Pasadena Police Department (California)
The Pasadena Police Department is the police department serving Pasadena, California. The headquarters of the Pasadena Police Department is located at 207 North Garfield Avenue in Pasadena, just a block from the Pasadena City Hall and Paseo Colorado; the department employs 241 sworn officers, 13 reserve officers, 126 civilian employees. The police chief is Phillip L. Sanchez, who has held the position since 2010 and served as deputy chief of the Santa Monica Police Department; the Pasadena Police Department was founded in 1886. The department was one of the first police departments to have female police officers. In 2006, Commander Marilyn Diaz left PPD to become the police chief for Sierra Madre, becoming Los Angeles County's first female municipal police chief. In 2004, the Pasadena Unified School District dismantled the Pasadena Unified School District Police Department, amidst budget cuts; as a result, the Pasadena Police Department took over police services for the Pasadena Unified School District and PPD's division on PUSD schools is known as the Safe Schools Team, made of eight sworn members—one sergeant and seven officers.
The department patrols some notable events, such as the Rose Bowl and the Tournament of Roses Parade, which works jointly with the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department. The department steps up patrols by adding officers in areas of recent homicides; this is known as Operation Safe City. The department utilizes the Orange County Sheriff's Academy in Tustin for academy training. PPD utilizes the Rio Hondo Regional Police Academy in Whittier. Since the establishment of the Pasadena Police Department, three officers have died in the line of duty. PPD has been using Tasers since mid-June 2004. Three years after the deployment of Tasers, 36-year-old Richard Baisner of Arcadia died after being Tasered once by a Pasadena Police Officer. Baisner was Tasered after resisting arrest against PPD officers. After using "soft restraints" on him while on a gurney, Baisner stopped breathing. An autopsy for the exact cause of death is pending; the department began air operations in 1969 and was one of the first members of the Airborne Law Enforcement Association.
In 1999, the department expanded its operations by creating the Foothill Air Support Team, working with ten nearby police departments by providing air support to cities that could not afford their own helicopter. Besides Pasadena, cities participating in FAST are Alhambra, Covina, Glendora, San Marino, South Pasadena, Sierra Madre and Irwindale. Three police officers are chosen from the participating FAST cities to work as Tactical Flight Officers, whose duties include observing, monitoring radio frequency for all participating cities and coordinating ground units. Pasadena PD operates and maintains an Enstrom 480 owned by the Los Angeles Interagency Metropolitan Police Apprehension Crime Task Force. A pilot and Tactical Flight Officer are assigned full-time to L. A. IMPACT to assist narcotics detectives with high altitude surveillance operations; the department maintains five of their own helicopters, based at an area near Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Rose Bowl. Using a strategy developed by Lieutenant Mike Ingram, Pasadena PD Air Support and the San Gabriel Valley Mosquito and Vector Control District use Pasadena PD helicopters to check swimming pools in 23 cities to ensure cleanliness and to prevent the West Nile Virus.
On 17 November 2012, a police helicopter struck another on the ground at the department's heliport, injuring five people. Both aircraft suffered considerable damage. MD 500 - 1 Bell 206 BIII - 1 Bell OH-58 Kiowa Warrior - 3 Some nearby departments rely on the Pasadena Police Department if any department lacks resources. Pasadena City College Police and Safety Services - Patrols property of the Pasadena Area Community College District with seven officers and 85 cadets. Officers have direct radio contact with the Pasadena Police Department. South Pasadena Police Department - Jurisdiction in the city of South Pasadena with 35 officers. PPD provides air support for the city of South Pasadena. South Pasadena used the Pasadena City Jail and the Pasadena Courthouse until 2004 when switching to the city of Alhambra jail and Alhambra Courthouse, citing high costs, to allow the cities of Monrovia and Arcadia to use the Pasadena City Jail to house their prisoners after the old Santa Anita Judicial District Courthouse in Monrovia closed down.
Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department - Has primary jurisdiction on Metro buses and trains running in Pasadena, the Pasadena courthouse, the unincorporated area addressed as "Pasadena, California", assists the Pasadena Police Department in patrolling the Tournament of Roses Parade. List of law enforcement agencies in California Pasadena Police Department
National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, object, site, or structure, recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance. Of over 90,000 places listed on the country's National Register of Historic Places, only some 2,500 are recognized as National Historic Landmarks. A National Historic Landmark District may include contributing properties that are buildings, sites or objects, it may include non-contributing properties. Contributing properties may or may not be separately listed. Prior to 1935, efforts to preserve cultural heritage of national importance were made by piecemeal efforts of the United States Congress. In 1935, Congress passed the Historic Sites Act, which authorized the Interior Secretary authority to formally record and organize historic properties, to designate properties as having "national historical significance", gave the National Park Service authority to administer significant federally owned properties. Over the following decades, surveys such as the Historic American Buildings Survey amassed information about culturally and architecturally significant properties in a program known as the Historic Sites Survey.
Most of the designations made under this legislation became National Historic Sites, although the first designation, made December 20, 1935, was for a National Memorial, the Gateway Arch National Park in St. Louis, Missouri; the first National Historic Site designation was made for the Salem Maritime National Historic Site on March 17, 1938. In 1960, the National Park Service took on the administration of the survey data gathered under this legislation, the National Historic Landmark program began to take more formal shape; when the National Register of Historic Places was established in 1966, the National Historic Landmark program was encompassed within it, rules and procedures for inclusion and designation were formalized. Because listings triggered local preservation laws, legislation in 1980 amended the listing procedures to require owner agreement to the designations. On October 9, 1960, 92 properties were announced as designated NHLs by Secretary of the Interior Fred A. Seaton; the first of these was a political nomination: the Sergeant Floyd Monument in Sioux City, Iowa was designated on June 30 of that year, but for various reasons, the public announcement of the first several NHLs was delayed.
NHLs are designated by the United States Secretary of the Interior because they are: Sites where events of national historical significance occurred. More than 2,500 NHLs have been designated. Most, but not all, are in the United States. There are the District of Columbia. Three states account for nearly 25 percent of the nation's NHLs. Three cities within these states all separately have more NHLs than 40 of the 50 states. In fact, New York City alone has more NHLs than all but five states: Virginia, Pennsylvania and New York. There are 74 NHLs in the District of Columbia; some NHLs are in U. S. commonwealths and territories, associated states, foreign states. There are 15 in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, other U. S. territories. S.-associated states such as Micronesia. Over 100 ships or shipwrecks have been designated as NHLs. About half of the National Historic Landmarks are owned; the National Historic Landmarks Program relies on suggestions for new designations from the National Park Service, which assists in maintaining the landmarks.
A friends' group of owners and managers, the National Historic Landmark Stewards Association, works to preserve and promote National Historic Landmarks. If not listed on the National Register of Historic Places, an NHL is automatically added to the Register upon designation. About three percent of Register listings are NHLs. American Water Landmark List of U. S. National Historic Landmarks by state List of churches that are National Historic Landmarks in the United States Listed building, a similar designation in the UK National Historic Sites and Persons, similar designations in Canada National Natural Landmark United States Memorials United States National Register of Historic Places listings Official National Historic Landmarks Program website A History of the NHL Program List of National Historic Landmarks National Historic Landmarks: Archaeological Properties Historical Landmarks - United States Lighthouses
Pasadena City Hall
Pasadena City Hall, completed in 1927, serves as the central location for city government in the City of Pasadena, California and it is a significant architectural example of the City Beautiful movement of the 1920s. In 1923, the people of Pasadena approved a bond measure issuing $3.5 million towards the development of a civic center. City Hall was to be the central element of this center; the San Francisco architecture firm of Bakewell and Brown designed City Hall, which has elements of both Mediterranean Revival Style and Spanish Colonial Revival Style architecture. It was completed on December 1927 at a cost of $1.3 million. It measures 361 feet by 242 feet, rises 6 stories. There are over 235 passageways that cover over 170,000 square feet; the defining dome, located above the west entrance, is 54 feet in diameter. On July 28, 1980 the Civic Center District, including Pasadena City Hall, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places as listing #80000813. From a distance, Pasadena City Hall has always looked.
However, the building was showing signs of age by the late 20th century. The 1920s building did not meet modern building codes, studies indicated that a major earthquake could destroy several parts of the building and result in a loss of life; the concrete walls had many deep cracks, two of the stairway towers had considerable damage. There was water damage from years of storms with little to no repair and maintenance. An effort to rehabilitate the aging building began in the late 1990s, led by Architectural Resources Group of San Francisco, California. In July 2004, the building was vacated in order to allow for a complete overhaul of the structure. Over the course of three years, all offices and council chambers were renovated, the facade was restored, the building was adapted to meet ADA standards, HVAC systems were replaced and modernized, new landscaping and architectural lighting was installed. To help ensure it would withstand future earthquake activity, the building was lifted off its foundation, equipped with structural base isolators and given a new foundation.
The renovation of Pasadena City Hall earned a LEED Gold certification. Following construction, staff moved back starting in April 2007 and City Hall was operational again by July. At the time, the Los Angeles Times noted: "In a city where historic preservation is much like a civic obsession, City Hall has long been among the crown jewels of Pasadena, along with the Colorado Street Bridge, the Rose Bowl and the Gamble House. Although the renovation has been among the costliest public works projects in Pasadena, city officials decided that they couldn't risk losing the landmark in another quake." The City Hall has long been a favorite shooting location for filmmakers. The courtyard was used in the 1995 movie "A Walk in the Clouds" to portray a Napa Valley town square, it has been used as an embassy in the "Mission: Impossible" television series, a villa in Charlie Chaplin's Oscar-nominated 1940 film "The Great Dictator." The building served as the city hall of fictional Pawnee, Indiana, in the television show Parks and Recreation.
The dome is visible through the window of the main characters' apartment building in the television show The Big Bang Theory, set in Pasadena. The building featured in the last episode of Jericho. Pasadena Civic Center District Earthquake engineering City Hall retrofit project photos and description of Pasadena City Hall Project Engineers' diagrams explaining the seismic retrofit of Pasadena City Hall
William Wrigley Jr.
William L. Wrigley Jr. was an American chewing gum industrialist. He was eponym of the Wm. Wrigley Jr.. Company in 1891, he was born in Pennsylvania. Wrigley Jr. is rumored to have co-founded his namesake company with a lesser-known Canadian named M. Bessemer, a close childhood friend of Wrigley Jr. Wrigley was born on September 30, 1861, during the Civil War, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In 1891, Wrigley moved from Philadelphia to Chicago to go into business for himself, he had $32 to his name and with it he formed a business to sell Wrigley's Scouring Soap. He offered customers small premiums baking powder, as an incentive to buy his soap. Finding the baking powder was more popular than his soap, Wrigley switched to selling baking powder, giving his customers two packages of chewing gum for each can of baking powder they purchased. Again, Wrigley found that the premium he offered was more popular than his base product, his company began to concentrate on the manufacture and sale of chewing gum.
In this business, Wrigley made his fortune. Wrigley played an instrumental role in the development of Santa Catalina Island, off the shore of Los Angeles, California, he bought a controlling interest in the Santa Catalina Island Company in 1919 and with the company received the island. Wrigley improved the island with public utilities, new steamships, a hotel, the Casino building, extensive plantings of trees and flowers, he sought to create an enterprise that would help employ local residents. By making use of clay and minerals found on the island at a beach near Avalon, in 1927 William Wrigley Jr. created the Pebbly Beach quarry and tile plant. Along with creating jobs for Avalon residents, the plant supplied material for Wrigley's numerous building projects on the island. After the building of Avalon's Casino in 1929, the Catalina Clay Products Tile and Pottery Plant began producing glazed tiles and other household items such as bookends. Another of Wrigley's legacies was his plan for the future of Catalina Island—that it be protected for future generations to enjoy.
In 1972, his son, Philip K. Wrigley, established the Catalina Island Conservancy for this purpose and transferred all family ownership to it. Wrigley is honored by the Wrigley Memorial in the Wrigley Botanical Gardens on the island. In 1916, Wrigley bought a minority stake in the Chicago Cubs baseball team as part of a group headed by Charles Weeghman, former owner of the Federal League's Chicago Whales. Over the next four years, as Weeghman's lunch-counter business declined, he was forced to sell much of his stock in the ball club to Wrigley. By 1918, Weeghman had sold all of his stock to Wrigley, making Wrigley the largest shareholder and principal owner, by 1921, Wrigley was majority owner. Wrigley Field, the Cubs' ballpark in Chicago, is named for him; the now-demolished former home of the Los Angeles Angels of the Pacific Coast League, at that time the Cubs' top farm team, was called Wrigley Field. Wrigley purchased the Chicago Cubs from Albert Lasker in 1925; the Arizona Biltmore Hotel in Phoenix, was financed and wholly owned by Wrigley, who finished the nearby Wrigley Mansion as a winter cottage in 1931.
At 16,000 square feet, it was the smallest of his five residences. William Wrigley Jr. died on January 26, 1932, at his Phoenix, Arizona mansion, at age 70. He was interred in his custom-designed sarcophagus located in the tower of the Wrigley Memorial & Botanical Gardens near his beloved home on California's Catalina Island. In 1947, Wrigley's remains were moved to allow the gardens to be made public. There is a rumor that the remains were moved during World War II due to "wartime security concerns", his original grave memorial marker still adorns the tower site. Wrigley was reinterred in the corridor alcove end of the Sanctuary of Gratitude, at Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery in Glendale, California, he left his fortune to son Philip K. Wrigley; the son continued to run the company until his death in 1977. His ashes were interred in the same Sanctuary of Gratitude alcove, his great-grandson, William Wrigley Jr. II, is the executive chairman and former CEO of the Wrigley Company. Wrigley was inducted into the Junior Achievement U.
S. Business Hall of Fame in 2000. Tournament House the Wrigley Mansion, in Pasadena, California Biography Resource Center Jack Bales, "Weeghman and Wrigley," WrigleyIvy.com. Jack Bales, "Wrigley Jr. and Veeck Sr.” WrigleyIvy.com. William Wrigley Jr. at Find a Grave
Sierra Madre Boulevard
Sierra Madre Boulevard is a 6.6-mile long road connecting five suburbs of Pasadena, California. For the most part, it is a winding road divided by a grassy median, but the part between Pasadena and Arcadia is a two-lane road, it was built around the Pacific Electric Railway—Sierra Madre interurban line. The smaller and older portion of the road was Central Avenue in Sierra Madre, built some time in the 1860s or 1870s; the road forms a "┌" shape, starting at Elevado Avenue in Arcadia heading west and ends at Huntington Drive in San Marino. At Huntington Drive the road continues south as San Marino Ave, ending at Clary Ave, near S. Del Mar Ave; the section of Sierra Madre Boulevard between Washington Boulevard and Sierra Madre Villa Avenue is the end of the Tournament of Roses Parade. Floats are display the day after the Roses Parade on Sierra Madre Boulevard. Much of the boulevard in Pasadena has large grass median strip area between the lanes, part of the Pacific Electric street car in the past.
Santa Anita Ave, Arcadia Sierra Madre Pioneer Cemetery Baldwin Ave, Sierra Madre Jailhouse Inn, Sierra Madre Old North Church of Sierra Madre Congregational Church Sierra Madre Memorial Park Sierra Madre Police Department Sierra Madre City Hall and Fire Department Sierra Madre City Library Michillinda Ave La Salle High School, Pasadena Church of the Nazarene Field Elementary School, Pasadena San Gabriel Valley Council, now part of the Greater Los Angeles Area Council, Pasadena New York Drive - Sierra Madre Villa Ave Eaton Canyon Golf course, Pasadena Washington Boulevard Pasadena High School Victory Park, Pasadena Orange Grove Boulevard, Pasadena Foothill Boulevard, Pasadena Interstate 210, Pasadena - Gold Line Metro rail Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena E. Del Mar Blvd. E. California Blvd. Huntington Drive, San Marino Pacific Electric org Central - Sierra Madre Boulevard Pasadena Heritage Org Running with History - Mile 23: Sierra Madre Line USC Digital Library, View of Pacific Electric car 401 at the intersection of Baldwin Avenue and Sierra Madre Boulevard in Sierra Madre, 1908 Pacific Electric Sierra Madre Line, by the Electric Railway Historic Association of Southern California
Super Bowl XXVII
Super Bowl XXVII was an American football game between the American Football Conference champion Buffalo Bills and the National Football Conference champion Dallas Cowboys to decide the National Football League champion for the 1992 season. The Cowboys defeated the Bills by the score of 52–17, winning their third Super Bowl in team history, their first one in 15 years; this game is tied with Super Bowl XXXVII as the third-highest scoring Super Bowl with 69 combined points. The Bills became the first team to lose three consecutive Super Bowls, just the second team to play in three straight; the game was played on January 31, 1993 at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, the seventh Super Bowl held in the Greater Los Angeles Area. To date, this game represents the mid-point game in Super Bowl history as there are 26 Super Bowls both preceding and following it; the Bills advanced to their third consecutive Super Bowl after posting an 11–5 regular season record, but entered the playoffs as a wild card after losing tiebreakers.
The Cowboys were making their sixth Super Bowl appearance after posting a 13–3 regular season record. It was the first time that the two franchises had played each other since 1984; the Cowboys scored 35 points off of a Super Bowl-record nine Buffalo turnovers, including three first half touchdowns. Bills backup quarterback Frank Reich, who replaced injured starter Jim Kelly in the second quarter, threw a 40-yard touchdown on the final play of the third quarter to cut the lead to 31–17. Dallas scored three more touchdowns in the fourth quarter. Cowboys quarterback Troy Aikman was named Super Bowl MVP, completing 22 of 30 passes for 273 yards and four touchdowns for a passer rating of 140.6, while rushing for 28 yards. In response to the Fox Network's Super Bowl counterprogramming of a special episode of In Living Color during the previous year, the NFL booked Michael Jackson to perform during the entire Super Bowl XXVII halftime show. Jackson's performance started the league's trend of signing top acts to appear during the Super Bowl to attract more viewers and interest.
Super Bowl XXVII was scheduled to be played at Sun Devil Stadium in Tempe, the home of the Phoenix Cardinals. In 1983, U. S. President Ronald Reagan signed a bill creating Martin Luther King Jr. Day, a national holiday honoring African-American civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. In 1986, the first year that the holiday was observed, Arizona Governor Bruce Babbitt, a Democrat, had issued an executive order creating the holiday after the state legislature voted against it. Babbitt's successor, Republican Evan Mecham, rescinded the order on the grounds that Babbitt did not have the authority to issue such an order and Arizona ceased to observe MLK Day for the time being. Mecham made his displeasure for the holiday known, saying that King did not deserve a holiday and that black supporters of the law should have been more concerned about getting jobs. In response, Dr. King's widow Coretta Scott King and musician Stevie Wonder spearheaded a complete entertainment and convention boycott of Arizona, condemning Mecham for the rescinding of the law and accusing him of racism.
Blacks across the nation supported the boycott. Mecham was impeached and removed from office in 1988 on charges of obstruction of justice and financial misconduct. In 1989, the state legislature approved the holiday. On March 13, 1990, the NFL had its annual meeting in Orlando and one of the items on its agenda was to determine a host city for Super Bowl XXVII. Among the cities being considered was Tempe, Arizona civil rights activist Art Mobley was sent to the meeting to make sure that the Arizona ballot initiative was a talking point at the discussion; the vote was conducted and Tempe was awarded the game, but committee chairman and Philadelphia Eagles owner Norman Braman warned that if the MLK Day ballot initiative went against adoption of the holiday, the NFL would not hesitate to pull the game from Arizona and move it somewhere else. The fact that the majority of NFL players were African-American was a big factor into this threat, as many of them felt uncomfortable of having the Super Bowl in a state that didn't recognize a national holiday honoring Martin Luther King Jr.
Polls showed. One initiative called for replacing President's Day with MLK Day while the other called for a new holiday on MLK's birthday. Both initiatives required a yes/no vote, voters were confused if they could vote yes on both; each initiative was defeated. The NFL responded by making good on its threat to remove the Super Bowl from Tempe and held another vote in Kohala, Hawaii on March 19, 1991, with Pasadena chosen as the site for the first time since Super Bowl XXI was played there six years earlier. Arizona voters approved the MLK Day holiday in the 1992 elections when voters were asked to vote Yes or No on whether or not Arizona should recognize an MLK Day; the NFL responded by awarding Tempe Super Bowl XXX at their 1993 meeting. The Bills entered Super Bowl XXVII trying to avoid becoming the first team to lose three consecutive Super Bowls. Once again, the team was loaded with Pro Bowl players, boasting 12 Pro Bowl selections
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper, published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, is the largest U. S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues salient to the U. S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters, it has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine. In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910; the paper's profile grew in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.
The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the Times a financial success. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley; the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.
Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who pleaded guilty. Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True." Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980.
Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be. It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992. Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada and the San Diego ed