Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
The Sahara is a desert located on the African continent. It is the largest hot desert in the world, the third largest desert overall after Antarctica and the Arctic, its area of 9,200,000 square kilometres is comparable to the area of the United States. The name'Sahara' is derived from a dialectal Arabic word for ṣaḥra; the desert comprises much of North Africa, excluding the fertile region on the Mediterranean Sea coast, the Atlas Mountains of the Maghreb, the Nile Valley in Egypt and Sudan. It stretches from the Red Sea in the east and the Mediterranean in the north to the Atlantic Ocean in the west, where the landscape changes from desert to coastal plains. To the south, it is bounded by the Sahel, a belt of semi-arid tropical savanna around the Niger River valley and the Sudan Region of Sub-Saharan Africa; the Sahara can be divided into several regions including: the western Sahara, the central Ahaggar Mountains, the Tibesti Mountains, the Aïr Mountains, the Ténéré desert, the Libyan Desert.
For several hundred thousand years, the Sahara has alternated between desert and savanna grassland in a 41,000 year cycle caused by the precession of the Earth's axis as it rotates around the Sun, which changes the location of the North African Monsoon. The area is next expected to become green in about 15,000 years. There is a suggestion that the last time that the Sahara was converted from savanna to desert it was due to overgrazing by the cattle of the local population; the Sahara covers large parts of Algeria, Egypt, Mali, Niger, Western Sahara and Tunisia. It covers 9 million square kilometres, amounting to 31% of Africa. If all areas with a mean annual precipitation of less than 250 mm were included, the Sahara would be 11 million square kilometres, it is one of three distinct physiographic provinces of the African massive physiographic division. The Sahara is rocky hamada. Wind or rare rainfall shape the desert features: sand dunes, dune fields, sand seas, stone plateaus, gravel plains, dry valleys, dry lakes, salt flats.
Unusual landforms include the Richat Structure in Mauritania. Several dissected mountains, many volcanic, rise from the desert, including the Aïr Mountains, Ahaggar Mountains, Saharan Atlas, Tibesti Mountains, Adrar des Iforas, the Red Sea Hills; the highest peak in the Sahara is Emi Koussi, a shield volcano in the Tibesti range of northern Chad. The central Sahara is hyperarid, with sparse vegetation; the northern and southern reaches of the desert, along with the highlands, have areas of sparse grassland and desert shrub, with trees and taller shrubs in wadis, where moisture collects. In the central, hyperarid region, there are many subdivisions of the great desert: Tanezrouft, the Ténéré, the Libyan Desert, the Eastern Desert, the Nubian Desert and others; these arid areas receive no rain for years. To the north, the Sahara skirts the Mediterranean Sea in Egypt and portions of Libya, but in Cyrenaica and the Maghreb, the Sahara borders the Mediterranean forest and scrub eco-regions of northern Africa, all of which have a Mediterranean climate characterized by hot summers and cool and rainy winters.
According to the botanical criteria of Frank White and geographer Robert Capot-Rey, the northern limit of the Sahara corresponds to the northern limit of date palm cultivation and the southern limit of the range of esparto, a grass typical of the Mediterranean climate portion of the Maghreb and Iberia. The northern limit corresponds to the 100 mm isohyet of annual precipitation. To the south, the Sahara is bounded by the Sahel, a belt of dry tropical savanna with a summer rainy season that extends across Africa from east to west; the southern limit of the Sahara is indicated botanically by the southern limit of Cornulaca monacantha, or northern limit of Cenchrus biflorus, a grass typical of the Sahel. According to climatic criteria, the southern limit of the Sahara corresponds to the 150 mm isohyet of annual precipitation. Important cities located in the Sahara include the capital of Mauritania; the Sahara is the world's largest low-latitude hot desert. It is located in the horse latitudes under the subtropical ridge, a significant belt of semi-permanent subtropical warm-core high pressure where the air from upper levels of the troposphere tends to sink towards the ground.
This steady descending airflow causes a drying effect in the upper troposphere. The sinking air prevents evaporating water from rising, therefore prevents adiabatic cooling, which makes cloud formation difficult to nearly impossible; the permanent dissolution of clouds allows thermal radiation. The stability of the atmosphere above the desert prevents any convective overturning, thus making rainfall non-existent; as a consequence, the weather tends to be sunny and stable with a minimal chance of rainfall. Subsiding, dry air masses associated with subtropical high-pressure systems are unfavorable for the development of convectional showers; the subtropical ridge is the predominant factor that explains the hot desert climate (Köppen climate classifica
Tiaret is a major city in central Algeria that gives its name to the wider farming region of Tiaret Province. Both the town and region lie south-west of the capital of Algiers in the western region of the Hautes Plaines, in the Tell Atlas, about 150 km from the Mediterranean coast, it is served by Abdelhafid Boussouf Bou Chekif Airport. The name means "Lioness" in the Berber language, a reference to the Barbary lions that lived in this region. Maghrebian place names like Oran which means "lion", Souk Ahras which means "Market of Lions" have the same etymological source; the town had a population of 178,915 in 2008. The town covered around 20.086.62 km² A 1992 study by the University of Nice Sophia Antipolis reported significant areas contaminated by industrial pollution, growing squatter settlements on the periphery. The region is predominantly one of agriculture. There is a large airfield with a terminal at Abdelhafid Boussouf; the province suffered massacres and bombings during the Algerian Civil War, though less so than areas closer to Algiers.
The Africa Institute reported in a May, 2004 monograph that Tiaret's more "arid and mountainous landscape has facilitated terrorist activities". The MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base reports that Tiaret "is a frequent site of attacks by the Salafist Group for Call and Combat"; the GSPC is "believed to have close ties to Osama bin Laden" and Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, is reported to be active in Italy. The province has been inhabited since antiquity, there are numerous megalithic monuments, it served as Tingartia. Near Tiaret are the jedars, which are ancient mausoleums; the edifices demonstrate that the area was inhabited during the Late Antiquity by a Berber tribe that could build in stone. Tiaret grew up as a site under the domination of small Berber tribal kingdoms. However, this capital may have been 10 km west of the present-day Tiaret, it was first founded by an Ibadi theologian from Greater Iran. Tiaret was said to be free-thinking and democratic, being a centre for scholarship that permitted a wide range of sects and movements, notably the Mu'tazila.
There were many Jews living in the area until at least the 10th century, including the scholar and doctor Judah ibn Kuraish who became the doctor to the Emir of Fes. Tiaret occupies a strategic mountain pass at 3,552 feet, was thus a key to dominating the central Maghreb. From the start of the 8th century, it was the key northern terminus of the West African branch of the slave trade; as such, it offered a lucrative income from taxes on the trade, was a desirable prize. From the year 911 Tiaret was fought over by a number of tribes, being first captured by Massala ibn Habbus of the Miknasas in the year 911, in alliance with the Fatimid Caliphate. In 933, it was in the hands of the Fatimids. After 933 Tiaret ceased to be the capital of a separate state. Most of the population was banished to Ouargla and escaped to the inhospitable M'zab. From 933 Tiaret attracted many Khawarij Muslim settlers from Iraq. From 933 it was administered as part of the Kingdom of Tlemcen, in the 16th century fell to the Ottoman Empire.
In 1843 it fell to the French. The modern town of Tiaret is built around a French redoubt of 1845; the new town attracted many settlers from the area flourished. A 200 km narrow gauge railway arrived in 1889, connecting the town to Mostaganem - today, this rail line is defunct. Thirty kilometres S. S. W. of Tiaret are the sepulchral monuments known as the Jedars. The name is given to a number of sepulchral monuments placed on hill-tops. A rectangular or square podium is in each case surmounted by a pyramid; the tombs date from the 5th to the 7th century, lie in two distinct groups between Tiaret and Frenda. At Mechra-Sfa, a peninsula in the valley of the river Mina not far from Tiaret, are said to be'vast numbers' of megalithic monuments. In Tiaret, there is a Mediterranean climate. In winter there is more rainfall than in summer; the Köppen-Geiger climate classification is Csa. The average annual temperature in Tiaret is 14.7 °C. About 529 mm of precipitation falls annually. Bourouiba, Rachid. Cités disparus: Tahert, Achir, Kalaâ des Béni-Hammad.
Collection Art et Culture, 14. Algiers Ministère de l'information.. Belkhodja, A.. Tiaret, memoire d'une ville. Tiaret, A. Belkhodja.. Blanchard, Raoul.. Amenagement & Gestion Du Territoire, Ou, L'apport Des Images-Satellite, De La Geoinfographique Et Du Terrain: Applications Aux Paysages Vegetaux De L'Algerie Steppique & Substeppique Et Aux Espaces Construits 1990-1992. Laboratoire d'analyse spatiale. Nice, France.. Cadenat, Pierre.. Indication de quelques stations préhistoriques de la région de Tiaret Société de géographie et d'archéologie de la Province d'Oran. Extrait de son Bulletin, tome 59, fascicule 209, 1938.. Tiaret seen from the air Tiaret city plan Old photos and postcards of French Tiaret
Sidi Bel Abbès
Sidi Bel Abbès called Bel Abbès is capital of the Sidi Bel Abbès wilaya, Algeria. It is named after Sidi bel Abbass, a Muslim marabout or noble man, buried there; the city is the commercial center of an important area of vineyards, market gardens and grain fields. It was surrounded by a wall with four gates and there is a university there. Sidi Bel Abbès is 75 kilometers from the Mediterranean Sea; the present city, on the Wadi Chelif River, developed around a French camp built in 1843. In 1849 a planned agricultural town was established around the existing military post. From the 1830s until 1962 the city was associated with the French Foreign Legion, being the location of its basic training camp, the headquarters of its 1st Foreign Regiment. In the late 1890s the town, described as being of Spanish appearance, had a civilian population of about 30,000; the main buildings were in the French military district of the Quartier Vienot. The training centre of the modern Algerian National Gendarmerie is located in Sidi Bel Abbès.
In the 1930s much of the old city walls were demolished. Wide boulevards and squares replaced the traditional quarters, causing the town to lose much of its former character; the city sits astride both sides of the Mekerra River, a Lake'Sidi Mohamed' Benali Which is an important reserve of water in the area. Sidi Bel Abbès has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate; the economy centers on agriculture the production of cereals such as wheat and barley and the grape industry. A farm machine manufacturing complex is located there. Sidi Bel Abbès is well connected to other Algerian cities by railroads. Oran is 70 kilometers north and Tlemcen is 90 kilometers west. A light rail line was opened in 2017; the closest international airport is Oran Es Sénia, but the city is served by a domestic one: Sidi Bel Abbès Airport. René Raphaël Viviani was a French politician of the Third Republic, who served as Prime Minister for the first year of World War I. Gaston Maurice Julia Mathematician famous for "Julia Set" in Chaos Theory.
Marcel Cerdan: French boxer. Djillali Liabes: Famous Algerian Sociologist, philosopher, Dr. status in literature and humanities. Jean Boyer, French organist Mohammed Bedjaoui: Foreign minister. Ex Minister of Justice, Ambassador to France and Algerian permanent representative to the UN, he was a judge on the International Court of Justice at The Hague. Brigitte Giraud, French writer Kad Merad: actor in Bienvenue chez les Ch'tis Sidi Bel Abbès on Facebook Media related to Sidi Bel Abbès at Wikimedia Commons Sidi Bel Abbès on Facebook
Tlemcen is a city in north-western Algeria, the capital of the province of the same name. The city has developed leather and textile industries, which it ships to the port of Rashgun for export, it had a population of 140,158 at the 2008 census. The origin of the name Tlemcen is uncertain. One theory is that it is the feminine plural of Talmest, which means a certain type of well which forms a small lake. Another theory traces the name to the Berber words Thala Imsan, which can mean "the dry spring" or "the fountain of lions"; the name is sometimes spelled Tlemsan, or Tilimsen. Tlemcen became a military outpost of the Romans in the 2nd century CE under the name of Pomaria, it was an important city in the North Africa see of the Roman Catholic Church, where it was the center of a diocese. Its bishop, was a prominent representative at the Council of Carthage, its bishop Honoratus was exiled in 484 by the Vandal king Huneric for denying Arianism, it was a center of a large Christian population for many centuries after the city's Arab conquest in 708 AD.
In the eighth century and the ninth century, the city became a Kingdom of Banu Ifran of the Kharijite sufri. These same Berber Kharijis began to develop various small Saharan oases and to link them into regular trans-Saharan caravan routes terminating at Tlemcen—beginning a process that would determine Tlemcen's historical role for all of the next millennium. In 1082 the Almoravid leader Yusuf ibn Tashfin founded the city of Tagrart, which merged with the existing settlement, now called Agadir and since became known as Tlemcen. Tlemcen passed from Almoravid to Almohad control in the mid-twelfth century. However, in the early thirteenth century, Ibn Ghaniya attempted to restore Almoravid control of the Maghreb. In about 1209, the region around Tlemcen was devastated by retreating Almoravid forces, not long before their final defeat by the Almohads at the Battle of Jebel Nafusa in 1210. Despite the destruction of Tlemcen's already-feeble agricultural base, Tlemcen rose to prominence as a major trading and administrative center in the region under the succeeding reign of the Almohads.
After the end of Almohad rule during the 1230s, Tlemcen became the capital of one of three successor states, the Zayyanid Kingdom of Tlemcen. It was thereafter ruled for centuries by successive Zayyanid sultans, its flag was a white crescent pointing upwards on a blue field. During the Middle Ages, Tlemcen not only served as a trading city connecting the "coastal" route across the Maghreb with the trans-Saharan caravan routes, but housed a European trading center which connected African and European merchants. In particular, Tlemcen was one of the points. Tlemcen was integrated into the European financial system. So, for example, Genoese bills of exchange circulated there, at least among merchants not subject to religious prohibitions. At the peak of its success, in the first half of the fourteenth century, Tlemcen was a city of 40,000 inhabitants, it housed several well-known madrasas and numerous wealthy religious foundations, becoming the principal intellectual center of the central Maghreb.
At the souq around the Great Mosque, merchants sold woolen fabrics and rugs from the East and gold from across the Sahara, local earthenware and leather goods, a variety of Mediterranean maritime goods "redirected" to Tlemcen by corsairs—in addition to the intentional European imports available at the funduk. Merchant houses based in Tlemcen, such as the al-Makkari maintained regular branch offices in Mali and the Sudan. In the fourteenth century, the city twice fell under the rule of the Marinid sultan, Abu al-Hasan Ali and his son Abu'Inan. In both cases, the Marinids found; these episodes appear to have marked the beginning of the end. Over the following two centuries, Zayyanid Tlemcen was intermittently a vassal of Ifriqiya, Maghrib al-Aksa, or Aragon; when the Spanish took the city of Oran from the kingdom in 1509, continuous pressure from the Berbers prompted the Spanish to attempt a counterattack against the city of Tlemcen, deemed by the Papacy to be a crusade. The Spanish failed to take the city in the first attack, although the strategic vulnerability of Tlemcen caused the kingdom's weight to shift toward the safer and more fortified corsair base at Algiers.
The ruler of Tlemcen is reported to have been advised by a Jewish viceroy named Abraham, who, in the time of the Inquisition of Torquemada, opened the gates of Tlemcen to Jewish and Muslim refugees fleeing Spain. Abraham is said to have supported them with his own money and with the tolerance of the king of Tlemcen. In 1554, the kingdom of Tlemcen came under Ottoman rule, which deposed the Saadi Moroccan rule but restored by Moroccans in 1556; the Ottomans were fighting a naval war against the Spaniards across the Mediterranean, the Kingdom of Tlemcen became another vassal of the Sultan in Constantinople. Tlemcen and the Algerian provinces regained effective independence in their own affairs in 1671, although Tlemcen was no longer a government seat as before; the Spanish were evicted from Oran in 1792, but thirty years they were replaced by the French, who seized Algiers. A French fleet bombarded Algiers in 1830, at which point the dey capitulated to French colonial rule.
Mascara is the capital city of Mascara Province, Algeria, in northwestern Algeria. It has 150,000 inhabitants, it was founded in the 10th century by the Banu Ifran, a Berber tribe and was the capital city of Emir Abd al-Qadir, a leader of the Algerian resistance to early French colonial rule. Mascara is commercial and a market centre, its trade is centered on leather goods and olive oil, but it is famous for its good wine. It has good rail connections with other urban centres of Algeria. Relizane is 65 kilometres northeast, Sidi Bel Abbes 90 km southwest, Oran 105 kkm northwest and Saïda 80 km south. Mascara has two parts, a newer French area, an older Muslim one. Large parts of the town lie inside the ruins of its ancient ramparts; the city is home of the former Algerian football star. The word mascara is the francization of the Arabic word معسكر, meaning'camp'. Due to French colonization at that time, the city's name has adopted the French version as an official name; the cosmetic brand mascara is unrelated etymologically.
1701: Ottomans built a military garrison in the town. Many Muslims with Andalucian origins were settled there by the Ottomans. 1708: The Muslim tribes of Mascara led by the bey Mustapha Ben Youcef captured the city of Oran and expelled the Spaniards while they were busy in the War of the Spanish Succession. 1732: Spain regains control of Oran. 1790: Famine and sickness had begun to aggravate the situation in Oran when the bey of Mascara appeared before the town with 30,000 men. The Spanish commander held out till August 1791, when the Spanish government, having made terms with the bey of Algiers, was allowed to set sail for Spain with their guns and ammunition; the bey Mohammed took possession of Oran in March 1792, made it his residence instead of Mascara. 1832: Abd al-Qadir makes Mascara his headquarters. 1835: Mascara is destroyed by the French. 1841: The French establish full control over Mascara. August 18, 1994: An earthquake measuring 5.7 on the moment magnitude scale and having a maximum MSK intensity of VIII leaves 171 people dead in Mascara.
Mascara is twinned with: Bursa, Turkey Elkader, United States Tifariti, Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic
Subprefectures in France
In France, a subprefecture is the administrative center of a departmental arrondissement that does not contain the prefecture for its department. The term applies to the building that houses the administrative headquarters for an arrondissement; the civil servant in charge of a subprefecture is the subprefect, assisted by a general secretary. Between May 1982 and February 1988, subprefects were known instead by the title commissaire adjoint de la République. Where the administration of an arrondissement is carried out from a prefecture, the general secretary to the prefect carries out duties equivalent to those of the subprefect; the municipal arrondissements of Paris and Marseille are divisions of the city rather than the prefecture, so are not arrondissements in the same sense. List of subprefectures of France List of arrondissements of France