Interstate 35E (Texas)
Interstate 35E, an Interstate Highway, is the eastern half of I-35 where it splits to serve the Dallas/Fort Worth metropolitan area. I-35 splits into two branch routes, I-35E at Hillsboro. I-35E travels northward for 97 miles, it travels through Dallas before rejoining with I-35W to reform I-35 in Denton. This is one of two pairs of suffixed Interstates. Other interstates were given directional suffixes. On every other interstate, the directional suffixes were phased out by giving the route a loop or spur designation, or in some cases were assigned a different route number. In the case of I-35, since both branches return to a unified interstate beyond the twin cities of Dallas and Fort Worth, the AASHTO committees allowed the suffixes to remain. Interstate 35E travels concurrently with U. S. Route 67 from just north of Kiest Boulevard in the Oak Cliff area of Dallas to the I-30 interchange in downtown Dallas. From there, US 67 joins with I-30. On both segments, US 67 is unsigned. From Waco, Texas to El Dorado, Kansas, I-35 runs concurrent with, or lies close to, US 77.
This highway travels parallel to I-35E after splitting off of I-35 north of Hillsboro, running through Italy and Milford. It joins with I-35E for less than 1 mile just south of Waxahachie, before splitting back off to run through Waxahachie, it rejoins the interstate just north of a junction with State Highway 342 in Red Oak. US 77 stays with the interstate through Dallas and up to the southeastern section of Denton, it breaks off, rejoining I-35 north of the city. Except for the spur sections and the portion from I-635 to the split in Denton, US 77 is unsigned. From the Dallas–Ellis County line to downtown Dallas, I-35E is called South R. L. Thornton Freeway and varies from eight to ten lanes plus HOV; the section from I-20 to Downtown Dallas will be undergoing a major reconstruction by 2015 to 12 lanes. Reconstruction of I-35E and the downtown Mixmaster interchange with I-30 is planned as part of the Horseshoe project, derived from the larger Pegasus Project. From this point, I-35E is named the Stemmons Freeway to Lewisville.
This section will undergo reconstruction in three phases. The first, a widening of I-35E from I-635 to Denton, will start in late 2011 to over 16 lanes; the second, the LBJ Project, will include elevated toll I-35E lanes by 2016. Last is the major reconstruction of Stemmons Freeway from downtown Dallas to I-635 to over 20 lanes by 2020. Interstate 35E replaced most of US 77 between Denton. US 77 is unsigned along the route, with the exception of the highway that runs through Waxahachie–Red Oak and Denton. I-35E was completed in the early 60s; when first designated, I-35W & I-35E were the only "suffixed" highways in Texas. Subsequently, I-69W, I-69E, I-69C have been designated. Interstate 635, while technically a loop of I-35, only intersects I-35E and neither I-35 nor I-35W. Dallas portal Texas portal U. S. Roads portal Interstate Guide: I-35E & I-35W I-35E south of downtown Dallas -- from dfwfreeways.info I-35E north of downtown Dallas -- from dfwfreeways.info
In rail transport, track gauge or track gage is the spacing of the rails on a railway track and is measured between the inner faces of the load-bearing rails. All vehicles on a rail network must have running gear, compatible with the track gauge, in the earliest days of railways the selection of a proposed railway's gauge was a key issue; as the dominant parameter determining interoperability, it is still used as a descriptor of a route or network. In some places there is a distinction between the nominal gauge and the actual gauge, due to divergence of track components from the nominal. Railway engineers use a device, like a caliper, to measure the actual gauge, this device is referred to as a track gauge; the terms structure gauge and loading gauge, both used, have little connection with track gauge. Both refer to two-dimensional cross-section profiles, surrounding the track and vehicles running on it; the structure gauge specifies the outline into which altered structures must not encroach.
The loading gauge is the corresponding envelope within which rail vehicles and their loads must be contained. If an exceptional load or a new type of vehicle is being assessed to run, it is required to conform to the route's loading gauge. Conformance ensures. In the earliest days of railways, single wagons were manhandled on timber rails always in connection with mineral extraction, within a mine or quarry leading from it. Guidance was not at first provided except by human muscle power, but a number of methods of guiding the wagons were employed; the spacing between the rails had to be compatible with that of the wagon wheels. The timber rails wore rapidly. In some localities, the plates were made L-shaped, with the vertical part of the L guiding the wheels; as the guidance of the wagons was improved, short strings of wagons could be connected and pulled by horses, the track could be extended from the immediate vicinity of the mine or quarry to a navigable waterway. The wagons were built to a consistent pattern and the track would be made to suit the wagons: the gauge was more critical.
The Penydarren Tramroad of 1802 in South Wales, a plateway, spaced these at 4 ft 4 in over the outside of the upstands. The Penydarren Tramroad carried the first journey by a locomotive, in 1804, it was successful for the locomotive, but unsuccessful for the track: the plates were not strong enough to carry its weight. A considerable progressive step was made. Edge rails required a close match between rail spacing and the configuration of the wheelsets, the importance of the gauge was reinforced. Railways were still seen as local concerns: there was no appreciation of a future connection to other lines, selection of the track gauge was still a pragmatic decision based on local requirements and prejudices, determined by existing local designs of vehicles. Thus, the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway in the West of Scotland used 4 ft 6 in; the Arbroath and Forfar Railway opened in 1838 with a gauge of 5 ft 6 in, the Ulster Railway of 1839 used 6 ft 2 in Locomotives were being developed in the first decades of the 19th century.
His designs were so successful that they became the standard, when the Stockton and Darlington Railway was opened in 1825, it used his locomotives, with the same gauge as the Killingworth line, 4 ft 8 in. The Stockton and Darlington line was immensely successful, when the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the first intercity line, was built, it used the same gauge, it was hugely successful, the gauge, became the automatic choice: "standard gauge". The Liverpool and Manchester was followed by other trunk railways, with the Grand Junction Railway and the London and Birmingham Railway forming a huge critical mass of standard gauge; when Bristol promoters planned a line from London, they employed the innovative engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. He decided on a wider gauge, to give greater stability, the Great Western Railway adopted a gauge of 7 ft eased to 7 ft 1⁄4 in; this became known as broad gauge. The Great Western Railway was successful and was expanded and through friendly associated companies, widening the scope of broad gauge.
At the same time, other parts of Britain built railways to standard gauge, British technology was exported to European countries and parts of North America using standard gauge. Britain polarised into two areas: those that used standard gauge. In this context, standard gauge was referred to as "narrow gauge" to indicate the contrast; some smaller concerns selected other non-standard gauges: the Eastern Counties Railway adopted 5 ft. Most of them converted to standard gauge at an early date, but the GWR's broad gauge continued to grow; the larger railway companies wished to expand geographically, large areas were considered to be under their control. When a new
President George Bush Turnpike
The President George Bush Turnpike is a 52-mile toll road running through the northern and western suburbs, forming a partial loop around Dallas, United States. It is named for the 41st President of the United States. At its west end near Belt Line Road in Irving, State Highway 161 continues southwest to Interstate 20 in Grand Prairie; the discontinuous free frontage roads along the turnpike from I-35E in Carrollton east to its end at I-30 in Garland are assigned the State Highway 190 designation. SH 190 signage appears only along the Garland, Richardson and Carrollton sections of the frontage road with the undersign "frontage road only". At intersections with city streets, only the Bush Turnpike signs are displayed, not the SH 190 signage. Prior to the construction of the main lanes as a tollway, SH 190 was used as the name of the planned main lanes too; the part west of I-35E was planned as part of SH 161. Bush Turnpike is signed as a north–south road from I-20 to I-35E, an east–west road from I-35E to the Merritt Main Lane Gantry and as a north–south road from the Merritt Main Lane Gantry to I-30, as Bush Turnpike makes a nearly 90-degree curve in both places.
The turnpike is operated by the North Texas Tollway Authority. All maintenance is done under a five-year total routine maintenance contract with Roy Jorgensen Associates, Inc. based in Buckeystown, that started in November 2011. The turnpike passes through three Texas counties and nine Dallas suburbs; the PGBT was equipped with traditional toll plazas for cash payment as well as RFID-based TollTag express lanes. However, on July 1, 2009 the cash plazas were closed and replaced with "ZipCash", an OCR-based camera system which reads the license plate and bills the owner by mail; this made the turnpike the first in the United States to transition to all-electronic toll collection. The ZipCash rates, come at a premium being higher than both the TollTag rate and the earlier cash prices; the corridor of SH 161 and the Turnpike was first proposed as an outer loop within Dallas County in 1957. The 1964 plan was the first to designate it as a freeway, in 1969 the full loop was added to the state highway system as Loop 9.
The loop would begin at Interstate 20 just east of the Tarrant County head north. From State Highway 183 it would run along present SH 161, turning north on Belt Line Road and east just south of the Denton County line, crossing Interstate 35E near the present junction. Rather than cross into Denton and Tarrant Counties, the loop would stay in Dallas County, running where Campbell Road is now, it would rejoin the present Turnpike alignment and head southeast to Interstate 30 west of Lake Ray Hubbard. The south part of the loop would continue in a circular route to end at the junction of Interstate 20 and Spur 408, several miles east of the beginning of the loop; the short Spur 484, designated in 1970, would run from Loop 9 at Belt Line Road northeast along the present Turnpike alignment to Interstate 635. Some of the opposition to the loop came from the city of Richardson, divided by the Central Expressway. In conjunction with Plano, the city acquired empty right-of-way about two miles to the north, where the Turnpike now runs, set the centerline of the right-of-way to the border between Richardson and Plano.
Loop 9 was cancelled on October 1, 1977, the western and northern section was split between two new designations: State Highway 161 from Interstate 20 to State Highway 114 and State Highway 190 from Interstate 35E to State Highway 78. Spur 484 was absorbed into SH 161 on October 31, 1979, making its northern terminus Interstate 635; the connection between I-635 and I-35E was added to SH 161 on August 30, 1988. Construction on service roads began in late 1988 in north Richardson. A stack interchange was constructed in 1990 at U. S. Highway 75 in Richardson, which became a white elephant as the structure remained abandoned for several years. On January 29, 1991, SH 190 was extended to I-20. In 1995 following a revision in federal laws, authorities agreed to shift to a toll financing scheme, providing an infusion of cash and new construction; the SH 190 designation was removed from the plans for the not-yet-constructed main lanes on October 26, 1995, SH 190 was truncated to SH 78. and on April 30, 1998 SH 161 was removed from the piece between Belt Line Road and I-635.
On April 26, 2007, SH 190 extended to I-30. SH 161 was the name of a route designated on March 19, 1930 from Clairemont southeastward to SH 70 near Rotan as a renumbering of SH 84A; that route was transferred to SH 70 on December 1, 1930, but was not cancelled until January 22, 1931. SH 190 was the name of a route designated on November 30, 1932 from Cuero southwestward to SH 119; that route was transferred to SH 29 on March 13, 1934. At Dallas North Tollway, the interchange had been built in 1994 ready for the turnpike to be built in 1998. Since the initial construction began in 1988, the turnpike was completed in a number of phases, as described here: Segment I. Extends from Campbell Road to Midway Road, includes the Dallas North Tollway and U. S. Highway 75 interchanges. Opened in December 1998 and December 1999 (Preston Ro
Dallas Love Field
Dallas Love Field is a city-owned public airport 6 miles northwest of downtown Dallas, Texas. It was Dallas' main airport until 1974. Southwest Airlines maintains an operating base at Love Field. Seven full-service fixed-base operators provide general aviation service: fuel, hangar rentals, charters. Dallas Love Field is named after Moss L. Love, who while assigned to the U. S. Army 11th Cavalry, died in an airplane crash near San Diego, California, on September 4, 1913, becoming the 10th fatality in U. S. Army aviation history, his Wright Model C biplane crashed during practice for his Military Aviator Test. Love Field was named by the United States Army on October 19, 1917. Dallas Love Field has its origins in 1917 when the Army announced it would establish a series of camps to train prospective pilots after the United States entered into World War I; the airfield was one of thirty-two new Air Service fields. It was constructed just southeast of Bachman Lake, it covered over 700 acres and could accommodate up to 1,000 personnel.
Dozens of wooden buildings served as headquarters and officers’ quarters. Enlisted men had to bivouac in tents. Love Field served as a base for flight training for the United States Army Air Service. In 1917, flight training occurred in two phases: primary and advanced. Primary training took eight weeks and consisted of pilots learning basic flight skills under dual and solo instruction. After completion of their primary training at Love Field, flight cadets were transferred to another base for advanced training. After opening on October 19, 1917, the first unit stationed at Love Field was the 136th Aero Squadron, transferred from Kelly Field, south of San Antonio, Texas. Only a few U. S. Army Air Service aircraft arrived with the 136th Aero Squadron, most of the Curtiss JN-4 Jennys to be used for flight training were shipped in wooden crates by railcar. Training units assigned to Love Field during World War I were: Post Headquarters, Love Field, October 1917-December 1919 71st Aero Squadron, February 1918Re-designated as Squadron "A", July–November 1918121st Aero Squadron, April 1918Re-designated as Squadron "B", July–November 1918136th Aero Squadron, November 1917Re-designated as Squadron "C", July–November 1918197th Aero Squadron, November 1917Re-designated as Squadron "D", July–November 1918Flying School Detachment, November 1918-November 1919The 865th Aero Squadron, was formed at Love Field in March 1918 as a support unit for JN-4 aircraft repair and maintenance.
It was assigned to the Aviation Repair Depot, Dallas Texas in April 1918. It was demobilized in March 1919. With the sudden end of World War I in November 1918, the future operational status of Love Field was unknown. Many local officials speculated the U. S. government would keep the field open because of the outstanding combat record established by Love-trained pilots in Europe. Locals pointed to the optimal weather conditions in the Dallas area for flight training. Cadets in flight training on November 11, 1918, were allowed to complete their training; the separate training squadrons were consolidated into a single Flying School detachment, as many of the personnel assigned were being demobilized. With the end of World War I, in December 1919 Love Field was deactivated as an active duty airfield and converted into a storage facility for surplus De Havilland and JN-4 aircraft, some of the latter having been brought bought back by the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company in the spring of 1919.
In what was called "the largest recruiting mission in the spring and summer of 1919", Lt. Col. Henry B. Clagett began with seven DH-4s flying as far as Boston. A small caretaker unit was assigned to the facility for administrative reasons and it was used intermittently to support small military units. In January 1921, 1st Lt William D. Coney attempted to fly from San Diego to Jacksonville with just one stop—at Love Field. In 1921, the aviation repair depot next to Love Field moved to Kelly Field in San Antonio to consolidate with the supply depot at Kelly and form the San Antonio Intermediate Air Depot. In 1923, Dallas was a route point between Muskogee and Kelly Field on the southern division of the model airway. However, by 1923, the decision had been made to phase down all activities at the new base in accordance with reduced military budgets and it was closed; the War Department had ordered the small caretaker force at Love Field to dismantle all remaining structures and to sell them as surplus.
The War Department leased out the vacant land to local ranchers. In 1927, Dallas purchased Love Field, which opened for civilian use On April 9, 1932, the first paved runways at the airfield were completed, in March 1939 the airfield had 21 weekday airline departures: 9 American, 8 Braniff and 4 Delta. "On 6 June 1939, the War Department approved...nine civil school detachments", including one at Dallas and a Ferrying Command control center at Dallas' Hensley Field.) By October 1940 at the Texas Army Airfields, classes had entered the Dallas Texas Aviation School, which provided basic flight training using Fairchild PT-19s as the primary trainer The Gulf Coast ACTC school moved to Brady, Texas.
Dallas North Tollway
The Dallas North Tollway is a 30.2-mile controlled-access toll road operated by the North Texas Tollway Authority, which runs from Interstate 35E near downtown Dallas, Texas, to U. S. Highway 380, in Frisco, Texas; the Dallas North Tollway was the first toll road in the United States to implement electronic toll collection technology, with the introduction of the TollTag in 1989. TollTag users were charged $0.05 extra per transaction, but by 1999, the agency moved to the active encouragement of TollTag use by giving tag users a discount off the cash toll rate. In August 2007, the NTTA announced plans to phase out manned toll booths by May 2010; the Tollway was converted to all-electronic toll collection on December 11, 2010. North of I-635, the Dallas North Tollway is accompanied by frontage roads, which are designated as Dallas Parkway for address purposes; this is attributed to when Dallas Parkway was a major thoroughfare before being converted to the current Tollway configuration. The Texas Legislature created the Turnpike Act on June 9, 1953, thereby creating the Texas Turnpike Authority.
The Texas Turnpike Authority began issuing bonds on in 1955 for its second project, the first 30 mile section of the Dallas North Tollway. The original cost was $33,650,000 and started in 1966 and completed from Interstate 35E near downtown Dallas north to Royal Lane in 1968, soon after to Interstate 635. Toll Controversy: J. H. "Jack" Davis, Engineer-Manager for the Texas Turnpike Authority, stated in 1968 that "When revenue bonds for a project are paid off, the facility reverts to the state as part of its highway system, to be used free." This was supposed to happen the same way the Texas Turnpike Authority turned over the Dallas-Fort Worth Turnpike to the Highway Department in 1977 to become I-30, which became toll free. However, the Dallas North Tollway never became toll free and has never been turned over to the Highway Department; the North Texas Tollway Authority's web site states that "it was no longer a statewide practice to remove tolls from roadways due to a lack of state funding to maintain the roadways".
While it may have been Jack Davis' unofficial intent, it was not law. The last bond payment was made January 1, 2005; the Texas Legislature created the North Texas Tollway Authority in June of 1997, replacing the Texas Turnpike Authority on September 1, 1997. The Regional Tollway Authority Act, Chapter 366 of the Texas Transportation Code, is what authorizes the North Texas Tollway Authority, thereby making it a political subdivision of the State of Texas and the operator of the North Dallas Tollway; the initial segment of the tollway ran from Interstate 35E to Royal Lane along an old St. Louis Southwestern Railway corridor; the right-of-way is 100 feet along this segment, one of the narrowest controlled-access roads in Texas. The segment was completed in June 1968 and toll was 20 cents; the tollway was extended to Briargrove Lane in 1987, to Headquarters Drive in 1994, to S. H. 121 and Gaylord Parkway in 2004, to US 380 in 2007. The extensions parallel S. H. 289 known as Preston Road. The "DNT Extension Phase 3," which runs from State Highway 121 to U.
S. Highway 380, opened in mid-2007. Current tolls vary from $0.40 to $2.15 for a car with it being more expensive closer to downtown. Toll plaza in Frisco; the Tolltag offers a discount on these rates but requires a prepayment of $40 for up to three transponders, after that, TollTag accounts can be reloaded at a minimum of $10. Rates will increase every two years. All toll plazas are now equipped for electronic toll collection and main lane plazas feature TollTag express lanes; the Dallas North Tollway begins at an interchange with I-35E and Harry Hines Boulevard in the Victory Park and Market Center areas of Dallas. Southbound traffic from the Tollway going onto I-35E must first get on the access road before entering onto the main freeway. At Wycliff Avenue in Oak Lawn the Tollway has its first toll plaza; the Tollway has its first northbound exit at Lemmon Avenue before entering into Highland Park. The city streets of Eastern Avenue and Roland Avenue run alongside the Tollway on the southbound and northbound sides respectively.
Due to passing through a populated area, high noise cancelling walls line the Tollway with numerous signs warning drivers about limited sight distance. At the Mockingbird Lane interchange, the Dallas North Tollway enters into University Park before returning to Dallas. Between Loop 12 and Northaven Road, the Tollway runs about a 1/4 mile west of SH 289; the Tollway interchanges with I-635 near the Galleria Dallas and runs along the eastern edge of Farmers Branch and enters into Addison. At the Dallas-Collin county line, the Tollway enters into extreme North Dallas and has an interchange with the President George Bush Turnpike and enters the city of Plano; the Dallas North Tollway runs by many shopping centers and housing developments. Going through northern Plano, the Tollway passes by the corporate headquarters of Pizza Hut; the Tollway interchanges with SH 121/Sam Rayburn Tollway and enters into Frisco, passing by the Dr Pepper Ballpark. Development along the Tollway begins to thin before it picks up again near Main Street, passing by Toyota Stadium.
Development thins again. The Dallas North Tollway ends at an interchange with US 380, with Dallas Parkway continuing north as a county road. At the Tollway's southern end, near downtown, the agency has rebuilt the road around the main toll plaza and added ramps at Oak Lawn Avenue; this project, started i
Market Center station
Market Center station is a DART Light Rail station in Dallas, Texas. It serves the Green Orange Line; the station opened as part of the Green Line's expansion in December 2010. It serves nearby locations such as the Infomart and Dallas Market Center and the Oak Lawn neighborhood. Dallas Area Rapid Transit - Market Center Station
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers; the most common type of bus is the single-deck rigid bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker and articulated buses, smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses. Many types of buses, such as city transit buses and inter-city coaches, charge a fare. Other types, such as elementary or secondary school buses or shuttle buses within a post-secondary education campus do not charge a fare. In many jurisdictions, bus drivers require a special licence above and beyond a regular driver's licence. Buses may be used for scheduled bus transport, scheduled coach transport, school transport, private hire, or tourism. Horse-drawn buses were used from the 1820s, followed by steam buses in the 1830s, electric trolleybuses in 1882; the first internal combustion engine buses, or motor buses, were used in 1895. Interest has been growing in hybrid electric buses, fuel cell buses, electric buses, as well as ones powered by compressed natural gas or biodiesel.
As of the 2010s, bus manufacturing is globalised, with the same designs appearing around the world. Bus is a clipped form of the dative plural of omnis-e; the theoretical full name is in French voiture omnibus. The name originates from a mass-transport service started in 1823 by a French corn-mill owner named Stanislas Baudry in Richebourg, a suburb of Nantes. A by-product of his mill was hot water, thus next to it he established a spa business. In order to encourage customers he started a horse-drawn transport service from the city centre of Nantes to his establishment; the first vehicles stopped in front of the shop of a hatter named Omnés, which displayed a large sign inscribed "Omnes Omnibus", a pun on his Latin-sounding surname, omnes being the male and female nominative and accusative form of the Latin adjective omnis-e, combined with omnibus, the dative plural form meaning "for all", thus giving his shop the name "Omnés for all". His transport scheme was a huge success, although not as he had intended as most of his passengers did not visit his spa.
He turned the transport service into his principal lucrative business venture and closed the mill and spa. Nantes citizens soon gave the nickname "omnibus" to the vehicle. Having invented the successful concept Baudry moved to Paris and launched the first omnibus service there in April 1828. A similar service was introduced in London in 1829. Regular intercity bus services by steam-powered buses were pioneered in England in the 1830s by Walter Hancock and by associates of Sir Goldsworthy Gurney, among others, running reliable services over road conditions which were too hazardous for horse-drawn transportation; the first mechanically propelled omnibus appeared on the streets of London on 22 April 1833. Steam carriages were much less to overturn, they travelled faster than horse-drawn carriages, they were much cheaper to run, caused much less damage to the road surface due to their wide tyres. However, the heavy road tolls imposed by the turnpike trusts discouraged steam road vehicles and left the way clear for the horse bus companies, from 1861 onwards, harsh legislation eliminated mechanically propelled vehicles from the roads of Great Britain for 30 years, the Locomotive Act of that year imposing restrictive speed limits on "road locomotives" of 5 mph in towns and cities, 10 mph in the country.
In parallel to the development of the bus was the invention of the electric trolleybus fed through trolley poles by overhead wires. The Siemens brothers, William in England and Ernst Werner in Germany, collaborated on the development of the trolleybus concept. Sir William first proposed the idea in an article to the Journal of the Society of Arts in 1881 as an "...arrangement by which an ordinary omnibus...would have a suspender thrown at intervals from one side of the street to the other, two wires hanging from these suspenders. Although this experimental vehicle fulfilled all the technical criteria of a typical trolleybus, it was dismantled in the same year after the demonstration. Max Schiemann opened a passenger-carrying trolleybus in 1901 in Germany. Although this system operated only until 1904, Schiemann had developed what is now the standard trolleybus current collection system. In the early days, a few other methods of current collection were used. Leeds and Bradford became the first cities to put trolleybuses into service in Great Britain on 20 June 1911.
In Siegerland, two passenger bus lines ran but unprofitably, in 1895 using a six-passenger motor carriage developed from the 1893 Benz Viktoria. Another commercial bus line using the same model Benz omnibuses ran for a short time in 1898 in the rural area around Llandudno, Wales. Daimler produced one of the earliest motor-bus models in 1898, selling a double-decker bus to the Motor Traction Company, first used on the streets of London on 23 April 1898; the vehicle had a maximum speed of 18 km/h and accommodated up to 20 passengers, in an enclosed area below and on an open-air pl