Treaty of Westminster (1654)
The Treaty of Westminster, concluded between the Lord Protector of the English Commonwealth, Oliver Cromwell, and the States General of the United Netherlands, was signed on 5/15 April 1654. The treaty ended the First Anglo-Dutch War, the treaty is otherwise notable because it is one of the first treaties implementing international arbitration as a method of conflict resolution in early modern times. A secret clause, obliging the States of Holland to enact the Act of Seclusion, the negotiation of the treaty started long before the war. The Commonwealth of England had been established only in 1649, older established states, like the Dutch Republic, looked somewhat askance at the upstart, which was ruled by king killers. The negotiations about better relations started in earnest in the Spring of 1651, the Dutch asked that letters of reprisal should not be granted in peacetime. Finally, they asked that Dutch merchants should have the privileges as English ones in English dominions in Europe. The demands, collected in 36 draft-articles, were presented to the English ambassadors on 14/24 June 1651 and they returned to England without an agreement having been reached.
Remarkably, the English offered at this time to acquiesce in this exclusion from the East Indies, after a naval incident about saluting the English flag in the English Seas the First Anglo-Dutch War started and the negotiations were suspended. The war was lost militarily by the Dutch, who after a number of lost naval battles were blockaded in their own country by the Commonwealth Navy, English trade with the Mediterranean was greatly hampered by Dutch privateering and naval activity, especially after the Battle of Leghorn. Both countries after a while were so exhausted that they hankered after peace. Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell and Grand Pensionary Johan de Witt agreed to peace negotiations in London in June 1653. The Dutch government sent a delegation, consisting of the commissioners Beverningh, Van de Perre and their English counterparts were Lawrence, Lambert and Lisle. I. C. The assignment of trade in the Americas exclusively to the Commonwealth and Nieuport returned in November 1653 with instructions to reject the proposed union, but to seek a close alliance commensurate with maintenance of Dutch independence.
Later that month the English side presented a treaty of 27 articles. In two of those articles the phrase that subjects of both countries might trade in each others dominions saving the laws and ordinances of either commonwealth appeared and this phrase, though innocuous at first sight, represented the English intention to maintain the provisions of the Navigation Act. The Dutch representatives countered with amendments to the articles that would free their commerce from the restrictions of the Act. In addition they proposed to regulate commerce outside Europe and this was followed by further exchanges of proposals that were unacceptable to one side or the other. Finally it was agreed to keep silent about regulation of trade outside Europe, the treaty appeared ready for signing when suddenly two new obstacles were raised
Maurice, Prince of Orange
Maurice of Orange was stadtholder of all the provinces of the Dutch Republic except for Friesland from 1585 at earliest until his death in 1625. Before he became Prince of Orange upon the death of his eldest half-brother Philip William in 1618, Maurice spent his youth in Dillenburg in Nassau, and studied in Heidelberg and Leiden. He succeeded his father William the Silent as stadtholder of Holland and Zeeland in 1585, and became stadtholder of Utrecht and Overijssel in 1590, and of Groningen in 1620. As Captain-General and Admiral of the Union, Maurice organised the Dutch rebellion against Spain into a coherent, successful revolt, Maurice set out to revive and revise the classical doctrines of Vegetius and pioneered the new European forms of armament and drill. During the Twelve Years Truce, a dispute broke out in the Republic. After the Truce, Maurice failed to achieve more military victories and he died without legitimate children in The Hague in 1625, and was succeeded by his younger half-brother Frederick Henry.
Maurice was a son of William the Silent and Princess Anna of Saxony and was born at the castle of Dillenburg and he was named after his maternal grandfather, the Elector Maurice of Saxony, who was a noted general. Maurice never married but was the father of children by Margaretha van Mechelen. He was raised in Dillenburg by his uncle Johan of Nassau, together with his cousin Willem Lodewijk he studied in Heidelberg and in Leiden where he met Simon Stevin. The States of Holland and Zeeland paid for his studies, as their father had run into problems after spending his entire fortune in the early stages of the Dutch revolt. Only 16 when his father was murdered in Delft in 1584, he took over as stadtholder. The monarchs of England and France had been requested to accept sovereignty and this had left Maurice as the only acceptable candidate for the position of Stadtholder. He became stadtholder of Holland and Zeeland in 1585, of Guelders and Utrecht in 1590 and of Groningen, protestant Maurice was preceded as Prince of Orange by his Roman Catholic eldest half-brother Philip William, Prince of Orange, deceased 1618.
However, Philip William was in the custody of Spain, remaining so until 1596 and he was appointed captain-general of the army in 1587, bypassing the Earl of Leicester, who returned to England on hearing this news. Maurice organised the rebellion against Spain into a coherent, successful revolt, the Eighty Years War was a challenge to his style, so he could prove himself a good leader by taking several Spanish Outposts. In 1597 he went on an offensive and took Rheinberg, Groenlo, Enschede, Oldenzaal. These victories rounded out the borders to the Dutch Republic, solidifying the revolt and they established Maurice as the foremost general of his time. Many of the generals of the succeeding generation, including his brother Frederick Henry
Royal Netherlands Navy
The Royal Netherlands Navy is the navy of the Netherlands. Its origins date back to the Eighty Years War, the war of independence from the House of Habsburg who ruled over the Habsburg Netherlands. The navy of the Batavian Republic and Kingdom of Holland played a role in the Napoleonic Wars. After World War II, the Royal Netherlands Navy has taken part in peacekeeping operations. The main naval base is located at Den Helder, North Holland, secondary naval bases are located at Amsterdam, Vlissingen and Willemstad. Netherlands Marine Corps barracks are found in Rotterdam, Suffisant on Curaçao, officers of the Netherlands Navy are trained at the Koninklijk Instituut voor de Marine, which is part of the Nederlandse Defensie Academie in Den Helder. Around 100–150 people start training every year, an international prefix for Dutch navy ships is HNLMS. HNMS is used, although this can refer to Royal Norwegian Navy ships. The Dutch navy itself uses the prefixes Zr, ms. when a king is on the throne, and Hr.
Ms. when there is a queen, the modern Netherlands Navy dates its founding to a statute of admiralty issued by Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I on January 8,1488. During the 17th century the Dutch navy was one of the most powerful navies in the world, as an organization, the navy of the Dutch Republic consisted of five separate admiralties, each with its own ships, shipyards, command structures and revenues. Around the world Dutch naval units were responsible for transporting troops, for example during Operation Dynamo at Dunkirk and on D-Day, they escorted convoys, one Dutch light cruiser that was under construction was captured in its shipyard by Nazi Germany. Both British and American forces believed that the Dutch admiral in charge of the force was being far too aggressive. Later in the war, a few Dutch submarines scored some remarkable hits, after the war, the relations between the Netherlands and its colonies changed dramatically. The establishment of the Republic of Indonesia, just two days after the Japanese surrender, thwarted the Dutch plans for restoring colonial authority and it took four years of war before the Netherlands acknowledged the independence of Indonesia.
Part of the Dutch Navy was next stationed in Netherlands New Guinea until that and this followed a campaign of infiltrations by the Indonesian National Armed Forces, supported by modern equipment from the Soviet Union, that was nevertheless successfully repulsed by the Dutch navy. These infiltrations took place after the order of President Sukarno to integrate the territory as an Indonesian province. With the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, the focus was on the army and air force
Johan de Witt
As a republican he opposed the House of Orange. He was strongly liberal, preferring lesser power to the central government, his negligence of the Dutch land army proved disastrous when the Dutch Republic suffered numerous early defeats in the Rampjaar. The rioters were never prosecuted, and historians have argued that William of Orange may have incited them, Johan de Witt was a member of the old Dutch patrician family De Witt. Johan and Cornelis both attended the Latin school in Dordrecht, which imbued both brothers with the values of the Roman Republic, after having attended the Latin school in Dordrecht, he studied at the University of Leiden, where he excelled at mathematics and law. He received his doctorate from the University of Angers in 1645 and he practiced law as an attorney in The Hague as an associate with the firm of Frans van Schooten. In 1650 he was appointed leader of the deputation of Dordrecht to the States of Holland, in December 1650, De Witt became the pensionary of Dordrecht.
Once during the year 1652 in the city of Flushing, Johan De Witt found himself faced with a mob of angry demonstrators of sailors, even at the young age of 27 years, it was Johans coolheadedness that calmed the situation. Many people older than Johan began to see greatness in Johan dating from that experience, Johan de Witt married on 16 February 1655 Wendela Bicker, the daughter of Jan Bicker, an influential patrician from Amsterdam, and Agneta de Graeff van Polsbroek. Jan Bicker served as mayor of Amsterdam in 1653, De Witt became a relative to the strong republican-minded brothers Cornelis and Andries de Graeff, and to Andries Bicker. Heer van Zuid- en Noord-Linschoten, Snelrewaard and IJsselveere, married to Wilhelmina de Witt and he was secretary of the city of Dordrecht After De Witts death, his brother in law Pieter de Graeff became a guardian over his children. In 1653, the States of Holland elected De Witt councilor pensionary, the raadpensionaris of Holland was often referred to as the Grand Pensionary by foreigners as he represented the preponderant province in the Union of the Dutch Republic.
He was a servant who lead the States of province by his experience, familiarity with the issues and he was in no manner equivalent to a modern Prime Minister. · Representing the province of Holland, Johan De Witt tended to identify with the interests of the shipping and trading interests in the United Provinces. These interests were largely concentrated in the province of Holland, not surprisingly, Johan de Witt held views of toleration of religious beliefs. De Witts power base was the merchant class into which he was born. This class broadly coincided politically with the States faction, stressing Protestant religious moderation, William II of Orange was a prime example of this tendency among the leaders of the House of Orange to support Calvinism. William II was elected Stadholder in 1647 and continued to serve until his death in November,1650, eight days after his death, William IIs wife delivered a male heir--William III of Orange. Many citizens of the United Provinces urged the election of the infant William III as stadholder under a regency until he came of age, the Provinces, under the dominance of the province of Holland did not fill the office of Stadholder
Frederick I of Prussia
Frederick I, of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia in personal union. The latter function he upgraded to royalty, becoming the first King in Prussia, from 1707 he was in personal union the sovereign prince of the Principality of Neuchâtel. He was the grandfather of Frederick the Great. His maternal cousin was King William III of England, upon the death of his father on 29 April 1688, Frederick became Elector Frederick III of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia. Right after ascending the throne Frederick founded a new city southerly adjacent to Dorotheenstadt and named it after himself, Frederick was noted for his opposition to France, in contrast to his father who had sought an alliance with Louis XIV. Frederick took Brandenburg into the League of Augsburg against France and in 1689 led military forces into the field as part of the allied coalition and that year an army under his command besieged and captured Bonn. Despite this opposition to France he was fond of French culture, the Hohenzollern state was known as Brandenburg-Prussia.
The familys main possessions were the Margraviate of Brandenburg within the Holy Roman Empire, although he was the Margrave and Prince-elector of Brandenburg and the Duke of Prussia, Frederick desired the more prestigious title of king. However, according to Germanic law at that time, no kingdoms could exist within the Holy Roman Empire, Frederick persuaded Leopold I, Archduke of Austria and Holy Roman Emperor, to allow Prussia to be elevated to a kingdom. This agreement was given in exchange for an alliance against King Louis XIV in the War of the Spanish Succession. Frederick argued that Prussia had never been part of the Holy Roman Empire, therefore, he said, there was no legal or political barrier to letting him rule it as a kingdom. Frederick was aided in the negotiations by Charles Ancillon, Frederick crowned himself on 18 January 1701 in Königsberg. Therefore, out of deference to the historic ties to the Polish crown. His royalty was, in any case, limited to Prussia, in other words, while he was a king in Prussia, he was still only an elector under the suzerainty of the Holy Roman Emperor in Brandenburg.
Legally, the Hohenzollern state was still a personal union between Brandenburg and Prussia and his grandson, Frederick the Great, was the first Prussian king to formally style himself King of Prussia. Frederick was a patron of the arts and learning, Frederick appointed Jacob Paul von Gundling as Professor of History and Law at the Berlin Knights Academy in 1705, and as historian at the Higher Heralds Office in 1706. Frederick was married three times, first to Elizabeth Henrietta of Hesse-Kassel, with whom he had one child, Louise Dorothea, born 1680, to Sophia Charlotte of Hanover, with whom he had Frederick August Frederick William I, born in 1688, who succeeded him. In 1708, he married Sophia Louise of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, who survived him but had no children by him, Frederick died in Berlin in 1713 and is entombed in the Berliner Dom
Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange
Frederick Henry, or Frederik Hendrik in Dutch, was the sovereign Prince of Orange and stadtholder of Holland, Utrecht and Overijssel from 1625 to 1647. His strategy was the neutralization of the threat of inundation of the area around s-Hertogenbosch. Frederick Henry was born on 29 January 1584 in Delft, Holland and he was the youngest child of William the Silent and Louise de Coligny. His father William was stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland and his mother Louise was daughter of the Huguenot leader Gaspard de Coligny, and was the fourth wife of his father. He was thus the brother of his predecessor Maurice of Orange. Frederick Henry was born six months before his fathers assassination on 10 July 1584, the boy was trained to arms by his elder brother Maurice, one of the finest generals of his age. After Maurice threatened to legimitize his illegitimate children if he did not marry and his illegitimate son by Margaretha Catharina Bruyns, Frederick Nassau de Zuylenstein was born in 1624 before his marriage.
This son became the governor of the young William III of England for seven years, Frederick Henry proved himself almost as good a general as his brother, and a far more capable statesman and politician. For twenty-two years he remained at the head of government in the United Provinces, the Period of Frederick Henry, as it is usually styled by Dutch writers, is generally accounted the golden age of the republic. It was marked by military and naval triumphs, by worldwide maritime and commercial expansion. Frederick Henry built the country houses Huis Honselaarsdijk, Huis ter Nieuwburg, and for his wife Huis ten Bosch, Huis Honselaarsdijk and Huis ter Nieuwburg are now demolished. Frederick Henry died on 14 March 1647 in The Hague, Holland and he left his wife Amalia of Solms-Braunfels, his son William II, Prince of Orange, four of his daughters, and his illegitimate son Frederick Nassau de Zuylestein. On Frederick Henrys death, he was buried with great pomp beside his father and brother at Delft, Frederick Henry left an account of his campaigns in his Mémoires de Frédéric Henri.
His widow commissioned a mausoleum in the Oranjezaal, a panoramic painted ballroom with scenes from his life. Frederick Henry and his wife Amalia of Solms-Braunfels had nine children, the Dutch Republic, Its Rise and Fall 1477-1806 excerpt and text search pp 506–45 Frederik Hendrik. Een biografisch drieluik, a biography by J. J
Prince of Orange
Prince of Orange is a title originally associated with the sovereign Principality of Orange, in what is now southern France. Under the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713, Frederick William I of Prussia ceded the Principality of Orange to King Louis XIV of France, the title is traditionally borne by the heir apparent of the Dutch monarch. The title descends via absolute primogeniture since 1983, meaning that its holder can be either Prince or Princess of Orange, the Dutch royal dynasty, the House of Orange-Nassau, is not the only family to claim the title. Rival claims to the title have been made by German emperors and kings of the House of Hohenzollern, the current users of the title are Catharina-Amalia, Princess of Orange suo jure, Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia, and Guy, Marquis de Mailly-Nesle. The Principality originated as the County of Orange, a fief in the Holy Roman Empire and his Occitan name is Guilhem, however, as a Frankish lord, he probably knew himself by the old Germanic version of Wilhelm.
William ruled as count of Toulouse, duke of Aquitaine, the chanson appears to incorporate material relating to William of Gellones battle at the Orbieu or Orbiel river near Carcassonne in 793 as well as to his seizure of the town of Orange. As the Empires boundaries retreated from those of the principality, the prince acceded to the rights that the Emperor formerly exercised. Orange ceased to exist as a realm, de facto. Although no longer descended from Louis-Charles, a branch of the Mailly family still claim the title today, in 1714 Louis XIV bestowed the usufruct of the principality on his kinsman, Louis Armand of Bourbon, Prince de Conti. After his death in 1727 the principality was deemed merged in the Crown by 1731, in this way, the territory of the principality lost its feudal and secular privileges and became a part of France. The Treaty of Utrecht allowed the King of Prussia to erect part of the duchy of Gelderland into a new Principality of Orange, the kings of Prussia and the German emperors styled themselves Princes of Orange till 1918.
Several of his descendants became stadtholders and they claim the principality of Orange on the basis of agnatic inheritance, similar to that of William the Silent, who had inherited Orange from his cousin René of Châlon. They did however have a claim, albeit distant, to the principality itself due to John William Frisos descent from Louise de Coligny, who was a descendant of the original Princes of Orange. They could claim descent from the del Balzo, an Italian branch of the des Baux family, via the marriage of Princess Anne to William IV, Prince of Orange. Anne was the eldest daughter of George II of Great Britain, Elizabeth Woodwilles grandmother was Margherita del Balzo, another descendant of Tiburge dOrange. They claimed on the basis of the testament of Philip William, finally, they claimed on the basis that Orange was an independent state whose sovereign had the right to assign his succession according to his will. France never recognized any of this, nor allowed the Orange-Nassaus or the Hohenzollerns to obtain anything of the principality itself, the Oranje-Nassaus nevertheless assumed the title and erected several of their lordships into a new principality of Orange.
They maintain the tradition of William the Silent and the house of Orange-Nassau, only the direct line of descent to Raimond V is shown here
Kingdom of the Netherlands
The Kingdom of the Netherlands, commonly known as the Netherlands, is a country and constitutional monarchy with territory in western Europe and in the Caribbean. The four parts of the kingdom—the Netherlands, Curaçao, in practice, most of the Kingdom affairs are administered by the Netherlands—which comprises roughly 98% of the Kingdoms land area and population—on behalf of the entire Kingdom. The constituent countries of Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten are located in the Caribbean as well, the Kingdom of the Netherlands originated in the aftermath of Napoleon’s defeat in 1815. In that year, the Netherlands regained its independence from France, in March 1815, amidst the turmoil of the Hundred Days, the Sovereign Prince adopted the style of King of the Netherlands. Following Napoleons second defeat at the Battle of Waterloo, the Vienna Congress supplied international recognition of Williams unilateral move. The new King of the Netherlands was made Grand Duke of Luxembourg, a part of the Kingdom that was, at the same time, in 1830, Belgium seceded from the Kingdom, a step that was recognised by the Netherlands only in 1839.
At that point, Luxembourg became an independent country in a personal union with the Netherlands. Luxembourg lost more than half of its territory to Belgium and that status was reversed when the German Confederation ceased to exist in 1867, and, at that point, Limburg reverted to its status as an ordinary Dutch province. The origin of the reform of 1954 was the 1931 Westminster Statute and the 1941 Atlantic Charter. Changes were proposed in the 7 December 1942 radio speech by Queen Wilhelmina, in this speech, the Queen, on behalf of the Dutch government in exile in London, expressed a desire to review the relations between the Netherlands and its colonies after the end of the war. After liberation, the government would call a conference to agree on a settlement in which the territories could participate in the administration of the Kingdom on the basis of equality. After Indonesia became independent, a construction was considered too heavy, as the economies of Suriname. Delegates of Suriname and the Netherlands Antilles could participate in sessions of the First, an overseas member could be added to the Council of State when appropriate.
According to the Charter and the Netherlands Antilles were allowed to alter their Basic Laws, the right of the two autonomous countries to leave the Kingdom, was not recognised, yet it stipulated that the Charter could be dissolved by mutual consultation. Suriname was a constituent country within the Kingdom from 1954 to 1975, Netherlands New Guinea was a dependent territory of the Kingdom until 1962, but was not an autonomous country, and was not mentioned in the Charter. In 1955, Queen Juliana and Prince Bernhard visited Suriname and the Netherlands Antilles, the visit was a great success. The royal couple were welcomed enthusiastically by the population. Several other royal visits were to follow, in 1969, an unorganised strike on the Antillean island of Curaçao resulted in serious disturbances and looting, during which a part of the historic city centre of Willemstad was destroyed by fire
William I of the Netherlands
William I was a Prince of Orange and the first King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg. In Germany, he was ruler of the Principality of Nassau-Orange-Fulda from 1803 until 1806 and of the Principality of Orange-Nassau in the year 1806, in 1813 he proclaimed himself Sovereign Prince of the United Netherlands. He proclaimed himself King of the Netherlands and Duke of Luxembourg on 16 March 1815, in the same year on 9 June William I became the Grand Duke of Luxembourg and after 1839 he was furthermore the Duke of Limburg. After his abdication in 1840 he styled himself King William Frederick, King William Is parents were the last stadtholder William V, Prince of Orange of the Dutch Republic, and his wife Wilhelmina of Prussia. Until 1806, William was formally known as William VI, Prince of Orange-Nassau, in Berlin on 1 October 1791, William married his first cousin Wilhelmina, born in Potsdam. She was the daughter of King Frederick William II of Prussia, after Wilhelmina died in 1837, William married Countess Henriette dOultremont de Wégimont, created Countess of Nassau, on 17 February 1841, in Berlin.
Like his younger brother Prince Frederick of Orange-Nassau he was tutored by the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler and they were both tutored in the military arts by general Prince Frederick Stamford. After the Patriot revolt had been suppressed in 1787, he in 1788-89 attended the academy in Brunswick which was considered an excellent military school. In 1790 he visited a number of foreign courts like the one in Nassau and the Prussian capital Berlin, William subsequently studied briefly at the University of Leiden. As such he commanded the troops took part in the Flanders Campaign of 1793-95. He took part in the battles of Veurne and Wervik in 1793, the siege of Landrecies, which surrendered to him. In May 1794 he had replaced general Kaunitz as commander of the combined Austro-Dutch forces on the instigation of Emperor Francis II who apparently had an opinion of him. But the French armies proved too strong, and the allied leadership too inept, the French first entered Dutch Brabant which they dominated after the Battle of Boxtel.
When in the winter of 1794-95 the rivers in the Rhine delta froze over, the French breached the southern Hollandic Water Line, in many places Dutch revolutionaries took over the local government. After the Batavian Revolution in Amsterdam on 18 January 1795 the stadtholder decided to flee to Britain, the next day the Batavian Republic was proclaimed. However, the neutral Prussian government forbade this, in 1799, William landed in the current North Holland as part of an Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland. The local Dutch population, was not pleased with the arrival of the prince, one local Orangist was even executed. The hoped-for popular uprising failed to materialise, after several minor battles the Hereditary Prince was forced to leave the country again after the Convention of Alkmaar
First Stadtholderless Period
The First Stadtholderless Period or Era is the period in the history of the Dutch Republic in which the office of a Stadtholder was absent in five of the seven Dutch provinces. It happened to coincide with the period when it reached the zenith of its economic, the term has acquired a negative connotation in 19th-century Orangist Dutch historiography, but whether such a negative view is justified is debatable. A convenient war with Portugal enabled the Dutch East India Company to take over the remnants of the Portuguese empire in Ceylon, Dutch industry, especially textiles, was as yet not hindered by protectionism. As a consequence, the Republics economy enjoyed its last great economic boom, the office of Stadtholder of a province predated the Republic. William the Silent had been such a stadtholder in Holland and Zeeland under the Habsburg regime, until he was removed from office in 1567. After the Dutch Revolt broke out, he simply reassumed that office in 1572 with the connivance of the rebel States of Holland, however, in the circumstances of the ongoing war with Spain, the Captain-general was indispensable.
And the office of stadtholder remained an important power-base, enabling its holder to exert an influence far beyond its formal powers, Maurice stopped this with a coup détat and subsequently asserted a federal sovereignty that superseded the provincial one. His brother, and successor as stadtholder, Frederick Henry held on to this ascendancy, due to a policy of divide-and conquer. When Frederick Henry died in March,1647, his son William II was appointed stadtholder in Holland, Utrecht and Gelderland. William was opposed to the peace with Spain, but he was ignored by the politicians in the States General. In the years following the peace a number of conflicts erupted between the stadtholder and especially the States of Holland about policy. William keenly supported the Calvinist die-hards in their attempts to force the Protestant religion on the Catholic inhabitants of the recently acquired Generality Lands and this was, just political posturing on Williams part, cynically exploiting certain prejudices in an attempt to gain ascendancy over the regents.
More important as a matter of principle was the conflict over the reduction of the army that arose during 1649 and 1650. The regents understandably did not quite see the need for an expensive, though the parties came close to an agreement on a total of about 29,000 men, the final difference of a few hundred men proved to be insurmountable. The policy conflict had become a test of wills, and it soon grew into a constitutional conflict, reminiscent of the crisis of 1618. The implication of this was, of course, that the dissolution of the Union was a possibility, like his uncle Maurice, William now felt he needed to save the Union, if need be by force. On July 30,1650, William had six leading Holland regents arrested in The Hague, the States of Holland capitulated and rescinded its order to disband the troops. The theory of provincial supremacy was disavowed also, William was stricken with smallpox in his hour of triumph
Gijsbert Karel van Hogendorp
Gijsbert Karel, Count van Hogendorp was a liberal conservative and liberal Dutch statesman. He was the brother of Dirk van Hogendorp the elder and the father of Dirk van Hogendorp the younger, Van Hogendorp was born in Rotterdam, and went to military school in Berlin. He graduated as an officer but didnt particularly like his new job in the Prussian military, during his stay in Berlin befriended the enlightened Dr Johann Erich Biester, a scholar and undersecretary at Prussian ministry of Cult who became head of the Royal Library. Bister taught him English and Greek and together they read classical and he returned to Holland in 1781 at the request of his mother to serve in the Army of prince William V, stadtholder of the Republic. He became quite close to the stadtholder, but especially to his wife, princess Wilhelmina, Van Hogendorp visited the United States of America in 1783. During his trip in the United States he met Thomas Jefferson who had an impression of the young Van Hogendorp. He was invited by George Washington at Mount Vernon, but was disappointed when Mr.
and Mrs. Washington showed no interest in his person, during his stay in the US he made a study of its constitution, which he admired very much. On his return to the Dutch Republic he briefly visited London to get acquainted with the system of government. In 1785 he attended the University of Leiden, where he majored in law and he belonged to the moderate wing of the Orangist party and he personally advocated some reforms, including the introduction of a constitution. He opposed the Patriots, who wanted revolutionary reforms and the degradation of the stadtholder to a figurehead, the Patriots dominated the provinces of Holland and Utrecht, the most prosperous of the seven provinces of the Dutch Republic. The stadtholder was forced to leave The Hague and lived most of the time in Nijmegen, Prussia invaded the Dutch Republic in 1787 to restore the power of the stadtholder. The Patriots were prosecuted, some of them were able to leave the Republic, Van Hogendorp refused to collaborate with the new regime and stayed out of politics for the next 18 years.
He didnt change his mind when some of his ald colleagues form the Orangist party went to serve Louis Napoleon when he became King of the Kingdom of Holland in 1806, in 1810 Holland became a province of the French Empire of Napoleon I. Gijsbert Karel van Hogendorps older brother, Dirk van Hogendorp, who admired the French Emperor, Napoleon bestowed him with the title of Comte de lEmpire. Gijsbert Karel didnt held the Emperor in high esteem, in his eyes the Emperor was nothing more than a Dictator and a brute. During the French occupation Gijsbert Karel van Hogendorp and his wife, Hester Clifford, in 1809 he moved to The Hague where he remained till the end of his life. In 1812 Van Hogendorp became convinced that the French Empire would collapse in a few years and drafted a paper and he played a decisive role during the revolt of October and November 1813 that restored the Dutch independence. He was part of the Driemanschap that invited William Frederick, the eldest son of William V to become Prince of the new independent Netherlands in late 1813
Lynching is an extrajudicial punishment by an informal group. It is most often used to characterise informal public executions by a mob in order to punish an alleged transgressor, or to intimidate a group. It is a form of informal group social control such as charivari, riding the rail, and tarring and feathering. Lynchings have been frequent in times of social and economic tension. However, it has resulted from long-held prejudices and practices of discrimination that have conditioned societies to accept this type of violence as normal practices of popular justice. Indeed, instances of it can be found in societies long antedating European settlement of North America, the legal and cultural antecedents of American lynching were carried across the Atlantic by migrants from the British Isles to colonial North America. Collective violence was an aspect of the early modern Anglo-American legal landscape. In the United States, during the decades before the Civil War, assertive free-Blacks, Latinos in the South West, Violence rose even more at the end of the 19th century, after southern white Democrats regained their political power in the South in the 1870s.
Nearly 3,500 African Americans and 1,300 whites were lynched in the United States between 1882 and 1968, mostly from 1882 to 1920, the origins of the word lynch are obscure, but it likely originated during the American revolution. The verb comes from the phrase Lynch Law, a term for a punishment without trial, two Americans during this era are generally credited for the phrase, Charles Lynch and William Lynch, who both lived in Virginia in the 1780s. Charles Lynch has the claim, as he was known to have used the term in 1782. There is no evidence that death was imposed as a punishment by either of the two men, in 1782, Charles Lynch wrote that his assistant had administered Lynchs law to Tories for Dealing with negroes, &c. In the United States, the origin of the terms lynching, Charles Lynch was a Virginia planter and American Revolutionary who headed a county court in Virginia which incarcerated Loyalist supporters of the British for up to one year during the war. While he lacked proper jurisdiction, he claimed this right by arguing wartime necessity, subsequently, he prevailed upon his friends in the Congress of the Confederation to pass a law which specifically exonerated him and his associates from wrongdoing.
He was concerned that he might face legal action from one or more of those so incarcerated, Lynch was not accused of racist bias, and indeed acquitted blacks accused of murder on three separate occasions, as dictated by the facts brought before him. He was accused, however, of ethnic prejudice in his abuse of Welsh miners, William Lynch from Virginia claimed that the phrase was first used for a 1780 compact signed by him and his neighbors in Pittsylvania County. While Edgar Allan Poe claimed that he found this document, this was likely a hoax, linguistic evidence is strongly against it, and the story was likely invented in the 19th century. Racist extremism with an eye to viciousness and public spectacle was frequently evident, in the South, members of the abolitionist movement or other people opposing slavery were usually targets of lynch mob violence before the Civil War