Oral tradition

Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication wherein knowledge, art and cultural material is received and transmitted orally from one generation to another. The transmission is through speech or song and may include folktales, chants, prose or verses. In this way, it is possible for a society to transmit oral history, oral literature, oral law and other knowledge across generations without a writing system, or in parallel to a writing system. Religions such as Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism, for example, have used an oral tradition, in parallel to a writing system, to transmit their canonical scriptures, rituals and mythologies from one generation to the next. Oral tradition is information and knowledge held in common by a group of people, over many generations, it is not the same as testimony or oral history. In a general sense, "oral tradition" refers to the recall and transmission of a specific, preserved textual and cultural knowledge through vocal utterance; as an academic discipline, it refers both to a set of objects of study and a method by which they are studied.

The study of oral tradition is distinct from the academic discipline of oral history, the recording of personal memories and histories of those who experienced historical eras or events. Oral tradition is distinct from the study of orality defined as thought and its verbal expression in societies where the technologies of literacy are unfamiliar to most of the population. A folklore is a type of oral tradition, but knowledge other than folklore has been orally transmitted and thus preserved in human history. According to John Foley, oral tradition has been an ancient human tradition found in "all corners of the world". Modern archaeology has been unveiling evidence of the human efforts to preserve and transmit arts and knowledge that depended or on an oral tradition, across various cultures: The Judeo-Christian Bible reveals its oral traditional roots. Indeed, if these final decades of the millennium have taught us anything, it must be that oral tradition never was the other we accused it of being.

Rather, if the whole truth is told, oral tradition stands out as the single most dominant communicative technology of our species as both a historical fact and, in many areas still, a contemporary reality. In Asia, the transmission of folklore, mythologies as well as scriptures in ancient India, in different Indian religions, was by oral tradition, preserved with precision with the help of elaborate mnemonic techniques.. According to Goody, the Vedic texts involved both a written and oral tradition, calling it a "parallel products of a literate society". All ancient Greek literature, states Steve Reece, was to some degree oral in nature, the earliest literature was so. Homer's epic poetry, states Michael Gagarin, was composed and transmitted orally; as folklores and legends were performed in front of distant audiences, the singers would substitute the names in the stories with local characters or rulers to give the stories a local flavor and thus connect with the audience, but making the historicity embedded in the oral tradition as unreliable.

The lack of surviving texts about the Greek and Roman religious traditions have led scholars to presume that these were ritualistic and transmitted as oral traditions, but some scholars disagree that the complex rituals in the ancient Greek and Roman civilizations were an exclusive product of an oral tradition. The Torah and other ancient Jewish literature, the Judeo-Christian Bible and texts of early centuries of Christianity are rooted in an oral tradition, the term "People of the Book" is a medieval construct; this is evidenced, for example, by the multiple scriptural statements by Paul admitting "previously remembered tradition which he received" orally. Writing systems are not known to exist among Native North Americans before contact with Europeans. Oral storytelling traditions flourished in a context without the use of writing to record and preserve history, scientific knowledge, social practices. While some stories were told for amusement and leisure, most functioned as practical lessons from tribal experience applied to immediate moral, social and environmental issues.

Stories fuse fictional, supernatural, or otherwise exaggerated characters and circumstances with real emotions and morals as a means of teaching. Plots reflect real life situations and may be aimed at particular people known by the story's audience. In this way, social pressure could be exerted without directly causing embarrassment or social exclusion. For example, rather than yelling, Inuit parents might deter their children from wandering too close to the water's edge by telling a story about a sea monster with a pouch for children within its reach. One single story could provide dozens of lessons. Stories were used as a means to assess whether traditional cultural ideas and practices are effective in tackling contemporary circumstances or if they should be revised. Native American storytelling is a collaborative experience between storyteller and listeners. Native American tribes

Pregnancy vegetarianism

Pregnancy vegetarianism is the practice of adhering to a vegetarian diet during pregnancy. Vegetarianism is "the principle or practice of excluding all meat and fish, sometimes, in the case of vegans, all animal products from one's diet." Although some people frown upon pregnant women practicing vegetarianism, there is no evidence that vegetarianism—practiced properly—is unhealthful during pregnancy. There are millions of healthy babies born each year from vegetarian households. Most opponents of pregnancy vegetarianism are concerned about the pregnant woman's protein intake because vegetarians do not eat chicken, fish, or beef, it is recommended, for example, that a pregnant woman should aim to have something from the four main food groups everyday. These include fruit and vegetables, protein-rich foods and dairy foods. There are several vegetarian sources of protein: soy, cooked dried beans or peas, nuts or seeds, peanut butter, eggs. Vegetarians focus on foods that are left out of most non-meat pregnancy diets such as include beans, fresh dark green vegetables, whole grains which are good sources of protein.

The risks associated with vegetarianism, to say the problems vegetarians face, can be lessened by a careful diet. These problems that many associate with vegetarianism, such as anaemia, are in fact not due to the vegetarian diet alone, but more so to the fact that the subject in question has failed to supplement their body with the nutrition they require; when cutting out meats, some vegetarians fail to intake any other kinds of protein. To intake protein is important during pregnancy as one of the cause of the anaemia is iron deficiency and it varies by region; the iron-deficiency anaemia increases the risk of low weight in birth and transmits the iron-deficiency to infants. One benefit of adopting pregnancy vegetarianism, is the possibility of minimizing pregnancy weight gain; because being a vegetarian is a choice less chosen, many have described this control of weight as due to them being more conscious of their diet. A 2009 study showed that over 52 percent of pregnant women gain more weight than the recommended, 23-35 pounds.

During the second and third trimester, the average diet needs only to be increased by 300 calories, it may be argued that pregnancy vegetarianism may be a way of monitoring diet and calorie intake. According to dietitian Sarah Schenker, being a vegetarian during pregnancy is safe so long as a strict diet is being followed. By this she means that one must know what their body needs and make sure that they are taking in these nutrients. A healthy diet is important when pregnant as a vegetarian. Seeing a dietitian could be beneficial to one as they could provide guidelines which should be followed for a healthy lifestyle. Pregnant woman should get enough omega-3s, vitamin B12, calcium. All these elements could be found in vegetarian products. Omega-3s are found in dark leafy green vegetables, flax seed, walnuts and pinto beans and squash. Calcium is found in fortified plant-based drinks. Moreover, pregnant woman should get enough zinc and iron; these elements are found in beans. Vegetables and fruits should be eaten every day more than five times in order to get enough vitamins.

However, as vegetarians have a greater exposure to phytoestrogens than omnivores, there are studies which support the possibility of negative effect on the developing male reproductive system and can increase the risk of the baby developing birth defects such as hypospadias

1949 NFL Championship Game

The 1949 National Football League Championship Game was the 17th title game for the National Football League, played on December 18 at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum in Los Angeles, California. It is remembered for the driving rain, its paid attendance was 27,980, with only 22,245 in the stadium. The game featured the Eastern Division champion Philadelphia Eagles, the defending NFL champions, against the Los Angeles Rams, winners of the Western Division; this was the first NFL title game played in the western United States. The Rams had last appeared in a title game in 1945, a victory and the franchise's final game in Cleveland; the Eagles were favored by a touchdown, won 14–0 for their second consecutive shutout in the title game. Running back Steve Van Buren rushed for 196 yards on 31 carries for the Eagles and their defense held the Rams to just 21 yards on the ground. Philadelphia head coach Earle "Greasy" Neale did not like to fly, so the Eagles traveled to the West Coast by train. On the way west, they stopped in Illinois for a workout at Stagg Field at the University of Chicago on Wednesday morning.

Sunday, December 18, 1949 Kickoff: 1:30 p.m. PST First quarter no scoring Second quarter PHI - Pete Pihos 31-yard pass from Tommy Thompson 7–0 PHI Third quarter PHI - Leo Skladany 2-yard block punt return 14–0 PHI Fourth quarter no scoring The NFL added the fifth official, the back judge, in 1947; the Eagles players earned $1,090 each and the Rams got $789, about one-third of what was expected with fair weather. Anticipating 70,000 or more in attendance and a large payoff from the gate, the players and owners wanted to postpone the game for a week, but were overridden by Commissioner Bert Bell, reached at home in Philadelphia. Ticket prices were five dollars between $3.60 elsewhere. This was the first NFL game, broadcast on television, although only on the West Coast, under the auspices of Bell; the traditional 60–40 player bonus for playing in a championship game was augmented by $14,000 from the NFL. Although sources are unclear, a source writes. Lyons, Robert S.. On Any Given Sunday, A Life of Bert Bell.

Philadelphia: Temple University Press. 978-1-59213-731-2 Coenen, Craig R.. From Sandlots to the Super Bowl: The National Football League, 1920–1967. Knoxville, TN: The University of Tennessee Press. ISBN 1-57233-447-9 1949 NFL Championship Game