wobble in astronomy, the RMS of the AC waveform. For complicated waveforms, especially non-repeating signals like noise, the RMS amplitude is used because it is both unambiguous and has physical significance. For example, the power transmitted by an acoustic or electromagnetic wave or by an electrical signal is proportional to the square of the RMS amplitude. For alternating current electric power, the practice is to specify RMS values of a sinusoidal waveform. One property of root mean square voltages and currents is that they produce the same heating effect as direct current in a given resistance, the peak-to-peak value is used, for example, when choosing rectifiers for power supplies, or when estimating the maximum voltage that insulation must withstand. Some common voltmeters are calibrated for RMS amplitude, but respond to the value of a rectified waveform. Many digital voltmeters and all moving coil meters are in this category, the RMS calibration is only correct for a sine wave input since the ratio between peak, average and RMS values is dependent on waveform.
If the wave shape being measured is greatly different from a sine wave, true RMS-responding meters were used in radio frequency measurements, where instruments measured the heating effect in a resistor to measure current. The advent of microprocessor controlled meters capable of calculating RMS by sampling the waveform has made true RMS measurement commonplace
The palatal nasal is a type of consonant, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɲ⟩, the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is J. Palatal nasals are more common than the palatal stops. The alveolo-palatal nasal is a type of sound, used in some oral languages. There is no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound, if more precision is desired, it may be transcribed ⟨n̠ʲ⟩ or ⟨ɲ̟⟩, these are essentially equivalent, since the contact includes both the blade and body of the tongue. There is a non-IPA letter ⟨ȵ⟩, used especially in Sinological circles, the alveolo-palatal nasal is commonly described as palatal, it is often unclear whether a language has a true palatal or not. Many languages claimed to have a nasal, such as Portuguese. This is likely true of several of the languages listed here, some dialects of Irish as well as some non-standard dialects of Malayalam are reported to contrast alveolo-palatal and palatal nasals.
There is a post-palatal nasal in some languages, features of the voiced palatal nasal, Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Because the consonant is nasal, the blocked airflow is redirected through the nose. Its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate and its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. It is a consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the nose. Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds. Nasal palatal approximant Index of phonetics articles Ɲ
The term phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics. Among some phoneticians, phonation is the process by which the vocal folds produce certain sounds through quasi-periodic vibration and this is the definition used among those who study laryngeal anatomy and physiology and speech production in general. Voiceless and supra-glottal phonations are included under this definition, the phonatory process, or voicing, occurs when air is expelled from the lungs through the glottis, creating a pressure drop across the larynx. When this drop becomes sufficiently large, the vocal folds start to oscillate, the minimum pressure drop required to achieve phonation is called the phonation threshold pressure, and for humans with normal vocal folds, it is approximately 2–3 cm H2O. The motion of the vocal folds during oscillation is mostly lateral, there is almost no motion along the length of the vocal folds. The oscillation of the vocal folds serves to modulate the pressure and flow of the air through the larynx, the sound that the larynx produces is a harmonic series.
In other words, it consists of a fundamental tone accompanied by harmonic overtones, in linguistics, a phone is called voiceless if there is no phonation during its occurrence. In speech, voiceless phones are associated with folds that are elongated, highly tensed. Fundamental frequency, the main acoustic cue for the percept pitch, large scale changes are accomplished by increasing the tension in the vocal folds through contraction of the cricothyroid muscle. Variation in fundamental frequency is used linguistically to produce intonation and tone, There are currently two main theories as to how vibration of the vocal folds is initiated, the myoelastic theory and the aerodynamic theory. These two theories are not in contention with one another and it is possible that both theories are true and operating simultaneously to initiate and maintain vibration. A third theory, the theory, was in considerable vogue in the 1950s. Pressure builds up again until the cords are pushed apart. The rate at which the open and close—the number of cycles per second—determines the pitch of the phonation.
The aerodynamic theory is based on the Bernoulli energy law in fluids, the push occurs during glottal opening, when the glottis is convergent, whereas the pull occurs during glottal closing, when the glottis is divergent. Such an effect causes a transfer of energy from the airflow to the fold tissues which overcomes losses by dissipation. The amount of pressure needed to begin phonation is defined by Titze as the oscillation threshold pressure. During glottal closure, the air flow is cut off until breath pressure pushes the folds apart and this theory states that the frequency of the vocal fold vibration is determined by the chronaxie of the recurrent nerve, and not by breath pressure or muscular tension
Speech is the vocalized form of communication based upon the syntactic combination of lexicals and names that are drawn from very large vocabularies. Each spoken word is created out of the combination of a limited set of vowel. These vocabularies, the syntax that structures them, and their sets of speech sound units differ, creating thousands of different. Most human speakers are able to communicate in two or more of them, hence being polyglots, the vocal abilities that enable humans to produce speech enable them to sing. A gestural form of human communication exists for the deaf in the form of sign language, speech in some cultures has become the basis of a written language, often one that differs in its vocabulary and phonetics from its associated spoken one, a situation called diglossia. Speech is researched in terms of the production and speech perception of the sounds used in vocal language. Several academic disciplines study these, including acoustics, speech pathology, cognitive science, communication studies, another area of research is how the human brain in its different areas such as the Brocas area and Wernickes area underlies speech.
It is controversial how far human speech is unique, in animals communicate with vocalizations. The origins of speech are unknown and subject to much debate, in linguistics, manner of articulation describes how the tongue, jaw, vocal cords, and other speech organs used to produce sounds, make contact with each other. Often the concept is used for the production of consonants. For any place of articulation, there may be several manners of articulation, normal human speech is produced with pressure from the lungs, which creates phonation in the glottis in the larynx, which is modified by the vocal tract into different vowels and consonants. However humans can pronounce words without the use of the lungs and glottis in alaryngeal speech, speech perception refers to the processes by which humans can interpret and understand the sounds used in language. The study of perception is closely linked to the fields of phonetics and phonology in linguistics and cognitive psychology. Research in speech perception seeks to understand how human listeners recognize speech sounds, speech research has applications in building computer systems that can recognize speech, as well as improving speech recognition for hearing- and language-impaired listeners.
Spoken vocalizations are quickly turned from sensory inputs into motor instructions needed for their immediate or delayed vocal imitation and this occurs independently of speech perception. This type of mapping plays a key role in enabling children to expand their spoken vocabulary, speech is a complex activity, as a result, errors are often made in speech. Speech errors have been analyzed by scientists to understand the nature of the involved in the production of speech. There are several organic and psychological factors that can affect speech, among these are and disorders of the lungs or the vocal cords, including paralysis, respiratory infections, vocal fold nodules and cancers of the lungs and throat
Morris Halle, is a Latvian-American linguist and an Institute Professor and professor emeritus of linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He co-authored the earliest theory of generative metrics, Halle was born Jewish in Liepāja, Latvia, in 1923, and moved with his family to Riga in 1929. They arrived in the United States in 1940, from 1941 to 1943, he studied engineering at the City College of New York. He entered the United States Army in 1943 and was discharged in 1946, at which point he went to the University of Chicago, where he got his masters degree in linguistics in 1948. He studied at Columbia University under Roman Jakobson, became a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1951 and he retired from MIT in 1996, but he remains active in research and publication. He is fluent in German, Latvian, Hebrew, Halle was married for fifty-six years to artist Rosamond Thaxter Strong Halle, until her death in April 2011. He has three sons, David and Timothy, Halle currently resides in Cambridge, Massachusetts
Anatomically, a nose is a protuberance in vertebrates that houses the nostrils, or nares, which receive and expel air for respiration alongside the mouth. Behind the nose are the olfactory mucosa and the sinuses, behind the nasal cavity, air next passes through the pharynx, shared with the digestive system, and into the rest of the respiratory system. In humans, the nose is located centrally on the face, on most other mammals, it is located on the upper tip of the snout. Capillary structures of the warm and humidify air entering the body, later. During exhalation, the capillaries aid recovery of some moisture, mostly as a function of thermal regulation, the wet nose of dogs is useful for the perception of direction. The sensitive cold receptors in the skin detect the place where the nose is cooled the most, in amphibians and lungfish, the nostrils open into small sacs that, in turn, open into the forward roof of the mouth through the choanae. These sacs contain an amount of olfactory epithelium, which, in the case of caecilians.
Despite the general similarity in structure to those of amphibians, the nostrils of lungfish are not used in respiration, in reptiles, the nasal chamber is generally larger, with the choanae located much further back in the roof of the mouth. In crocodilians, the chamber is long, helping the animal to breathe while partially submerged. The reptilian nasal chamber is divided into three parts, a vestibule, the main olfactory chamber, and a posterior nasopharynx. The olfactory chamber is lined by olfactory epithelium on its upper surface, the vomeronasal organ is well-developed in lizards and snakes, in which it no longer connects with the nasal cavity, opening directly into the roof of the mouth. It is smaller in turtles, in which it retains its original nasal connection, birds have a similar nose to reptiles, with the nostrils located at the upper rear part of the beak. Since they generally have a sense of smell, the olfactory chamber is small. In many birds, including doves and fowls, the nostrils are covered by a protective shield.
The vomeronasal organ of birds is either under-developed or altogether absent, the nasal cavities in mammals are both fused into one. Among most species they are large, typically occupying up to half the length of the skull. In some groups, including primates and cetaceans, the nose has been reduced. The enlarged nasal cavity contains complex turbinates forming coiled scroll-like shapes that help to warm the air before it reaches the lungs, the cavity extends into neighbouring skull bones, forming additional air cavities known as paranasal sinuses