Old Brevard County Courthouse
The Old Brevard County Courthouse, renamed in 2006 as the Vassar B. Carlton Historic Titusville Courthouse, is an historic courthouse building located at 506 South Palm Avenue in Titusville, Florida. Designed in the Classical Revival style, it was built in 1912 by Lightman, McDonald and Company to serve as Brevard County's first courthouse building erected in Titusville; because of its long, narrow shape, Brevard County has centralized its governmental services in Viera, with a North Branch in Titusville and a South Branch in Melbourne. Titusville, still remains the official county seat. Today the Old Brevard County Courthouse is still used for some functions, but is an annex of the North Brevard Government Center located at 400 South Street in Titusville. In 1989, the Old Brevard County Courthouse was listed in A Guide to Florida's Historic Architecture, published by the University of Florida Press, it was renamed in February 2006 in honor of the late Vassar B. Carlton, who served as a County Judge and as a Circuit Judge in Brevard County from 1941 until his election to the Florida Supreme Court in 1968.
Florida's Historic Courthouses
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and
Okeechobee County Courthouse
The Okeechobee County Courthouse, built in 1926, is an historic courthouse building located at 304 Northwest Second Street in Okeechobee, Florida. It was designed by architect George Gaynor Hyde of Miami in what has been variously called the Southern Colonial Revival or Mediterranean Revival style of architecture. Due to the collapse of the Florida Land Boom during its construction, its central dome was never built. After the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane, its hallways were used as a temporary morgue. An open breezeway was planned and built through the center front of the first floor but was enclosed. In 1989, the Okeechobee County Courthouse was listed in A Guide to Florida's Historic Architecture, published by the University of Florida Press
Multistorey car park
A multistorey car park or parking garage is a building designed for car parking and where there are a number of floors or levels on which parking takes place. It is an indoor, stacked car park. Parking structures may be heated. Design of parking structures can add considerable cost for planning new developments, can be mandated by cities or states in new building parking requirements; some cities such as London have abolished enacted minimum parking requirements. The earliest known multi-storey car park was opened in May 1901 by City & Suburban Electric Carriage Company at 6 Denman Street, central London; the location had space for 100 vehicles over seven floors. The same company opened a second location in 1902 for 230 vehicles; the company specialized in the sale, valeting and on-demand delivery of electric vehicles that could travel about 40 miles and had a top speed of 20 miles per hour. The earliest known multi-storey car park in the United States was built in 1918 for the Hotel La Salle at 215 West Washington Street in the West Loop area of downtown Chicago, Illinois.
It was designed by Roche. The Hotel La Salle was demolished in 1976, but the parking structure remained because it had been designated as preliminary landmark status and the structure was several blocks from the hotel, it was demolished in 2005 after failing to receive landmark status from the city of Chicago. A 49-storey apartment tower, 215 West, has taken its place featuring a multistorey car park; the movement of vehicles between floors can take place by means of: interior ramps – the most common type exterior ramps – which may take the form of a circular ramp vehicle lifts – the least common automated robot systems – combination of ramp and elevatorWhere the car park is built on sloping land, it may be split-level or have sloped parking. Many car parks are independent buildings dedicated to that use; the design loads for car parks are less than the office building they serve, leading to long floor spans of 55–60 feet that permit cars to park in rows without supporting columns in between.
The most common structural systems in the United States for these structures are either prestressed concrete double-tee floor systems or post-tensioned cast-in-place concrete floor systems. In recent times, car parks built to serve residential and some business properties have been built as part of a larger building underground as part of the basement, such as at the Atlantic Station redevelopment in Atlanta; this saves land for other uses, is cheaper and more practical in most cases than a separate structure, is hidden from view. It protects customers and their cars from weather such as rain, snow, or hot summer sunshine that raises a vehicle's interior temperature to high levels. Underground parking of only two levels was considered an innovative concept in 1964, when developer Louis Lesser developed a two-level underground parking structure under six 10-storey high-rise residential halls at California State University, Los Angeles, which lacked space for horizontal expansion in the 176-acre university.
The simple two-level parking structure was considered unusual enough in 1964 that a separate newspaper section entitled "Parking Underground" described the car park as an innovative "concept" and as "subterranean spaces". In Toronto, a 2,400 space car park below Nathan Phillips Square is one of the world's largest. Car parks which serve shopping centres can be built adjacent to the centre for easier access at each floor between shops and parking. One example is Mall of America in Bloomington, Minnesota, USA, which has two large car parks attached to the building, at the eastern and western ends. A common position for car parks within shopping centres in the UK is on the roof, around the various utility systems, enabling customers to take lifts straight down into the centre. Examples of such are Festival Place in Basingstoke; these car parks have low ceiling clearances, which restrict access by full-size vans and other large vehicles. On 15 December 2013, a man was killed during a robbery in the multistorey car park at The Mall at Short Hills in Millburn, New Jersey.
The paramedics responding to the shooting were delayed because their ambulance was too large to enter the structure. In the United States, costs for multi-storey parking structures are estimated to cost between $25,000 per space, with underground parking costing around $35,000 per space. Parking structures are subjected to the heavy and shifting loads of moving vehicles, must bear the associated physical stresses. Expansion joints are used between sections not only for thermal expansion but to accommodate the flexing of the structure's sections due to vehicle traffic. Seismic retrofits can be applied; some parking structures have collapsed, either during construction or years later. In July 2009 a fourth-floor section failed at the Centergy building in midtown Atlanta, pancaking down and destroying more than 30 vehicles but injuring no-one. In December 2007, a car crashed into the wall of the deck at the SouthPark Mall in Charlotte, North Carolina, weakening it and causing a small collapse which destroyed two cars below.
On the same day, one under construction in Jacksonville, Florida collapsed as concrete was being poured on the sixth floor. In November 2008, the sudden collapse of the middle level of a deck in Montreal was preceded by warning signs some weeks before, including cracks and w
Old Martin County Courthouse
The Old Martin County Court House, built in 1937, is an historic Art Deco style courthouse building located at 80 East Ocean Boulevard in Stuart, Martin County, Florida. In 1989, it was listed in A Guide to Florida's Historic Architecture, published by the University of Florida Press. On November 7, 1997, it was added to the U. S. National Register of Historic Places. On March 15, 2007, it was added to the Martin County Historic Register by the Martin County Historic Preservation Board, it is now known as the Courthouse Cultural Center and is the headquarters of the Arts Council, Inc. the designated local arts agency for Martin County. The building was designed by architect L. Phillips Clarke of West Palm Beach and built by Chalker & Lund of poured concrete walls with terrazzo floors in the Art Deco style for the WPA as a northern addition to the first Martin County courthouse, built in 1908 as a Palm Beach County public school building and converted to courthouse use after Martin County was created in 1925.
The four words, Martin County Court House, were prominently etched into the front of the addition, where they still remain. Because of this, both the National Register and the Cultural Center have retained the two-word spelling of courthouse though the one-word version is the preferred one. In 1954, the county bought a building to the west, used as an automobile dealership by Web Ordway Ford and as an A & P grocery store and converted it into a courthouse annex. At the same time, the county extended the original courthouse and the 1937 addition west to abut the annex and joined their hallways; the county extended the 1937 addition and the old school house on the east side. Both of these 1954 additions were bland, utilitarian structures of no particular architectural merit; when the county outgrew this assemblage of buildings, it decided to build a new courthouse and constitutional officers complex to the south of the original courthouse and to tear down the original courthouse, all additions and the annex.
The City of Stuart, with much public support, prevailed on the county commission to save the 1937 addition and to use it as a cultural center. There was some sentiment to save the original schoolhouse building, but this was determined not to be feasible. Florida's Historic Courthouses by Hampton Dunn 1964 Stuart, Travelogue by E. W. Dutton Martin County listings at National Register of Historic Places Court House Cultural Center at Florida's Office of Cultural and Historical Programs Martin County Courthouse at Florida's Historic Courthouses Note this website features a picture of 1he 1937 addition shortly after it was built. ArchiPlanet Listing
Postmodern architecture is a style or movement which emerged in the 1960s as a reaction against the austerity and lack of variety of modern architecture in the international style advocated by Le Corbusier and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. The movement was introduced by the architect and urban planner Denise Scott Brown and architectural theorist Robert Venturi in their book Learning from Las Vegas; the style flourished from the 1980s through the 1990s in the work of Scott Brown & Venturi, Philip Johnson, Charles Moore and Michael Graves. In the late 1990s it divided into a multitude of new tendencies, including high-tech architecture, modern classicism and deconstructivism. Postmodern architecture emerged in the 1960s as a reaction against the perceived shortcomings of modern architecture its rigid doctrines, its uniformity, its lack of ornament, its habit of ignoring the history and culture of the cities where it appeared. In 1966, Venturi formalized the movement in his book and Contradiction in Architecture.
Venturi summarized the kind of architecture he wanted to see replace modernism: I speak of a complex and contradictory architecture based on the richness and ambiguity of modern experience, including that experience, inherent in art... I welcome the problems and exploit the uncertainties... I like elements which are hybrid rather than "pure", compromising rather than "clean"...accommodating rather than excluding... I am for messy vitality over obvious unity... I prefer "both-and" to "either-or", black and white, sometimes gray, to black or white... An architecture of complexity and contradiction must embody the difficult unity of inclusion rather than the easy unity of exclusion. In place of the functional doctrines of modernism, Venturi proposed giving primary emphasis to the façade, incorporating historical elements, a subtle use of unusual materials and historical allusions, the use of fragmentation and modulations to make the building interesting. Venturi's wife, accomplished architect and urban planner Denise Scott Brown, Venturi wrote Learning from Las Vegas, co-authored with Steven Izenour, in which they further developed their joint argument against modernism.
They urged architects take into consideration and to celebrate the existing architecture in a place, rather than to try to impose a visionary utopia from their own fantasies. This was in line with Scott Brown’s belief that buildings should be built for people, that architecture should listen to them. Scott Brown and Venturi argued that ornamental and decorative elements "accommodate existing needs for variety and communication"; the book was instrumental in opening readers' eyes to new ways of thinking about buildings, as it drew from the entire history of architecture—both high-style and vernacular, both historic and modern—and In response to Mies van der Rohe's famous maxim "Less is more", Venturi responded, to "Less is a bore." Venturi cited the examples of his wife’s and his own buildings, Guild House, in Philadelphia, as examples of a new style that welcomed variety and historical references, without returning to academic revival of old styles. In Italy at about the same time, a similar revolt against strict modernism was being launched by the architect Aldo Rossi, who criticized the rebuilding of Italian cities and buildings destroyed during the war in the modernist style, which had had no relation to the architectural history, original street plans, or culture of the cities.
Rossi insisted that cities be rebuilt in ways that preserved their historical fabric and local traditions. Similar ideas were and projects were put forward at the Venice Biennale in 1980; the call for a post-modern style was joined by Christian de Portzamparc in France and Ricardo Bofill in Spain, in Japan by Arata Isozaki. Robert Venturi was both a prominent theorist of postmodernism and an architect whose buildings illustrated his ideas. After studying at the American Academy in Rome, he worked in the offices of the modernists Eero Saarinen and Louis Kahn until 1958, became a professor of architecture at Yale University. One of his first buildings was the Guild House in Philadelphia, built between 1960 and 1963, a house for his mother in Chestnut Hill, in Philadelphia; these two houses became symbols of the postmodern movement. He went on to design, in the 1960s and 1970s, a series of buildings which took into account both historic precedents, the ideas and forms existing in the real life of the cities around them.
Michael Graves designed two of the most prominent buildings in the postmodern style, the Portland Building and the Denver Public Library. He followed up his landmark buildings by designing large, low-cost retail stores for chains such as Target and J. C. Penney in the United States, which had a major influence on the design of retail stores in city centers and shopping malls. In his early career, he, along with the Peter Eisenman, Charles Gwathmey, John Hejduk and Richard Meier, was considered one of the New York Five, a group of advocates of pure modern architecture, but in 1982 he turned toward postmodernism with the Portland Building, one of the first major structures in the style; the building has since been added to the National Register of Historic Places. The most famous work of architect Charles Moore is the Piazza d'Italia in New Orleans, a public square composed of an exuberant collection of pieces of famous Italian Renaissance architecture. Drawing upon the Spanish Revival architecture of the city hall, Moore designed the Beverly Hills Civic Center in a mixture of Spanish Revival, Art Deco and Post-Modern styles.
It includes courtyards, colonnades and buildings, with both open and semi-enclosed spaces and balconies. The Haas School of Bu
Glades County Courthouse
The Glades County Courthouse is an historic courthouse building located at 500 Avenue J in Moore Haven, Florida. Built in 1928 in the Classical Revival style, it was designed by Georgia-born American architect Edward Columbus Hosford, noted for the courthouses and other buildings that he designed in Florida and Texas. In 1989, the Glades County Courthouse was listed in A Guide to Florida's Historic Architecture, published by the University of Florida Press. Florida's Historic Courthouses