Peter Paul Rubens
Sir Peter Paul Rubens was a Flemish/Netherlandish draughtsman and painter. He is widely considered as the most notable artist of Flemish Baroque art school, the catalogue of his works by Michael Jaffé lists 1,403 pieces, excluding numerous copies made in his workshop. His commissioned works were mostly history paintings, which included religious and mythological subjects and he painted portraits, especially of friends, and self-portraits, and in life painted several landscapes. Rubens designed tapestries and prints, as well as his own house and he oversaw the ephemeral decorations of the royal entry into Antwerp by the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand in 1635. His drawings are mostly extremely forceful but not overly detailed and he made great use of oil sketches as preparatory studies. For altarpieces he painted on slate to reduce reflection problems. Rubens was born in the city of Siegen to Jan Rubens and he was named in honour of Saint-Peter and Paul, because he was born on their solemnety. His father, a Calvinist, and mother fled Antwerp for Cologne in 1568, after increased religious turmoil and persecution of Protestants during the rule of the Spanish Netherlands by the Duke of Alba.
Jan Rubens became the adviser of Anna of Saxony, the second wife of William I of Orange. Following Jan Rubens imprisonment for the affair, Peter Paul Rubens was born in 1577, the family returned to Cologne the next year. In 1589, two years after his fathers death, Rubens moved with his mother Maria Pypelincks to Antwerp, religion figured prominently in much of his work and Rubens became one of the leading voices of the Catholic Counter-Reformation style of painting. In Antwerp, Rubens received a Renaissance humanist education, studying Latin, by fourteen he began his artistic apprenticeship with Tobias Verhaeght. Subsequently, he studied under two of the leading painters of the time, the late Mannerist artists Adam van Noort. Much of his earliest training involved copying earlier works, such as woodcuts by Hans Holbein the Younger. Rubens completed his education in 1598, at time he entered the Guild of St. Luke as an independent master. In 1600 Rubens travelled to Italy and he stopped first in Venice, where he saw paintings by Titian and Tintoretto, before settling in Mantua at the court of Duke Vincenzo I Gonzaga.
The colouring and compositions of Veronese and Tintoretto had an effect on Rubenss painting. With financial support from the Duke, Rubens travelled to Rome by way of Florence in 1601, there, he studied classical Greek and Roman art and copied works of the Italian masters
Amalia of Solms-Braunfels
Amalia of Solms-Braunfels, was a regent of Orange-Nassau. She was the wife of Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, early years, Amalia of Solms-Braunfels, born into the House of Solms, a ruling family with Imperial immediacy, spent her childhood at the parental castle at Braunfels. She became part of the train of Elizabeth, wife of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, after imperial forces defeated Frederick V, she fled from Prague with the pregnant queen to the west. Shelter was denied to them along the way because the emperor forbade it as Frederick had been placed under an Imperial ban and they often appeared at his court, where Maurices younger half-brother Frederick Henry became infatuated with Amalia in 1622. She refused to become his lover and held out for marriage, when Maurice of Nassau died, he made his half-brother Frederick Henry promise to wed. Frederick married Amalia on 4 April 1625, together Frederick Henry and Amalia succeeded in expanding court life in The Hague. They had several palaces built, including Huis ten Bosch, Amalia was a great collector of art and amassed many jewels, which were inherited by her four surviving daughters.
She was described as intelligent and ambitious, not beautiful but with a fresh, Amalia was the prime mover of several royal marriages, including that of her son William II to Mary, Princess Royal of England and Scotland and of their daughters with several German princes. She had an influence upon policy, she acted as the political advisor of Frederick. Her influence is regarded to have contributed to the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, as a recognition, King Philip IV of Spain granted her the area around Turnhout in 1649. After the death of her son William II in 1650 she became the guardian of her grandson William III. She kept this position until 1672, http, //www. inghist. nl/Onderzoek/Projecten/DVN/lemmata/data/AmaliaVanSolms The Correspondence of Amalia von Solms-Braunfels in EMLO County of Solms in German Wikipedia
Jacob van Campen
Jacob van Campen, was a Dutch artist and architect of the Golden Age. He was born into a family at Haarlem, and spent his youth in his home town. Being of noble birth and with time on his hands, he took up painting mainly as a pastime, in 1614, he became a member of the Guild of Saint Luke, and studied painting under Frans de Grebber - a number of Van Campens oils survive. About 1616 to 1624 he is thought to have lived in Italy, on his return to the Netherlands, Van Campen turned to architecture, applying ideas borrowed from Andrea Palladio, Vincenzo Scamozzi and classical influences from Vitruvius. Van Campen was friendly with Constantijn Huygens, and together designed a new house for Huygens. Even after Van Campens death, his work greatly influenced Johan Maurits van Nassau-Siegen, the designer of the Kleefse gardens, the latter to own a book by Van Campen regardless of the expense. The city hall and the city palace of Potsdam owe a debt to ideas by Van Campen, Van Campens first known building was the Coymans house built in 1625 in Amsterdam.
About 1645 Van Campen designed the Nieuwe Kerk in Haarlem, a church that influenced Christopher Wren and his best-known work is probably the large Town Hall of Amsterdam, now the Royal Palace in Dam Square. Van Campen worked as an architect, a painter and a designer of decorative schemes and he was assisted in his work by Pieter Post, Daniël Stalpaert, Matthias Withoos, Philips Vingboons, Artus Quellinus, Tielman van Gameren and Rombout Verhulst. During the building of the city hall, Van Campen lived in very expensive lodgings in the nearby Kalverstraat, in 1654 Van Campen left after an argument, probably in connection with the design of the barrel vaults. Stalpaert won, but his completion of the project was reported to be less fine than Van Campens designs, after a long career, Van Campen died in 1657 in his buitenplaats Randenbroek near Amersfoort, which he had inherited from his mother, and was buried there. He had expanded it himself and had it decorated by Caesar van Everdingen, Van Campen never married, but had one son, Alexander Van Campen.
Van Campen was selective in what projects he took on and his best known works are, The Royal Palace, former city hall. In 1647, his name is mentioned for the first time in connection with the design of the new city hall and it was to be a perfect building, perfect in its proportions and in the message it conveyed to the spectator. Its power lies in its strict and perfect proportions and extremely moderate decoration, critics loathed the simple entrance - without stairs - on the ground floor. He is suspected to have had a hand in the alteration of the Rembrandthuis at the Jodenbreestraat in Amsterdam, the Theatre of Van Campen, based on the example of Teatro Olimpico in Vicenza, in Amsterdam. The Paleis Noordeinde, a palace in The Hague. As well as houses and palaces, he designed a number of churches, such as those at Renswoude and at Hooge Zwaluwe
Caesar van Everdingen
Cesar Pietersz, or Cesar Boetius van Everdingen, older brother of Allart van Everdingen and Jan van Everdingen, was a Dutch Golden Age portrait and history painter. He was born in Alkmaar and educated in Utrecht, where he learned to paint from Jan Gerritsz van Bronckhorst, caesar became a member of the painters guild in Alkmaar in 1632. His first known painting dates from 1636, in 1648 he moved to Haarlem, where he joined the Haarlem Guild of St. Luke and the civic guard there, where he met Jacob van Campen. From 1648 to 1650 He helped him with the decoration of the Oranje Zaal in Huis ten Bosch, in 1658 he moved back to Alkmaar where he started a workshop and took on pupils. He died and was buried in the Grote- or St. Laurenskerk in Alkmaar, many of his pictures are to be seen in the museums and private houses of the Netherlands, with several on display at the Stedelijk Museum Alkmaar. His pupils were Jan Theunisz Blanckerhoff, Adriaen Dekker, Hendrik Graauw, houbraken lists two other pupils, Adriaen Warmenhuizen, and Laurens Oosthoorn.
Caesar van Everdingen on Artnet Cesar van Everdingen at Artcyclopedia Biography at Web Gallery of Art Works and literature at PubHist
Pieter de Grebber
Pieter Fransz de Grebber was a Dutch Golden Age painter. De Grebber was born in Haarlem, the oldest son of Frans Pietersz de Grebber, a painter and embroiderer in Haarlem, and he learned to paint from his father and from Hendrick Goltzius. He was descended from a Catholic and artistic family and his sister Maria became the mother-in-law of Gabriel Metsu and he was a friend of the priest and musicologist Jan Albertszoon Ban, and had a poem set to music by the Haarlem composer Cornelis Padbrué. In 1632 he became a member of the Haarlem Guild of St. Luke and his pupils were Gerbrand Ban, Nicolaes Pietersz Berchem, Egbert van Heemskerck, and Dirck Helmbreeker. In 1618, father and son went to Antwerp and negotiated with Peter Paul Rubens over the sale of his painting Daniel in the lions pit and it was handed - via the English ambassador in the Republic, Sir Dudley Carleton - to king Charles I. Pieter got important commissions not only in Haarlem, but from the stadholder Frederik Hendrik, as such, he worked on the decoration of the Huis Honselaarsdijk in Naaldwijk and at the Paleis Noordeinde in Huis ten Bosch in the Hague.
He painted altar pieces for churches in Flanders and hidden Catholic churches in the Republic and he may have worked for Danish clients. Pieter remained single and lived from 1634 until his death at the Haarlem Béguinage, besides history paintings, Pieter de Grebber painted a number of portraits, furthermore many drawings and a few etchings by him have survived. From different influences, such as the Utrecht Caravaggistism and Rembrandt and he was, together with Salomon de Bray, the forerunner and first peak of the Haarlem classicism school, producing paintings characterized by a well-organized clarity and light tints. In 1649, De Grebber wrote the treatise Regulen welcke by een goet Schilder en Teyckenaar geobserveert en achtervolght moeten werden, in this document he explains the most important eleven rules which he believes classicist painters should be careful to observe. Although the Classicists did not swear by such rules, these were always tightly observed. Almost all of these rules are taken from Karel van Manders own Mannerist Schilder-boeck, in which history painting was presented as the highest of the hierarchy of genres
Salomon de Bray
Salomon de Bray was a Dutch Golden Age architect and painter. De Bray was born in Amsterdam, but established himself in Haarlem before 1617 and he probably followed draftsmanship and painting lessons in the small academy started by Karel van Mander, Hendrick Goltzius and Cornelis van Haarlem, and where he married in 1625. He is registered as a pupil of Goltzius and Cornelis van Haarlem and he painted history paintings and landscapes. As a Catholic he probably made pieces for the Haarlem underground Catholic churches known as mission stations. He was a poet and member of the Chamber of rhetoric called De Wijngaertranken, one of his poems was set to music by his friend the composer Cornelis Padbrué. This is probably how he met his wife Anna, the sister of the painter Jan and the poet Jacob Westerbaen, in 1630 he became a member of the Haarlem Guild of St. Luke. He cooperated with fellow member and Catholic architect-artist Jacob van Campen in the decoration of Huis ten Bosch in The Hague. His works draw on the spirit of the Dutch classicism beginning at that time, De Bray became active as an architect and designer of silverwork, and became headman of the Guild of St.
Luke. In 1632 he made efforts to retrieve the St. Lucas guild relic that had stored in the guild altar of the St. Bavochurch. It had been given to a representative of the Catholic church for safekeeping and De Bray felt it should be back to Haarlem. As an architect, he was involved in the construction or expansion of Haarlems City Hall in 1630, the new consistory of the Bavokerk, the Zijlpoort, and St. Annakerk. Outside of Haarlem, he designed a new entrance in 1629 for the Huis te Warmond that featured pilasters, in Nijmegen he made a design for the city orphanage. He was a town planner for the city council of Haarlem, Salomon de Bray was the father of ten children, of whom three became notable artists. He probably died of the plague that hit Haarlem in 1664, as he and his children Jacob, Josef and Margaretha all died in April and his wife had already died the previous year. He was buried in the Sint-Bavokerk in Haarlem and literature on PubHist Salomon de Bray on Artnet
Gonzales Coques was a Flemish painter of portraits and history paintings. Because of his proximity to and emulation with Anthony van Dyck he received the nickname de kleine van Dyck. Coques worked as an art dealer, Coques was born in Antwerp as the son of Pieter Willemsen Cock and Anne Beys. There is no certainty regarding the date of his birth. The date is likely since Coques commenced his apprenticeship in 1626 which would be a more likely date for a 12-year-old than an 8-year-old. Gonzales Coques was first registered in 1626-1627 at the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke as a pupil of Pieter Brueghel the Younger or his son Pieter Brueghel III. David Rijckaert is named as his teacher under a portrait engraved by Joannes Meyssens, Coques became a master in the Guild of Saint Luke in the Guild year 1640-1641. He married on 11 August 1643 with Catharina Ryckaert who was the daughter of David Rijckaert II, the prominent Antwerp painter David Ryckaert III was therefore his brother-in-law. Their daughter Catharina Gonzaline was born on 5 January 1644, a second daughter was born from this marriage.
It is inferred from analysis that Coques likely worked for van Dyck. The first period of collaboration probably took place between 1629 and 1632, i. e. after van Dyck’s return to Flanders and his departure for England, the second period was during the years 1634-1635 when van Dyck was back in Antwerp. Coques’ intimate knowledge of some of van Dyck’s English compositions points to a stay of Coques in England during van Dyck’s final residence in England. This would explain why Joannes Meyssens’ engraved portrait mentions that Coques had worked for Charles I of England and he worked for Charles I’s two sons, Henry Stuart, Duke of Gloucester and Charles II during their exile in Bruges in the years 1656-1657. Such overseas travel would offer an explanation for the long lapse between the time on which Coques commenced his apprenticeship and the date on which he became a master in the Guild, Coques was a member of two rhetorician guilds in Antwerp. He served twice as the deacon of the Guild of Saint Luke, in 1671 he became court painter to Juan Dominico de Zuniga y Fonseca, the governor of the Southern Netherlands who resided in Brussels.
After the death of his first wife, Coques married Catharina Rysheuvels on 21 March 1675, Coques occasionally worked on garland paintings in which he painted the staffage and the flower or fruit garland was painted by other artists. Garland paintings typically show a flower or fruit garland around a devotional image, other artists involved in the early development of the genre included Andries Daniels, Peter Paul Rubens and Daniel Seghers. The genre was initially connected to the imagery of the Counter-Reformation movement
Thomas Willeboirts Bosschaert
Thomas Willeboirts Bosschaert was a Dutch-born Flemish Baroque painter. Willeboirts Bosschaert was born in Bergen op Zoom, where his Catholic family had moved in the sixteenth century. He moved to Antwerp in 1628, and entered the studio of Gerard Seghers for eight years, in 1636 or 1637 he became an Antwerp citizen and joined the Guild of St. Luke. His style is influenced by Anthony van Dyck, both in history and portrait, leading some scholars to suggest that Willeboirts might have studied in that studio. Between 1641 and 1647 he worked for the Dutch stadtholder Frederik Hendrik of Orange, in 1653, a competition was held in Antwerp between him and Cornelis Schut to create an altarpiece with money that had been allocated for Van Dyck before his death. Schuts painting, The Martyrdom of St. George, Willeboirts made the grisaille centerpieces for two of Daniel Seghers garland paintings. For one of these Seghers was awarded with a solid gold maulstick, frans Baudouin, Van Dycks Last Religious Commission, An Altarpiece for Antwerp Cathedral, in Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, Vol.57.
A New General Biographical Dictionary, London, B, thoughts on Van Dycks Early Fame and Influence in Flanders, in, Van Dyck 350. Studies in the History of Art, Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts,46, edited by Susan J. Barnes and Arthur K. Wheelock, Jr. National Gallery of Art, Washington,1994, pp. 198–220
Gerard van Honthorst
Gerard van Honthorst was a Dutch Golden Age painter who became especially noted for his depiction of artificially lit scenes, eventually receiving the nickname Gherardo delle Notti. Early in his career he visited Rome, where he had great success painting in a style influenced by Caravaggio, following his return to the Netherlands he became a leading portrait painter. Honthorst was born in Utrecht, the son of a painter, and trained under his father. Having completed his education, Honthorst went to Italy, where he is first recorded in 1616 and he was one the artists from Utrecht who went to Rome at around this time, all of whom were to be deeply influenced by the recent art they encountered there. They were named the Utrecht caravaggisti, the other three were Dirk van Baburen, Hendrick ter Bruggen and Jan van Bijlert. In Rome he lodged at the palace of Vincenzo Giustiniani, where he painted Christ Before the High Priest, now in the National Gallery, Giustiniani had an important art collection, and Honthorst was especially influenced by the contemporary artists, notably Caravaggio, Bartolomeo Manfredi and the Carracci.
He was especially noted for his depiction of artificially lit scenes, cardinal Scipione Borghese became another important patron, securing important commissions for him at San Silvestro Della Mariro, and at Santa Maria della Vittoria in Rome. He worked for Cosimo II de Medici, the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Honthorst returned to Utrecht in 1620, and went on to build a considerable reputation both in the Dutch Republic and abroad. In 1623, the year of his marriage, he was president of the Guild of St. Luke in Utrecht and he soon became so fashionable that Sir Dudley Carleton, English envoy at The Hague, recommended his works to the Earl of Arundel and Lord Dorchester. In 1626 Honthorst hosted a dinner for Rubens, and painted him as the honest man sought for, through her he became known to Charles, who invited him to England in 1628. He painted a more intimate group portrait of The Four Eldest Children of the King of Bohemia, in which the two eldest are depicted as Diana and Apollo. After his return to Utrecht, Honthorst retained the patronage of the English monarch, painting for him, in 1631, at around the same time he painted some pictures illustrating the Odyssey for Lord Dorchester, and some showing incidents of Danish history for Christian IV of Denmark.
He painted a portrait of the kings daughter Countess Leonora while she was in the Hague and his popularity in the Netherlands was such that he opened a second studio in the Hague, where he painted portraits of members of the court, and taught drawing. His brother Willem van Honthorst was a portrait painter, many of Willems paintings were previously misattributed to Gerrit due to the similarity if their signatures. Willem was a pupil of Abraham Bloemaert, and was taught by his own elder brother. In 1646 he went to Berlin, where he became painter to Louise-Henriette. He returned to Utrecht in 1664, Honthorst is often referred to as Gherardo delle notti by modern Italians. However, the nickname does not actually appear in any known Italian sources dating before Honthorsts death and it was only in the 18th century that the nickname Gherardo delle notti came into widespread use
Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange
Frederick Henry, or Frederik Hendrik in Dutch, was the sovereign Prince of Orange and stadtholder of Holland, Utrecht and Overijssel from 1625 to 1647. His strategy was the neutralization of the threat of inundation of the area around s-Hertogenbosch. Frederick Henry was born on 29 January 1584 in Delft, Holland and he was the youngest child of William the Silent and Louise de Coligny. His father William was stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland and his mother Louise was daughter of the Huguenot leader Gaspard de Coligny, and was the fourth wife of his father. He was thus the brother of his predecessor Maurice of Orange. Frederick Henry was born six months before his fathers assassination on 10 July 1584, the boy was trained to arms by his elder brother Maurice, one of the finest generals of his age. After Maurice threatened to legimitize his illegitimate children if he did not marry and his illegitimate son by Margaretha Catharina Bruyns, Frederick Nassau de Zuylenstein was born in 1624 before his marriage.
This son became the governor of the young William III of England for seven years, Frederick Henry proved himself almost as good a general as his brother, and a far more capable statesman and politician. For twenty-two years he remained at the head of government in the United Provinces, the Period of Frederick Henry, as it is usually styled by Dutch writers, is generally accounted the golden age of the republic. It was marked by military and naval triumphs, by worldwide maritime and commercial expansion. Frederick Henry built the country houses Huis Honselaarsdijk, Huis ter Nieuwburg, and for his wife Huis ten Bosch, Huis Honselaarsdijk and Huis ter Nieuwburg are now demolished. Frederick Henry died on 14 March 1647 in The Hague, Holland and he left his wife Amalia of Solms-Braunfels, his son William II, Prince of Orange, four of his daughters, and his illegitimate son Frederick Nassau de Zuylestein. On Frederick Henrys death, he was buried with great pomp beside his father and brother at Delft, Frederick Henry left an account of his campaigns in his Mémoires de Frédéric Henri.
His widow commissioned a mausoleum in the Oranjezaal, a panoramic painted ballroom with scenes from his life. Frederick Henry and his wife Amalia of Solms-Braunfels had nine children, the Dutch Republic, Its Rise and Fall 1477-1806 excerpt and text search pp 506–45 Frederik Hendrik. Een biografisch drieluik, a biography by J. J
Christiaen van Couwenbergh
Christiaen van Couwenbergh, was a Dutch Golden Age painter. His father Gillis was a silversmith and art dealer from Mechelen, Gillis had moved to Delft before 1604 where he married Adriaantje Vosmaer, the sister of the flower painter Jacob Vosmaer. Christiaen learned to paint from Johan van Nes, and entered the Guild of St. Luke in Delft in 1627 and he travelled back and forth to Italy. After his return, he settled in The Hague where he joined the Confrerie Pictura in 1647 and he specialized in large historical allegories as wall decorations, often with life-sized nudes. He not only painted, but produced drawings and designs for tapestries and his patrons were Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, among other royal admirers, for wall decorations at Huis ter Nieuwburg, Huis ten Bosch and Huis Honselaarsdijk. Queen Christina of Sweden purchased a series of tapestries designed by him and he moved to Cologne between 1654-1656, where he died. He is known for portraits and historical allegories and is judged to be one of those influenced by Caravaggio and The Delft School, a full text exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which has material on Christiaen van Couwenbergh
Jacob Jordaens was a Flemish painter and tapestry designer known for his history paintings, genre scenes and portraits. After Peter Paul Rubens and Anthony van Dyck, he was the leading Flemish Baroque painter of his day, unlike those contemporaries he never travelled abroad to study Italian painting, and his career is marked by an indifference to their intellectual and courtly aspirations. In fact, except for a few trips to locations in the Low Countries. As well as being a painter, he was a prominent designer of tapestries. Jordaens main artistic influences, besides Rubens and the Brueghel family, were northern Italian painters such as Jacopo Bassano, Paolo Veronese, and Caravaggio. Jacob Jordaens was born on 19 May 1593, the first of eleven children, to the wealthy linen merchant Jacob Jordaens Sr. little is known about Jordaens early education. It can be assumed that he received the advantages of the education provided for children of his social class. This assumption is supported by his handwriting, his competence in French.
Like Rubens, he studied under Adam van Noort, who was his only teacher, during this time Jordaens lived in Van Noorts house in the Everdijstraat and became very close to the rest of the family. After eight years of training with Van Noort, he enrolled in the Guild of St. Luke as a waterschilder and this medium was often used for preparing tapestry cartoons in the seventeenth century. Although examples of his earliest watercolour works are no longer extant, in the same year as his entry into the guild,1616, he married his teachers eldest daughter, Anna Catharina van Noort, with whom he had three children. In 1618, Jordaens bought a house in Hoogstraat and he would later buy the adjoining house to expand his household and workspace in 1639, mimicking Rubens house built two decades earlier. He lived and worked here until his death in 1678, Jordaens never made the traditional trip to Italy to study classical and Renaissance art. Despite this, he made efforts to study prints or works of Italian masters available in northern Europe.
For example, Jordaens is known to have studied Titian, Veronese and his commissions frequently came from wealthy local Flemish patrons and clergy, although in his career he worked for courts and governments across Europe. Besides a large output of oil paintings he was a prolific tapestry designer. Jordaens importance can be seen by his number of pupils, among them were his cousin and his son Jacob. Like Rubens and other artists at that time, Jordaens studio relied on his assistants, not many of these pupils went on to fame themselves, however a position in Jordaens studio was highly desirable for young artists from across Europe