Orange is a commune in the Vaucluse Department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France, about 21 km north of Avignon. It has a agricultural economy. Roman Orange was founded in 35 BC by veterans of the second legion as Arausio, or Colonia Julia Firma Secundanorum Arausio in full, "the Julian colony of Arausio established by the soldiers of the second legion." The name was unrelated to that of the orange fruit, but was conflated with it. A previous Celtic settlement with that name existed in the same place, a major battle, known as the Battle of Arausio, had been fought in 105 BC between two Roman armies and the Cimbri and Teutones tribes. Arausio was well-endowed with civic monuments, it was the capital of a wide area of northern Provence, parcelled up into lots for the Roman colonists. "Orange of two thousand years ago was a miniature Rome, complete with many of the public buildings that would have been familiar to a citizen of the Roman Empire, except that the scale of the buildings had been reduced – a smaller theater to accommodate a smaller population, for example."
It is found in both the Tabula Le cadastre d'Orange maps. The town prospered, but was sacked by the Visigoths in 412, it had, by become Christianized, from the end of the third century constituted the Ancient Diocese of Orange. No longer a residential bishopric, Arausio, as it is called in Latin, is today listed by the Roman Catholic Church as a titular see, it hosted two important synods, in 441 and 529. The Second Council of Orange was of importance in condemning what came to be called Semipelagianism; the sovereign Carolingian counts of Orange had their origin in the eighth century, passed into the family of the lords of Baux. From the 12th century, Orange was raised to a minor principality, the Principality of Orange, as a fief of the Holy Roman Empire. During this period, the town and the principality of Orange belonged to the administration and province of Dauphiné; when William the Silent, count of Nassau, with estates in the Netherlands, inherited the title Prince of Orange in 1544, the principality was incorporated into the holdings of what became the House of Orange-Nassau.
This pitched it into the Protestant side in the Wars of Religion, during which the town was badly damaged. In 1568, the Eighty Years' War began with William as stadtholder leading the bid for independence from Spain. William the Silent was assassinated in Delft in 1584, his son, Maurice of Nassau, with the help of Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, solidified the independence of the Dutch republic. The United Provinces survived to become the Netherlands, still ruled by the House of Orange-Nassau. William, Prince of Orange, ruled England as William III of England. Orange gave its name to other Dutch-influenced parts of the world, such as the Oranges in New Jersey and the Orange Free State in South Africa; the city remained part of scattered Nassau holdings until it was captured by the forces of Louis XIV during his wars of the late 17th century. The city was occupied by France in 1673, 1679, 1690, 1697 and 1702-1713 before it was ceded to France in 1713 under the Treaty of Utrecht. Following the French Revolution of 1789, Orange was absorbed into the French département of Drôme Bouches-du-Rhône finally Vaucluse.
However, the title remained with the Dutch princes of Orange. Orange attracted international attention in 1995, when it elected a member of Front National, Jacques Bompard, as its mayor. Bompard left the FN in 2005 and became a member of the conservative Movement for France until 2010. Orange was home to the French Foreign Legion's armored First Foreign Cavalry Regiment; the regiment moved to Carpiagne on July 10, 2014. The city of Orange is the 3rd largest town of Vaucluse by population after Carpentras. In 2013, the municipality had 29,193 residents; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known throughout the population censuses carried out in the town since 1793. From the twenty-first century, censuses of municipalities with more than 10 000 inhabitants are held annually as a result of a sample survey, unlike other cities that have a real census every five years The town is renowned for its Roman architecture, its Roman theatre, the Théâtre antique d'Orange, is described as the most impressive still existing in Europe.
The fine Triumphal Arch of Orange is said to date from the time of Augustus or Tiberius, but is much perhaps Severan. The arch and surroundings were listed in 1981 by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site; the Musée displays the biggest cadastral Roman maps recovered, etched on marble. They cover the area between Orange, Nîmes, Montélimar. In 1869, the Roman theatre has been the site of a music festival; the festival, given the name Chorégies d'Orange in 1902, has been held annually since, is now famous as an international opera festival. In 1971, the "New Chorégies" became an overnight, international success. Many top international opera singers have performed in the theatre, such as Barbara Hendricks, Plácido Domingo, Montserrat Caballé, Roberto Alagna, René Pape and Inva Mula. Operas such as Tosca, Aida and Carmen have been staged here, many with a sumptuous staging and also
"L'Orange" is a 1964 song recorded by French singer and songwriter Gilbert Bécaud. It was covered in 2003 by the contestants of the French third version of the TV reality show Star Academy, achieved a great success in France and Belgium, where it topped the chart for several weeks; as of August 2014, the song was the 20th best-selling single of the 21st century in France, with 560,000 units sold. In January 2004, thanks to the cover version, the original one by Gilbert Bécaud was charted for five weeks on the French Singles Chart, but peaked only at #89; the B-side of the CD single is "Wot!", a cover version of Captain Sensible's 1980s hit. In the video, the participants of the Star Academy 3 perform the song in a market, Michal, the finalist, is accused of having robbed an orange. CD single"L'Orange" — 2:51 "Wot" — 3:07
War of the Oranges
The War of the Oranges was a brief conflict in 1801 in which Spanish forces, instigated by the government of France, supported by the French military, invaded Portugal. It was a precursor to the Peninsular Wars, resulting in the Treaty of Badajoz, the loss of Portuguese territory, in particular Olivenza, as well as setting the stage for the complete invasion of the Iberian Peninsula by French forces. In 1800, First Consul Bonaparte and his ally, the Spanish prime-minister and Generalissimo Manuel de Godoy demanded Portugal, the last British ally on the continent, to break her alliance with Britain. Portugal refused to cede, and, in April 1801, French troops arrived in the country, they were bolstered by Spanish troops under the command of Manuel de Godoy. Godoy had, under the Spanish Army of Extremadura, with five divisions; the Spanish attack to Portugal started on the early morning of the 20 May, focused on the Portuguese border region that included the main Garrison Town and Fortifications of Elvas and the smaller fortified towns of Campo Maior, Olivença and Juromenha.
The main force of the Spanish Army advanced to Elvas, while two divisions advanced to Campo Maior and another division advanced to Olivença and Juromenha. Without having their fortifications complete and defended only by a few hundred soldiers of the militias, Olivença and nearby Juromenha surrendered to the Spanish forces; the Portuguese garrison of Campo Maior - under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Dias Azevedo - resisted the assault for 17 days, forcing the Spanish to maintain two entire divisions in its siege. The main Spanish force - under the direct command of Godoy - tried to assault Elvas, but was repelled by the strong Portuguese garrison commanded by General Francisco de Noronha; the Spanish troops withdrew to a safe distance from the fortress, with Godoy not daring to attack it again until the end of the war. The war entered in a stalemate, with most of the Spanish forces hold in sieges of fortresses and the rest not being able to face the blockade made by the main core of the Portuguese Army, in order to advance further inside Portugal.
Despite this, Godoy picked oranges from the outside of Elvas and sent them to the Queen of Spain with the message that he would proceed to Lisbon. Thus, the conflict became known as the "War of the Oranges". On June 6, 1801, Portugal agreed to the tenets of the Treaty of Badajoz. Portugal agreed to close its ports to English ships, to give commercial concessions to France, to cede Olivenza to Spain and to pay an indemnity. On September 29, 1801, Portugal agreed to both maintaining the tenets of the Treaty of Badajoz and the alterations made to it, which were all embodied within the Treaty of Madrid. In response, from July 1801 until the signing of the Peace of Amiens in 1802, a British force of 3,500 men under Colonel William Henry Clinton occupied the Portuguese island of Madeira in the north Atlantic Ocean. Intended to forestall any French or Spanish attack on the island, the occupation took place with the tacit consent of the Portuguese. After the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805, in which the Franco-Spanish fleet lost to Britain, the government of Portugal restored relations with its old ally.
This led France to declare the Peace of Badajoz treaty cancelled, again marching on Portugal and invading it, starting the Peninsular War, that lasted from 1807 to 1810. The French invasion forced the transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil in 1807, with Rio de Janeiro becoming the capital of the Portuguese Monarchy. From Rio de Janeiro, the Portuguese monarch denounced the Treaty of Badajoz as having been signed under coercion, declaring it "null and ineffective". On, the Treaty of Vienna - signed by Spain in 1817 - stated that the winning countries are to "endeavour with the mightiest conciliatory effort to return Olivença to Portuguese authority". After the Napoleonic Wars, the Congress of Vienna, neither Spain nor Portugal gave back the territories acquired both in America and the Peninsula. "War of the Oranges". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2005. Vicente, António Pedro. Guerra Peninsular: História de Portugal Guerras e Campanhas Militares. Lisbon, Portugal: Academia Portuguesa da História/Quidnovi.
History of Portugal Kingdom of Northern Lusitania Disputed status of Olivenza Timeline of Portuguese history
Orange, New South Wales
Orange is a city in the Central West region of New South Wales, Australia. It is 254 kilometres west of Sydney, at an altitude of 862 metres. Orange had an estimated urban population of 39,755 as of June 2016 making the city a significant regional centre. A significant nearby landmark is Mount Canobolas with a peak elevation of 1,395 metres AHD and commanding views of the district. Orange is the birthplace of poets Banjo Paterson and Kenneth Slessor, although Paterson lived in Orange for only a short time as an infant. Walter W. Stone, book publisher and passionate supporter of Australian literature, was born in Orange; the first Australian Touring Car Championship, known today as V8 Supercar Championship Series, was held at the Gnoo Blas Motor Racing Circuit in 1960. In 1822 Captain Percy Simpson marched into the Wellington District and established a convict settlement, called "Blackman's Swamp" after James Blackman. In the late 1820s, the surveyor J. B. Richards worked on a survey of the Macquarie River below Bathurst and of the road to Wellington.
On a plan dated 1829, he indicated a village reserve, in the parish of Orange. Sir Thomas Mitchell named the parish Orange, as he had been an associate of the Prince of Orange in the Peninsular War, when both were aides-de-camp to the Duke of Wellington, whose title was bestowed on the valley to the west by Oxley. Initial occupation by British graziers began in late 1829, tiny settlements turned into larger towns as properties came into connection with the road. In 1844, the surveyor Davidson was sent to check on encroachments onto the land reserved for a village, to advise on the location for a township, his choices were Pretty Plains, or Blackman's Swamp. Blackman's Swamp was chosen, it was proclaimed a village and named Orange by Major Thomas Mitchell in 1846 in honor of Prince William of Orange. At nearby Ophir, a significant gold find in Australia was made in 1851, resulting in a sporadic population movement, known as the Australian gold rush. Additional gold finds in nearby areas led to the establishment of Orange as a central trading centre for the gold.
The growth of Orange continued as the conditions were well suited for agriculture, in 1860 it was proclaimed a municipality. The railway from Sydney reached Orange in 1877. In 1946, 100 years after it was first being established as a village, Orange was proclaimed as a minor city. According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 37,182 people in the Orange urban centre. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 6.6% of the population. 83.2% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 1.6%, India 1.0%, New Zealand 0.9%, Philippines 0.5% and China 0.4%. 87.3% of people only spoke English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Malayalam 0.7%, Mandarin 0.4%, Italian 0.3% and Nepali 0.3%. The most common responses for religion were Catholic 30.1%, No Religion 22.0% and Anglican 20.2%. Of the employed people in Orange, 6.2% worked in Hospitals. Other major industries of employment included Gold Ore Mining 4.2%, State Government Administration 3.4%, Other Social Assistance Services 3.2% and Supermarket and Grocery Stores 2.5%.
Owing to its altitude, Orange has a temperate oceanic climate, with warm summers and cool winters with frequent morning frosts and light to moderate, sometimes heavy snowfalls. The city is wet for an inland location owing to orographic effects from Mount Canobolas during the cooler months when snow falls. Compared with most population centres in Australia it has colder winters in terms of its daytime maximum temperatures, owing chiefly to its south-westerly exposure. In summer, the average maximum temperatures are lower than in most inland centres, on account of its elevation. Owing to its inland location, the humidity is low in the summer months with the dewpoint around 10 °C. Having 99.8 clear days annually, it is still cloudier than the coastal areas of Sydney and Wollongong, with a marked lack of sunshine in winter compared to summer The climate has enabled the area to be a major apple and pear producer, more a centre for cool-weather wine production. Orange is a well-known fruit growing district, produces apples and many stone fruits such as cherries, peaches and plums.
In recent years, a large number of vineyards have been planted in the area for expanding wine production. The growth of this wine industry, coupled with the further development of Orange as a gourmet food capital, has ensured Orange's status as a prominent tourism destination. Other large industries include: Cadia gold mine is a large open cut gold and copper mine located about 20 kilometres south of Orange; the mine has been developed throughout the 1990s and is a major employer in the region with an expected lifespan of several decades. Cadia is the second largest open-cut mine in Australia, following the Super Pit at Kalgoorlie, Western Australia. Large mineral deposits are being uncovered from the more developed Ridgeway underground mine, adjacent to the Cadia Mine. An Electrolux white goods factory, closed in 2017. Ora
Orange Morocco is one of three licensed telecommunications operators in Morocco. Its headquarters is in Casablanca; the first contract of getting a license was in 1999, the commercial launching of the operations started on March 29, 2000. The company's name was changed from Méditel to Orange Morocco on 8 December 2016. Orange is a multi-service operator offering consumer and business solutions using various technologies including GSM, WIMAX, GPRS and was one of the first operators in the world to offer HSDPA mobile 3G+ internet solutions; the company has been ranked the 12th largest company in Morocco and employs close to 1000 people directly and more than 12 000 indirectly. The initial ownership structure was composed of five shareholders: Portugal Telecom, Telefónica, FinanceCom, the first Moroccan financial group, the Moroccan industrial group HoldCo (CDG and Akwa Group; the telecommunication provider sustained large parts of markets being a critical rival to the previous Monopole Maroc Telecom as it gained a competitive advantage in term of prices and customers loyalty, the signal cover however was still in poor progress compared to their rival, by the end of 2008, Méditel counted 7.8 million users with revenues over 5 Billion MAD and EBITDA of more than 2.3 Billion MAD.
It is the second Moroccan mobile operator, following Maroc Telecom, the leader in the Moroccan market. However, in September 2009, Portugal Telecom and Telefónica sold their stakes to local investors. FinanceCom and CDG own equal parts. In 2010, France Télécom bought 40 percent of Moroccan telecoms operator Meditel for €640 million. In 2015, Orange Group increased its stake in Meditel in order to boost the brand's presence in the Middle East and in Africa. In 2016, Orange Morocco established a MAD5.3 billion revenues
Principality of Orange
The Principality of Orange was, from 1163 to 1713, a feudal state in Provence, in the south of modern-day France, on the east bank of the river Rhone, north of the city of Avignon, surrounded by the independent papal state of Comtat Venaissin. It was constituted in 1163, when Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I elevated the Burgundian County of Orange to a sovereign principality within the Empire; the principality became part of the scattered holdings of the house of Orange-Nassau from the time that William the Silent inherited the title of Prince of Orange from his cousin in 1544, until it was ceded to France in 1713 under the Treaty of Utrecht. Although permanently lost by the Nassaus this fief gave its name to the extant Royal House of the Netherlands; the area of the principality was 12 miles long by 9 miles wide, or 108 square miles. The Carolingian counts of Orange had their origin in the 8th century, the fief passed into the family of the lords of Baux; the Baux counts of Orange became independent with the breakup of the Kingdom of Arles after 1033.
In 1163 Orange was raised as a fief of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1365, Orange university was founded by Charles IV when he was in Arles for his coronation as king of Arles. In 1431 the Count of Provence waived taxation duties for Orange's rulers in exchange for liquid assets to be used for a ransom; the town and principality of Orange was a part of administration and province of Dauphiné. In 1544, William the Silent, count of Nassau, with large properties in the Netherlands, inherited the principality. William, 11 years old at the time, was the cousin of René of Châlon who died without an heir when he was shot at St. Dizier in 1544 during the Franco-Imperial wars. René, it turned out, willed his entire fortune to this young relative. Among those titles and estates was the Principality of Orange. René's mother, had held the title prior to it being passed to young William since Philibert de Châlon was her brother; when William inherited the Principality, it was incorporated into the holdings of what became the House of Orange.
This pitched it into the Protestant side in the Wars of Religion, during which the town was badly damaged. In 1568 the Eighty Years' War began with William as Stadtholder of Holland leading the bid for independence of the Netherlands from Spain. William the Silent was assassinated in Delft in 1584, it was his son, Maurice of Nassau, with the help of Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, who solidified the independence of the Dutch republic. As an independent enclave within France, Orange became an attractive destination for Protestants and a Huguenot stronghold. William III of Orange, who ruled England as William III of England, was the last Prince of Orange to rule the principality; the principality was captured by the forces of Louis XIV under François Adhémar de Monteil Comte de Grignan, in 1672 during the Franco-Dutch War, again in August 1682, but William did not concede his claim to rule. In 1702, William III died childless and the right to the principality became a matter of dispute between Frederick I of Prussia and John William Friso of Nassau-Dietz, who both claimed the title'Prince of Orange'.
In 1702 Louis XIV of France enfeoffed François Louis, Prince of Conti, a relative of the Châlon dynasty, with the Principality of Orange, so that there were three claimants to the title. In 1713 in the Treaty of Utrecht, Frederick I of Prussia ceded the Principality to France in which cession the Holy Roman Empire as suzerain concurred, though John William Friso of Nassau-Dietz, the other claimant to the principality, did not concur. Only in 1732, with the Treaty of Partage, did John William Friso's successor William IV, Prince of Orange, renounce all his claims to the territory, but again he did not renounce his claim to the title. In the same treaty an agreement was made between both claimants, stipulating that both houses be allowed to use the title. In 1713, after Orange was ceded to France, it became a part of the Province of the Dauphiné. Following the French Revolution of 1789, Orange was absorbed into the French département of Drôme in 1790 Bouches-du-Rhône finally Vaucluse. In 1814 after the defeat of Napoleon, the United Provinces was not revived but replaced into the Kingdom of the United Netherlands, under a King of the House of Orange-Nassau.
In 1815 the Congress of Vienna took care of a French sensitivity by stipulating that the Kingdom of the Netherlands would be ruled by the House of Oranje-Nassau – "Oranje", not "Orange" as had been the custom until then. The English language, continues to use the term Orange-Nassau. Nowadays, both Georg Friedrich of Prussia and Dutch crown princess Amalia carry the title "Prince of Orange", Amalia in the official form of Prinses van Oranje. Due to its connection with the Dutch royal family, Orange gave its name to other Dutch-influenced parts of the world, such as the Orange River and the Orange Free State in South Africa, Orange County in the U. S. state of New York. The town of Orange, Connecticut is named after the principality; the orange portion of the flag of Ireland, invented in 1848, represents Irish Protestants, who were grateful for their rescue by William III of England in 1689–1691. The flag of South Africa from 1928 to 1994 had an orange upper stripe and was similar to the old Dutch flag called Prince's Flag, because it was inspired by the history of the Afrikaners, who are chiefly of Dutch descent.
The flag of New York City and th
Orange România is a broadband Internet service provider and mobile provider in Romania. It's Romania's largest GSM network operator, majority owned by Orange S. A. the biggest initial investor, who increased its ownership. Between 1997 and April 2002, the company was named Mobil Rom, operated under two brand names Dialog and Alo. In April 2002, after France Télécom gained a majority stake it was re-branded to comply with the group's global strategy; as of December 2012, Orange Romania has 10.3 million mobile subscribers. Orange is in head-to-head competition with Vodafone Romania for one of the most dynamic mobile telephony markets in south eastern Europe; the mobile penetration is at about 115%. Orange edged ahead of Vodafone in terms of number of subscribers in September 2004, they are the main mobile telephony operators, with Orange having a market share of 38% of the total market. Orange România controls 4% of the Moldovan operator Orange Moldova; the following is a list of known frequencies which Orange uses in Romania: List of mobile network operators Communications media in Romania Orange Moldova Official website Orange Moldova