Proverbium: Yearbook of International Proverb Scholarship is an academic journal covering paremiology, the study of proverbs. It is published annually by the University of Vermont and was established in 1985. Since volume 2, the editor-in-chief is Wolfgang Mieder; each volume includes articles on proverbs from around the world, reviews of books, a bibliography of recent proverb scholarship, a list of published proverb collections. The journal succeeded Proverbium: Bulletin d'Information sur les Recherches Parémiologiques, established by Matti Kuusi and published by the Finnish Literature Society between 1965 and 1975; the journal is one of two ongoing proverb journals listed as a significant source for proverb studies in Proverbs: a Handbook. It is listed as one of a list of "Proverb Resources" by the Cog Web site, it is the only current journal listed by the University of Chicago's Defining Wisdom project in their Wisdom Literature Review. It is one of only two journals cited by the International Association of Paremiology on their website.
Proverbium is indexed by the MLA International Bibliography, RILM Abstracts of Music International, Russian Academy of Sciences Bibliographies. Julia Sevilla Muñoz, editor of the journal Paremia, has described it saying, "Proverbium est devenu premier point de recontre et d'échange scientifique pour les vrais spécialistes en parémies."In addition to the journal itself, there is a "Supplement Series" of volumes published by Proverbium. So far, 39 volumes have been published in this book series. Many of the back issues of Proverbium are now available online: Proverbium online
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Folklore studies known as folkloristics, tradition studies or folk life studies in Britain, is the formal academic discipline devoted to the study of folklore. This term, along with its synonyms, gained currency in the 1950s to distinguish the academic study of traditional culture from the folklore artifacts themselves, it became established as a field across both Europe and North America, coordinating with Volkskunde and folkminnen, among others. The importance of folklore and folklore studies was recognized globally in 1982 in the UNESCO document "Recommendation on the Safeguarding of Traditional Culture and Folklore". UNESCO again in 2003 published a Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. Parallel to these global statements, the American Folklife Preservation Act, passed by the United States Congress in conjunction with the Bicentennial Celebration in 1976, included a definition of folklore called folklife: "... means the traditional expressive culture shared within the various groups in the United States: familial, occupational, regional.
This law was added to the panoply of other legislation designed to protect the natural and cultural heritage of the United States. It gives voice to a growing understanding that the cultural diversity of the United States is a national strength and a resource worthy of protection. To understand the term folklore studies, it is necessary to clarify its component parts: the terms folk and lore; the word folk applied only to rural poor illiterate peasants. A more contemporary definition of folk is a social group which includes two or more persons with common traits, who express their shared identity through distinctive traditions. "Folk is a flexible concept which can refer to a nation as in American folklore or to a single family." This expanded social definition of folk supports a wider view of the material considered to be folklore artifacts. These now include "things people make with words, things they make with their hands, things they make with their actions"; the folklorist studies the traditional artifacts of a group.
They study the groups, within which these customs and beliefs are transmitted. Transmission of these artifacts is a vital part of the folklore process. Without communicating these beliefs and customs within the group over space and time, they would become cultural shards relegated to cultural archaeologists; these folk artifacts continue to be passed along informally within the group, as a rule anonymously and always in multiple variants. For the folk group is not individualistic, it nurtures its lore in community; this is in direct contrast to high culture, where any single work of a named artist is protected by copyright law. The folklorist strives to understand the significance of these beliefs and objects for the group. For "folklore means something – to the tale teller, to the song singer, to the fiddler, to the audience or addressees"; these cultural units would not be passed along unless they had some continued relevance within the group. That meaning can however morph. With an theoretical sophistication of the social sciences, it has become evident that folklore is a occurring and necessary component of any social group, it is indeed all around us.
It does not have to be antiquated. It continues to be created, transmitted and in any group can be used to differentiate between "us" and "them". All cultures have their own unique folklore, each culture has to develop and refine the techniques and methods of folklore studies most effective in identifying and researching their own; as an academic discipline, folklore studies straddles the space between the Social Sciences and the Humanities. This was not always the case; the study of folklore originated in Europe in the first half of the 19th century with a focus on the oral folklore of the rural peasant populations. The "Kinder- und Hausmärchen" of the Brothers Grimm is the best known but by no means only collection of verbal folklore of the European peasantry; this interest in stories and songs, i.e. verbal lore, continued throughout the 19th century and aligned the fledgling discipline of folklore studies with Literature and Mythology. By the turn into the 20th century, European folklorists remained focused on the oral folklore of the homogeneous peasant populations in their regions, while the American folklorists, led by Franz Boas, chose to consider Native American cultures in their research, included the totality of their customs and beliefs as folklore.
This distinction aligned American folklore studies with cultural anthropology and ethnology, using the same techniques of data collection in their field research. This divided alliance of folklore studies between the humanities and the social sciences offers a wealth of theoretical vantage points and research tools to the field of folklore studies as a whole as it continues to be a point of discussion within the field itself. Public folklore is a new offshoot of folklore studies. Public sector folklorists work to d
An epic poem, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation. Another type of epic poetry is epyllion, a brief narrative poem with a romantic or mythological theme; the term, which means "little epic", came into use in the nineteenth century. It refers to the erudite, shorter hexameter poems of the Hellenistic period and the similar works composed at Rome from the age of the neoterics; the most famous example of classical epyllion is Catullus 64. The English word epic comes from the Latin epicus, which itself comes from the Ancient Greek adjective ἐπικός, from ἔπος, "word, poem". Originating before the invention of writing, primary epics were composed by bards who used complex rhetorical and metrical schemes by which they could memorize the epic as received in tradition and add to the epic in their performances.
Hence aside from writers like Dante, Camões, Milton, Apollonius of Rhodes in his Argonautica and Virgil in Aeneid adopted and adapted Homer's style and subject matter, but used devices available only to those who write, in their works Nonnus' Dionysiaca and Tulsidas' Sri Ramacharit Manas used stylistic elements typical of epics. The oldest epic recognized is the Epic of Gilgamesh, recorded In ancient Sumer during the Neo-Sumerian Empire; the poem details the exploits of Gilgamesh, the king of Uruk. Although recognized as a historical figure, Gilgamesh, as represented in the epic, is a legendary or mythical figure; the longest epic written is the ancient Indian Mahabharata, which consists of 100,000 ślokas or over 200,000 verse lines, as well as long prose passages, so that at about 1.8 million words it is about four times the length of the Rāmāyaṇa, ten times the length of the Iliad and the Odyssey combined. Famous examples of epic poetry include the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh, the ancient Indian Mahabharata and Rāmāyaṇa, the Tamil Silappatikaram, the Persian Shahnameh, the Ancient Greek Odyssey and Iliad, Virgil's Aeneid, the Old English Beowulf, Dante's Divine Comedy, the Finnish Kalevala, the German Nibelungenlied, the French Song of Roland, the Spanish Cantar de mio Cid, the Portuguese Os Lusíadas, John Milton's Paradise Lost, Adam Mickiewicz's Pan Tadeusz.
The first epics were products of oral history poetic traditions. Oral tradition was used alongside written scriptures to communicate and facilitate the spread of culture. In these traditions, poetry is transmitted to the audience and from performer to performer by purely oral means. Early twentieth-century study of living oral epic traditions in the Balkans by Milman Parry and Albert Lord demonstrated the paratactic model used for composing these poems. What they demonstrated was that oral epics tend to be constructed in short episodes, each of equal status and importance; this facilitates memorization, as the poet is recalling each episode in turn and using the completed episodes to recreate the entire epic as he performs it. Parry and Lord contend that the most source for written texts of the epics of Homer was dictation from an oral performance. Milman Parry and Albert Lord have argued that the Homeric epics, the earliest works of Western literature, were fundamentally an oral poetic form.
These works form the basis of the epic genre in Western literature. Nearly all of Western epic self-consciously presents itself as a continuation of the tradition begun by these poems. Classical epic poetry employs a meter called dactylic hexameter and recounts a journey, either physical or mental or both. Epics tend to highlight cultural norms and to define or call into question cultural values as they pertain to heroism. In his work Poetics, Aristotle defines an epic as one of the forms of poetry, contrasted with lyric poetry and with drama in the form of tragedy and comedy. In A Handbook to Literature and Holman define an epic: Epic: a long narrative poem in elevated style presenting characters of high position in adventures forming an organic whole through their relation to a central heroic figure and through their development of episodes important to the history of a nation or race. An attempt to delineate ten main characteristics of an epic: Begins in medias res; the setting is vast, covering the world or the universe.
Begins with an invocation to a muse. Begins with a statement of the theme. Includes the use of epithets. Contains long called an epic catalogue. Features long and formal speeches. Shows divine intervention on human affairs. Features heroes that embody the values of the civilization. Features the tragic hero's descent into the underworld or hell; the hero participates in a cyclical journey or quest, faces adversaries that try to defeat him in his journey and returns home transformed by his journey. The epic hero illustrates traits, performs deeds, exemplifies certain morals that are valued by the society the epic originates from. Many epic heroes are recurring characters in the legends of their native culture. Conventions of epics: Proposition: Opens by stating the cause of the epic; this may take the form
A national epic is an epic poem or a literary work of epic scope which seeks or is believed to capture and express the essence or spirit of a particular nation. National epics recount the origin of a nation, a part of its history, or a crucial event in the development of national identity such as other national symbols. In a broader sense, a national epic may be an epic in the national language which the people or government of that nation are proud of, it is distinct from a pan-national epic, taken as representative of a larger cultural or linguistic group than a nation or a nation-state. In medieval times Homer's Iliad was taken to be based on historical facts, the Trojan War came to be considered as seminal in the genealogies of European monarchies. Virgil's Aeneid was taken to be the Roman equivalent of the Iliad, starting from the Fall of Troy and leading up to the birth of the young Roman nation. According to the prevailing conception of history, empires were born and died in organic succession and correspondences existed between the past and the present.
Geoffrey of Monmouth's 12th century classically inspired Historia Regum Britanniae, for example, fulfilled this function for the British or Welsh. Just as kings longed to emulate great leaders of the past, Alexander or Caesar, it was a temptation for poets to become a new Homer or Virgil. In 16th century Portugal, Luis de Camões celebrated Portugal as a naval power in his Os Lusíadas while Pierre de Ronsard set out to write La Franciade, an epic meant to be the Gallic equivalent of Virgil's poem that traced back France's ancestry to Trojan princes; the emergence of a national ethos, preceded the coining of the phrase national epic, which seems to originate with Romantic nationalism. Where no obvious national epic existed, the "Romantic spirit" was motivated to fill it. An early example of poetry, invented to fill a perceived gap in "national" myth is Ossian, the narrator and supposed author of a cycle of poems by James Macpherson, which Macpherson claimed to have translated from ancient sources in Scottish Gaelic.
However, many national epics antedate 19th-century romanticism. In the early 20th century, the phrase no longer applies to an epic poem, occurs to describe a literary work that readers and critics agree is emblematical of the literature of a nation, without including details from that nation's historical background. In this context the phrase has positive connotations, as for example in James Joyce's Ulysses where it is suggested Don Quixote is Spain's national epic while Ireland's remains as yet unwritten: They remind one of Don Quixote and Sancho Panza. Our national epic has yet to be written, Dr Sigerson says. Moore is the man for it. A knight of the rueful countenance here in Dublin. Poems that have been described as national epics include: Egypt – Story of Sinuhe Mali – Epic of Sundiata Nigeria – Epic of Bayajidda Itan Tale of Eri Argentina – Martín Fierro by José Hernández Brazil – Caramuru, by Santa Rita Durão O Uraguai, by Basílio da Gama Chile – La Araucana/The Araucaniad by Alonso de Ercilla y Zuñiga United States – The Columbiad by Joel Barlow The Song of Hiawatha by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Evangeline by Longfellow The Cantos by Ezra Pound Leaves of Grass by Walt Whitman Uruguay – La Leyenda Patria by Juan Zorrilla de San Martín Cambodia – Reamker Georgia – The Knight in the Panther's Skin by Shota Rustaveli Indian subcontinent India Mahabharata Ramayana Tirukkural Silappathikaram Sri Lanka Mahavamsa Iran and Persian speakers Shahnameh Amir Arsalan Iraq / Babylonians / Mesopotamia – Epic of Gilgamesh Indonesia Kakawin Rāmâyaṇa Ramakavaca Israel / Hebrews – Book of Job Japan The Tale of the Heike Kipchaks – Chora Batir Korea Jewang Ungi by Yi Seung-hyu Kyrgyz people – Epic of Manas Laos – Phra Lak Phra Lam Mongols – Epic of Jangar Myanmar – Yama Zatdaw Philippines – Biag ni Lam-ang Florante at Laura Hinilawod Hudhud Ibalon Ibong Adarna Maradia Lawana Tibet – Epic of King Gesar Thailand – Khun Chang Khun Phaen Yuan Phai Ramakien Phra Aphai Mani Albania – Lahuta e Malcís by Gjergj Fishta Italy, ancient – Aeneid by Virgil Armenia – Daredevils of Sassoun Bulgaria – Епопея на Забравените by Ivan Vazov Catalonia – L'Atlàntida and Canigó by Jacint Verdaguer Croatia – Judita by Marko Marulić England Beowulf The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer The Faerie Queene by Edmund Spenser Paradise Lost by John Milton Charge of the Light Brigade, by Alfred, Lord Tennyson Estonia – Kalevipoeg by Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald Europe southern – Iliad and Odyssey by Homer Aeneid by Virgil Finland – Kalevala by Elias Lönnrot France La Chanson de Roland La Chanson de Guillaume Gormond et Isembart Franciade by Pierre Ronsard Georgia – The Knight in the Panther's Skin by Shota Rustaveli Germany Nibelungenlied Faust Greece, Ancient – Iliad and Odyssey by Homer Greece – Digenes Akritas Hungary – Siege of Sziget by Miklós Zrínyi Iceland – The Poetic Edda Ireland Táin Bó Cúailnge Fenian Cycle Lebor Gabála Érenn Ulster Cycle Italy – Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri Orlando Furioso by Ludovico Ariosto Jerusalem Delivered by Torquato Tasso Latvia – Lāčplēsis by Andrejs Pum
Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion with signs and symbols. In most languages, writing is a spoken language. Writing is not a language. Within a language system, writing relies on many of the same structures as speech, such as vocabulary and semantics, with the added dependency of a system of signs or symbols; the result of writing is called text, the recipient of text is called a reader. Motivations for writing include publication, correspondence, record keeping and diary. Writing has been instrumental in keeping history, maintaining culture, dissemination of knowledge through the media and the formation of legal systems; as human societies emerged, the development of writing was driven by pragmatic exigencies such as exchanging information, maintaining financial accounts, codifying laws and recording history. Around the 4th millennium BC, the complexity of trade and administration in Mesopotamia outgrew human memory, writing became a more dependable method of recording and presenting transactions in a permanent form.
In both ancient Egypt and Mesoamerica, writing may have evolved through calendric and a political necessity for recording historical and environmental events. H. G. Wells argued that writing has the ability to "put agreements, commandments on record, it made the growth of states larger. It made a continuous historical consciousness possible; the command of the priest or king and his seal could go far beyond his sight and voice and could survive his death". The major writing systems—methods of inscription—broadly fall into five categories: logographic, alphabetic and ideographic. A sixth category, pictographic, is insufficient to represent language on its own, but forms the core of logographies. A logogram is a written character which represents a morpheme. A vast number of logograms are needed to write Chinese characters and Mayan, where a glyph may stand for a morpheme, a syllable, or both—. Many logograms have an ideographic component. For example, in Mayan, the glyph for "fin", pronounced "ka", was used to represent the syllable "ka" whenever the pronunciation of a logogram needed to be indicated, or when there was no logogram.
In Chinese, about 90% of characters are compounds of a semantic element called a radical with an existing character to indicate the pronunciation, called a phonetic. However, such phonetic elements complement the logographic elements, rather than vice versa; the main logographic system in use today is Chinese characters, used with some modification for the various languages or dialects of China and sometimes in Korean despite the fact that in South and North Korea, the phonetic Hangul system is used. A syllabary is a set of written symbols. A glyph in a syllabary represents a consonant followed by a vowel, or just a vowel alone, though in some scripts more complex syllables may have dedicated glyphs. Phonetically related syllables are not so indicated in the script. For instance, the syllable "ka" may look nothing like the syllable "ki", nor will syllables with the same vowels be similar. Syllabaries are best suited to languages with a simple syllable structure, such as Japanese. Other languages that use syllabic writing include the Linear B script for Mycenaean Greek.
Most logographic systems have a strong syllabic component. Ethiopic, though technically an abugida, has fused consonants and vowels together to the point where it is learned as if it were a syllabary. An alphabet is a set of symbols, each of which represents or represented a phoneme of the language. In a phonological alphabet, the phonemes and letters would correspond in two directions: a writer could predict the spelling of a word given its pronunciation, a speaker could predict the pronunciation of a word given its spelling; as languages evolve independently of their writing systems, writing systems have been borrowed for languages they were not designed for, the degree to which letters of an alphabet correspond to phonemes of a language varies from one language to another and within a single language. In most of the writing systems of the Middle East, it is only the consonants of a word that are written, although vowels may be indicated by the addition of various diacritical marks. Writing systems based on marking the consonant phonemes alone date back to the hieroglyphs of ancient Egypt.
Such systems are called abjads, derived from the Arabic word for "alphabet". In most of the alphabets of India and Southeast Asia, vowels are indicated through diacritics or modification of the shape of the consonant; these are called abugidas. Some abugidas, such as Ethiopic and Cree, are learned by children as syllabaries, so are called "syllabics". However, unlike true syllabaries, there is not an independent glyph for each syllable. Sometimes the term "alphabet" is restricted to systems with separate letters for consonants and vowels, such as the Latin alphabet, although abugidas and abjads may be accepted as alphabets; because of this use, Greek is considered to be the first alphabet. A featural script notates the building blocks of the phonemes. For instance, all sounds pronounced. In the Latin alphabet, this is acciden