Legio II Augusta
Legio secunda Augusta was a legion of the Imperial Roman army, founded during the late Roman republic. Its emblems were the Capricornus, Mars; the Legio II, Sabina was a Roman military unit of the late Republican era, which may have been formed by Julius Caesar in the year of the consulate of 48 BC and coincide, in this case, with the Legio II. Enlisted to fight against Pompey, they took part in the subsequent Battle of Munda of 45 BC. Alternatively it could be the Legio II, formed by the consul, Gaio Vibio Pansa in 43 BC and recruited in Sabina, hence its nickname, it might have participated in the subsequent battle of Philippi of 42 BC on the side of the triumvirate and Marc Antony. After the defeat of the Republicans, Legio II swore allegiance to Octavian and with the same remained until the battle of Actium of 31 BC, after which it seems to have been dissolved in the years between 30 and 14 BC (sent on leave were between 105,000 and 120,000 veterans and some of its soldiers may have been integrated into the new Legio II Augusta.
At the beginning of Augustus' rule, in 25 BC, this legion was relocated in Hispania, to fight in the Cantabrian Wars, which definitively established Roman power in Hispania, camped in Hispania Tarraconensis. With the annihilation of Legio XVII, XVIII and XIX in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, II Augusta moved to Germania in the area of Moguntiacum. After 17, it was at Argentoratum; the legion participated in the Roman conquest of Britain in 43. Future emperor Vespasian was the legion's commander at the time, led the campaign against the Durotriges and Dumnonii tribes. Although it was recorded as suffering a defeat at the hands of the Silures in 52, the II Augusta proved to be one of the best legions after its disgrace during the uprising of queen Boudica, when its praefectus castrorum, its acting commander, contravened Suetonius' orders to join him and so committed suicide. After the defeat of Boudica, the legion was dispersed over several bases; the legion had connections with the camp at Alchester in Oxfordshire.
In 122, II Augusta helped to build Hadrian's Wall. In 142, II Augusta are recorded on The Bridgeness Slab. In 196, II Augusta supported the claim for the purple of the governor of Britannia, Clodius Albinus, defeated by Septimius Severus. On the occasion of Severus' Scottish campaign, the Second moved to Carpow, to return to Caerleon under Alexander Severus. In his fantasy novel Grail, the author Stephen R. Lawhead states that the legion was ensnared by the black magic of the witch Morgan le Fay, doomed to perpetually wander the mists of Lyonesse. Lindsey Davis' character Marcus Didius Falco and his sidekick Lucius Petronius Longus both served in the legion during the Boudicca uprising in 60/61, while they were little more than boys. Marcus or Petronius have only referred to their service in asides, due to the bad memories of the uprising and the boredom in a cold, unfriendly country; the scenes of carnage and destruction in Londinium left a deep impression on both of them, with neither keen to return to Roman Britain.
Their internal references hint that their disgraced prefect, did not commit suicide, but instead was executed by the legionaries for his refusal to march to Governor Suetonius's aid during Boadicea's Revolt, but the legionaries swore an oath never to speak of this to outsiders. Novels that most directly refer to their service in Britain are The Silver Pigs, The Iron Hand of Mars, A Body in the Bath House and The Jupiter Myth, it is the Legion in which Optio Quintus Licinius Cato and Centurion Lucius Cornelius Macro serve during the first five books of the Eagle series by Simon Scarrow. The books cover Vespasian's career as commander of the legion and the invasion of Britain; the story of the legion's role in Boudica's Rebellion and the subsequent suicide of its acting commander features in Imperial Governor, George Shipway's 1968 novel about Gaius Suetonius Paulinus. Features in Adrian Goldsworthy's 3-book series, about a fictitious centurion of the II Legion. List of Roman legions Roman legion livius.org account Field, N..
Dorset and the Second Legion. Tiverton: Dorset Books. ISBN 1-871164-11-7. Keppie, Lawrence. "The Origins and Early History of the Second Augustan Legion". Legions and Veterans: Roman Army Papers 1971-2000. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag. Pp. 123–147. ISBN 3-515-07744-8. LEGIO SECVNDA AVGVSTA, British 1st - 2nd century AD ~ Roman Living History Society LEGIO SECVNDA AVGVSTA FACEBOOK PAGE, Facebook Page for British 1st - 2nd century AD ~ Roman Living History Society LEGIO SECVNDA AVGVSTA Dutch 1st - 2nd century AD ~ Roman Living History Society Second Legion Augusta, New Zealand re-enactment group Richard Stillwell, ed. Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites, 1976: "Abonae, England" Capricorn Rising: Astrology in Ancient Rome: Poetry and Power, article by David Wray. assistant professor of Classics, University of Chicago
Vaucluse is a department in Southeastern France, located in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region. It is named after the Fontaine de Vaucluse; the department's prefecture is Avignon. Vaucluse was created on 12 August 1793 out of parts of the departments of Bouches-du-Rhône, Drôme and Basses-Alpes renamed Alpes-de-Haute-Provence; the rural department was, like the nearby city of Lyon, a hotbed of the French Resistance in World War II. Vaucluse is bordered by the Rhône to the Durance to the south. Mountains occupy a significant proportion of the eastern half of the department, with Mont Ventoux known as "the Giant of Provence", dominating the landscape. Other important mountain ranges include the Dentelles de Montmirail, the Monts de Vaucluse and the Luberon. Fruit and vegetables are cultivated in great quantities in the lower-lying parts of the department, on one of the most fertile plains in Southern France; the Vaucluse department has a rather large exclave within the Drôme department, the canton of Valréas.
Vaucluse is known for its karst, including the karst spring Fontaine de Vaucluse after which "Vauclusian Risings" are named. Important urban centres include Avignon, Carpentras and Apt. Urban population: 416,301 Rural population: 83,384 Following the 2015 departmental election, Maurice Chabert of The Republicans was elected President of the Departmental Council, he succeeded Claude Haut, a member of the Socialist Party, who had held the office since 2001. The Departmental Council of Vaucluse has 34 seats; the Left Front has 2 seats, the Socialist Party has 7, Europe Ecology – The Greens has 3, the miscellaneous right has 2, The Republicans have 10, the National Rally has 6 and a local party, the Ligue du Sud, has 4. During the 2017 legislative election, Vaucluse elected the following representatives to the National Assembly: On 21 July 2017, Poirson resigned from office to join the Second Philippe government as Secretary of State to the Minister for the Ecological and Inclusive Transition, she was replaced in the National Assembly by Adrien Morenas.
Arrondissements of the Vaucluse department Communes of the Vaucluse department Cantons of the Vaucluse department Vaucluse at Curlie Official Vaucluse tourism website Website of the Departmental Council Prefecture website
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
A cadastre is a comprehensive land recording of the real estate or real property's metes-and-bounds of a country. In most countries, legal systems have developed around the original administrative systems and use the cadastre to define the dimensions and location of land parcels described in legal documentation; the cadastre is a fundamental source of data in lawsuits between landowners. In the United States, Cadastral Survey within the Bureau of Land Management maintains records of all public lands; such surveys require detailed investigation of the history of land use, legal accounts, other documents. Land registration and cadastre complement each other. A cadastre includes details of the ownership, the tenure, the precise location, the dimensions, the cultivations if rural, the value of individual parcels of land. Cadastres are used by many nations around the world, some in conjunction with other records, such as a title register; the International Federation of Surveyors defines cadastre as follows: A Cadastre is a parcel based, up-to-date land information system containing a record of interests in land.
It includes a geometric description of land parcels linked to other records describing the nature of the interests, the ownership or control of those interests, the value of the parcel and its improvements. The word cadastre came into English through French from Late Latin capitastrum, a register of the poll tax, the Greek katástikhon, a list or register, from katà stíkhon —literally, "down the line", in the sense of "line by line" along the directions and distances between the corners mentioned and marked by monuments in the metes and bounds; the word forms the adjective cadastral, used in public administration for ownership and taxation purposes. The terminology for cadastral divisions may include counties, ridings, sections, lots and city blocks. Other languages have kept the original t sound in the second syllable. In modern Greek, though, it has been replaced by ktimatologio; some of the earliest cadastres were ordered by Roman Emperors to recover state owned lands, appropriated by private individuals, thereby recover income from such holdings.
One such cadastre was done in AD 77 in Campania, a surviving stone marker of the survey reads "The Emperor Vespasian, in the eighth year of his tribunician power, so as to restore the state lands which the Emperor Augustus had given to the soldiers of Legion II Gallica, but which for some years had been occupied by private individuals, ordered a survey map to be set up with a record on each'century' of the annual rental". In this way Vespasian was able to reimpose taxation uncollected on these lands. With the fall of Rome the use of cadastral maps discontinued. Medieval practice used written descriptions of the extent of land rather than using more precise surveys. Only in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries did the use of cadastral maps resume, beginning in the Netherlands. With the emergence of capitalism in Renaissance Europe the need for cadastral maps reemerged as a tool to determine and express control of land as a means of production; this took place first in land disputes and spread to governmental practice as a means of more precise tax assessment.
Cadastral surveys document the boundaries of land ownership, by the production of documents, sketches, plans and maps. They were used to ensure reliable facts for land valuation and taxation. An example from early England is the Domesday Book in 1086. Napoleon established a comprehensive cadastral system for France, regarded as the forerunner of most modern versions; the Public Lands Survey System is a cadastral survey of the United States originating in legislation from 1785, after international recognition of the United States. The Dominion Land Survey is a similar cadastral survey conducted in Western Canada begun in 1871 after the creation of the Dominion of Canada in 1867. Both cadastral surveys are made relative to principal meridian and baselines; these cadastral surveys divided the surveyed areas into townships, square land areas of 36 square miles. These townships are divided into sections, each one-mile square. Unlike in Europe this cadastral survey preceded settlement and as a result influenced settlement patterns.
Properties are rectangular, boundary lines run on cardinal bearings, parcel dimensions are in fractions or multiples of chains. Land descriptions in Western North America are principally based on these land surveys. Cadastral survey information is a base element in Geographic Information Systems or Land Information Systems used to assess and manage land and built infrastructure; such systems are employed on a variety of other tasks, for example, to track long-term changes over time for geological or ecological studies, where land tenure is a significant part of the scenario. A cadastral map is a map; some cadastral maps show additional details, such as survey district names, unique identifying numbers for parcels, certificate of title numbers, positions of existing structures, section or lot numbers and their respective areas
The Celts are an Indo-European ethnolinguistic group of Europe identified by their use of Celtic languages and cultural similarities. The history of pre-Celtic Europe and the exact relationship between ethnic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial; the exact geographic spread of the ancient Celts is disputed. According to one theory, the common root of the Celtic languages, the Proto-Celtic language, arose in the Late Bronze Age Urnfield culture of Central Europe, which flourished from around 1200 BC. According to a theory proposed in the 19th century, the first people to adopt cultural characteristics regarded as Celtic were the people of the Iron Age Hallstatt culture in central Europe, named for the rich grave finds in Hallstatt, Austria, thus this area is sometimes called the "Celtic homeland". By or during the La Tène period, this Celtic culture was supposed to have expanded by trans-cultural diffusion or migration to the British Isles and the Low Countries, Bohemia and much of Central Europe, the Iberian Peninsula and northern Italy and, following the Celtic settlement of Eastern Europe beginning in 279 BC, as far east as central Anatolia in modern-day Turkey.
The earliest undisputed direct examples of a Celtic language are the Lepontic inscriptions beginning in the 6th century BC. Continental Celtic languages are attested exclusively through inscriptions and place-names. Insular Celtic languages are attested beginning around the 4th century in Ogham inscriptions, although they were being spoken much earlier. Celtic literary tradition begins with Old Irish texts around the 8th century CE. Coherent texts of Early Irish literature, such as the Táin Bó Cúailnge, survive in 12th-century recensions. By the mid-1st millennium, with the expansion of the Roman Empire and migrating Germanic tribes, Celtic culture and Insular Celtic languages had become restricted to Ireland, the western and northern parts of Great Britain, the Isle of Man, Brittany. Between the 5th and 8th centuries, the Celtic-speaking communities in these Atlantic regions emerged as a reasonably cohesive cultural entity, they had a common linguistic and artistic heritage that distinguished them from the culture of the surrounding polities.
By the 6th century, the Continental Celtic languages were no longer in wide use. Insular Celtic culture diversified into that of the Gaels and the Celtic Britons of the medieval and modern periods. A modern Celtic identity was constructed as part of the Romanticist Celtic Revival in Great Britain and other European territories, such as Portugal and Spanish Galicia. Today, Scottish Gaelic and Breton are still spoken in parts of their historical territories, Cornish and Manx are undergoing a revival; the first recorded use of the name of Celts – as Κελτοί – to refer to an ethnic group was by Hecataeus of Miletus, the Greek geographer, in 517 BC, when writing about a people living near Massilia. In the fifth century BC, Herodotus referred to Keltoi living around the head of the Danube and in the far west of Europe; the etymology of the term Keltoi is unclear. Possible roots include Indo-European *kʲel'to hide', IE *kʲel'to heat' or *kel'to impel'. Several authors have supposed it to be Celtic in origin, while others view it as a name coined by Greeks.
Linguist Patrizia De Bernardo Stempel falls in the latter group, suggests the meaning "the tall ones". In the 1st century BC, Julius Caesar reported that the people known to the Romans as Gauls called themselves Celts, which suggests that if the name Keltoi was bestowed by the Greeks, it had been adopted to some extent as a collective name by the tribes of Gaul; the geographer Strabo, writing about Gaul towards the end of the first century BC, refers to the "race, now called both Gallic and Galatic," though he uses the term Celtica as a synonym for Gaul, separated from Iberia by the Pyrenees. Yet he reports Celtic peoples in Iberia, uses the ethnic names Celtiberi and Celtici for peoples there, as distinct from Lusitani and Iberi. Pliny the Elder cited the use of Celtici in Lusitania as a tribal surname, which epigraphic findings have confirmed. Latin Gallus might stem from a Celtic ethnic or tribal name perhaps one borrowed into Latin during the Celtic expansions into Italy during the early fifth century BC.
Its root may be the Proto-Celtic *galno, meaning "power, strength", hence Old Irish gal "boldness, ferocity" and Welsh gallu "to be able, power". The tribal names of Gallaeci and the Greek Γαλάται most have the same origin; the suffix -atai might be an Ancient Greek inflection. Classical writers did not apply the terms Κελτοί or Celtae to the inhabitants of Britain or Ireland, which has led to some scholars preferring not to use the term for the Iron Age inhabitants of those islands. Celt is a modern English word, first attested in 1707, in the writing of Edward Lhuyd, whose work, along with that of other late 17th-century scholars, brought academic attention to the languages and history of the early Celtic inhabitants of Great Britain; the English form Gaul (first recorded in the 17th cent
The word orange is both a noun and an adjective in the English language. In both cases, it refers to the orange fruit and the color orange, but has many other derivative meanings; the word is derived from a Dravidian language, it passed through numerous other languages including Sanskrit and Old French before reaching the English language. The earliest uses of the word in English refer to the fruit, the color was named after the fruit. Before the English-speaking world was exposed to the fruit, the color was referred to as "yellow-red" or "red-yellow", it is claimed. There are, several half rhymes or near-rhymes, as well as some proper nouns and compound words or phrases that rhyme with it; this lack of rhymes has inspired many humorous songs. The word orange entered Middle English from Anglo-Norman orenge; the earliest recorded use of the word in English referred to the fruit. The earliest attested use of the word in reference to the color is from the 16th century, it is thought that Old French borrowed the Italian melarancio as pume orenge.
Although pume orenge is attested earlier than melarancio in available written sources, lexicographers believe that the Italian word is older. The word derives from a Dravidian language — Tamil நாரம் nāram or Telugu నారింజ nāriṃja or Malayalam നാരങ്ങ nāraŋŋa — via Sanskrit नारङ्ग nāraṅgaḥ "orange tree". From there the word entered Persian نارنگ nārang and Arabic نارنج nāranj; the initial n was lost through rebracketing in Italian and French, though some varieties of Arabic lost the n earlier. The place name Orange has a separate etymology; the Roman-Celtic settlement was founded in 36 or 35 BC and named Arausio, after a Celtic water god. The Principality of Orange was named for this place and not for the color; some time after the sixteenth century, the color orange was adopted as a canting symbol of the House of Orange-Nassau. The color came to be associated with Protestantism, as a result of the participation by the House of Orange on the Protestant side in the French Wars of Religion, the Irish campaigns, the Dutch Eighty Years' War.
It is accepted that no single English word is a full rhyme for orange, though there are half rhymes, such as hinge, lozenge and porridge. Although this property is not unique to the word—one study of 5,411 one-syllable English words found 80 words with no rhymes—the lack of rhyme for orange has garnered significant attention, inspired many humorous verses. Although sporange, a variant of sporangium, is an eye rhyme for orange, it is not a true rhyme as its second syllable is pronounced with an unreduced vowel, stressed. There are a number of proper nouns which rhyme or nearly rhyme with orange, including The Blorenge, a mountain in Wales, Gorringe, a surname. US Naval Commander Henry Honychurch Gorringe, the captain of the USS Gettysburg who discovered Gorringe Ridge in 1875, led Arthur Guiterman to quip in "Local Note": In Sparkill buried lies that man of mark Who brought the Obelisk to Central Park, Redoubtable Commander H. H. Gorringe, Whose name supplies the long-sought rhyme for "orange."Various linguistic or poetic devices provide for rhymes in some accents.
Compound words or phrases may give near rhymes. Examples include door-hinge, torn hinge, or inch, a wrench. William Shepard Walsh attributes this verse featuring two multiple-word rhymes for orange to W. W. Skeat. I gave my darling child a lemon, That grew its fragrant stem on, and nuts, she cracked them in the door-hinge. Enjambment can provide for rhymes. One example is Willard Espy's poem, "The Unrhymable Word: Orange"; the four eng- ineers Wore orange brassieres. Another example by Tom Lehrer relies on the cot–caught merger via which many Americans pronounce orange as /ˈɑrəndʒ/, as opposed to /ˈɔrəndʒ/: Eating an orange While making love Makes for bizarre enj- oyment thereof. Rapper Eminem is noted for his ability to bend words. In his song "Business" from the album The Eminem Show, he makes use of such word-bending to rhyme orange. Set to blow college dorm rooms doors off the hinges, peach, plums, syringes, VROOM VROOM! Yeah, here I come, I'm inches,Nonce words are sometimes contrived to rhyme with orange.
Composers Charles Fox and Norman Gimbel wrote the song "Oranges Poranges" to be sung by the Witchiepoo character on the television programme H. R. Pufnstuf. Oranges poranges, who says, oranges poranges, who says, oranges poranges, who says? There ain't no rhyme for oranges! Rhymes with Orange, a syndicated comic strip Orange Rhymez!, a website that finds half-rhymes for orange
The orange is the fruit of the citrus species Citrus × sinensis in the family Rutaceae. It is called sweet orange, to distinguish it from the related Citrus × aurantium, referred to as bitter orange; the sweet orange reproduces asexually. The orange is a hybrid between mandarin; the chloroplast genome, therefore the maternal line, is that of pomelo. The sweet orange has had its full genome sequenced. Sweet orange originated in ancient China and the earliest mention of the sweet orange was in Chinese literature in 314 BC; as of 1987, orange trees were found to be the most cultivated fruit tree in the world. Orange trees are grown in tropical and subtropical climates for their sweet fruit; the fruit of the orange tree can be processed for its juice or fragrant peel. As of 2012, sweet oranges accounted for 70% of citrus production. In 2014, 70.9 million tonnes of oranges were grown worldwide, with Brazil producing 24% of the world total followed by China and India. All citrus trees belong to the single genus Citrus and remain entirely interfertile.
This includes grapefruits, limes and various other types and hybrids. As the interfertility of oranges and other citrus has produced numerous hybrids and cultivars, bud mutations have been selected, citrus taxonomy is controversial, confusing or inconsistent; the fruit of any citrus tree is considered a kind of modified berry. Different names have been given to the many varieties of the genus. Orange applies to the sweet orange – Citrus sinensis Osbeck; the orange tree is an evergreen, flowering tree, with an average height of 9 to 10 m, although some old specimens can reach 15 m. Its oval leaves, alternately arranged, have crenulate margins. Sweet oranges grow in a range of different sizes, shapes varying from spherical to oblong. Inside and attached to the rind is a porous white tissue, the white, bitter mesocarp or albedo; the orange contains a number of distinct carpels inside about ten, each delimited by a membrane, containing many juice-filled vesicles and a few seeds. When unripe, the fruit is green.
The grainy irregular rind of the ripe fruit can range from bright orange to yellow-orange, but retains green patches or, under warm climate conditions, remains green. Like all other citrus fruits, the sweet orange is non-climacteric; the Citrus sinensis group is subdivided into four classes with distinct characteristics: common oranges, blood or pigmented oranges, navel oranges, acidless oranges. Other citrus groups known as oranges are: Mandarin orange is an original species of citrus, is a progenitor of the common orange. Bitter orange known as Seville orange, sour orange, bigarade orange and marmalade orange. Like the sweet orange, it is a pomelo x mandarin hybrid, but arose from a distinct hybridization event. Bergamot orange, grown in Italy for its peel, producing a primary essence for perfumes used to flavor Earl Grey tea, it is a hybrid of bitter orange x lemon. Trifoliate orange, sometimes included in the genus, it serves as a rootstock for sweet orange trees and other Citrus cultivars.
An enormous number of cultivars have, like a mix of pomelo and mandarin ancestry. Some cultivars are mandarin-pomelo hybrids, bred from the same parents as the sweet orange. Other cultivars are sweet orange x mandarin hybrids. Mandarin traits include being smaller and oblate, easier to peel, less acidic. Pomelo traits include a thick white albedo, more attached to the segments. Orange trees are grafted; the bottom of the tree, including the roots and trunk, is called rootstock, while the fruit-bearing top has two different names: budwood and scion. The word orange derives from the Sanskrit word for "orange tree", which in turn derives from a Dravidian root word; the Sanskrit word reached European languages through Persian نارنگ and its Arabic derivative نارنج. The word entered Late Middle English in the fourteenth century via Old French orenge; the French word, in turn, comes from Old Provençal auranja, based on Arabic nāranj. In several languages, the initial n present in earlier forms of the word dropped off because it may have been mistaken as part of an indefinite article ending in an n sound—in French, for example, une norenge may have been heard as une orenge.
This linguistic change is called juncture loss. The color was named after the fruit, the first recorded use of orange as a color name in English was in 1512; as Portuguese merchants were the first to introduce the sweet orange to some regions of Europe, in several modern Indo-European languages the fruit has been named after them. Some examples are Albanian portokall, Bulgarian портокал, Greek πορτοκάλι, Macedonian portokal, Persian پرتقال, Turkish portakal and Romanian portocală. Related names can be found in other languages, such as Arabic البرتقال, Georgian ფორთოხალი and Amharic birtukan. In