An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra and soloists. Like most operas, an oratorio includes the use of a choir, soloists, an instrumental ensemble, various distinguishable characters, arias. However, opera is musical theatre, while oratorio is a concert piece – though oratorios are sometimes staged as operas, operas are sometimes presented in concert form. In an oratorio the choir plays a central role, there is little or no interaction between the characters, no props or elaborate costumes. A important difference is in the typical subject matter of the text. Opera tends to deal with history and mythology, including age-old devices of romance and murder, whereas the plot of an oratorio deals with sacred topics, making it appropriate for performance in the church. Protestant composers took their stories from the Bible, while Catholic composers looked to the lives of saints, as well as to Biblical topics. Oratorios became popular in early 17th-century Italy because of the success of opera and the Catholic Church's prohibition of spectacles during Lent.
Oratorios became the main choice of music during that period for opera audiences. The word oratorio comes from the Latin verb orare. Hence oratory; the musical composition was "named from the kind of musical services held in the church of the Oratory of St. Philip Neri in Rome in the latter half of the 16th cent." Although medieval plays such as the Ludus Danielis, Renaissance dialogue motets such as those of the Oltremontani had characteristics of an oratorio, the first oratorio is seen as Emilio de Cavalieri's Rappresentatione di Anima, et di Corpo. Monteverdi composed Il Combattimento di Tancredi e Clorinda which can be considered as the first secular oratorio; the origins of the oratorio can be found in sacred dialogues in Italy. These were settings of Biblical, Latin texts and musically were quite similar to motets. There was a strong narrative, dramatic emphasis and there were conversational exchanges between characters in the work. Giovanni Francesco Anerio's Teatro harmonico spirituale is a set of 14 dialogues, the longest of, 20 minutes long and covers the conversion of St. Paul and is for four soloists: Historicus, tenor.
There is a four-part chorus to represent any crowds in the drama. The music is contrapuntal and madrigal-like. Philip Neri's Congregazione dell'Oratorio featured the singing of spiritual laude; these became more and more popular and were performed in specially built oratories by professional musicians. Again, these were chiefly based on dramatic and narrative elements. Sacred opera provided another impetus for dialogues, they expanded in length. Cavalieri's Rappresentatione di Anima, et di Corpo is an example of one of these works, but technically it is not an oratorio because it features acting and dancing, it does, however contain music in the monodic style. The first oratorio to be called by that name is Pietro della Valle's Oratorio della Purificazione, but due to its brevity and the fact that its other name was "dialogue", we can see that there was much ambiguity in these names. During the second half of the 17th century, there were trends toward the secularization of the religious oratorio.
Evidence of this lies in its regular performance outside church halls in public theaters. Whether religious or secular, the theme of an oratorio is meant to be weighty, it could include such topics as Creation, the life of Jesus, or the career of a classical hero or Biblical prophet. Other changes took place as well because most composers of oratorios were popular composers of operas, they began to publish the librettos of their oratorios. Strong emphasis was soon placed on arias. Female singers became employed, replaced the male narrator with the use of recitatives. By the mid-17th century, two types had developed: oratorio volgare – representative examples include: Giacomo Carissimi's Daniele Marco Marazzoli's S Tomaso similar works written by Francesco Foggia, Luigi RossiLasting about 30–60 minutes, oratori volgari were performed in two sections, separated by a sermon. Oratorio latino – first developed at the Oratorio del Santissimo Crocifisso, related to the church of San Marcello al Corso in Rome.
The most significant composers of oratorio latino were in France Marc-Antoine Charpentier, 34 works, in Italy Giacomo Carissimi, whose Jephte is regarded as the first masterpiece of the genre. Like most other Latin oratorios of the period, it is in one section only. In the late baroque oratorios became "sacred opera". In Rome and Naples Alessandro Scarlatti was the most noted composer. In Vienna the court poet Metastasio produced annually a series of oratorios for the court which were set by Caldara and others. Metastasio's best known oratorio libretto La passione di Gesù Cristo was set by at least 35 composers from 1730–90. In Germany the middle baroque oratorios moved from the early-baroque Historia style Christmas and Resurrection settings of Heinrich Schütz, to the Passions of J. S. Bach, oratorio-passions such as Der Tod Jesu set by Telemann and Carl Heinrich Graun. After Telemann came the galante oratorio style of C. P. E. Bach; the Georgian era saw German-born composer define the English oratorio.
Flavio Oscar Cianciarulo, a.k.a. Sr. Flavio, is the electric and upright bass player from the reunited Argentine band Los Fabulosos Cadillacs and Latin American supergroup De La Tierra. Sr. Flavio has been the bass player from the beginning of the band when they were called Cadillac 57, he sang many of the songs, was one of the main songwriters of the band along with singer Vicentico. After the unofficial separation of the band Sr. Flavio began a solo career, first with Flavio Calaveralma Trío and with La Mandinga, he has released a folklore and heavy metal album in collaboration with Ricardo Iorio and an album with Misterio, a band he formed with his son Ástor and Nico Valle. In 2012 he joined Latin American groove metal quartet De La Tierra with members of Sepultura, A. N. I. M. A. L. and Mana Flavio Solo, Viejo y Peludo Welcome to Terror Dance Nueva ola Peso Argento El marplatense Cachivache Sonidero Supersaund 2012 Beat Zombie Flavio Cianciarulo on IMDb
Lincoln's Inn Society was the only social club based at Harvard Law School, in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Its name echoed Lincoln's Inn in London, one of the four Inns of Court where English barristers are based. Lincoln's Inn was known as Choate Inn of the International Legal Fraternity of Phi Delta Phi but became a private club when the Harvard Faculty voted to ban all fraternities in 1907; the Inn was a student-run refuge. As a student-owned club, Lincoln's Inn is beyond university regulation; the Inn had a diverse and dynamic membership, open to all members of the HLS community. Lincoln's Inn membership was once male but it now admits women, women have been President of the Society on numerous occasions, it has become popular with first-year students as a way to meet their classmates. Lincoln's Inn Society merged with HL Central in 2007, following declining membership and a lack of funds; the Lincoln's Inn Society was founded in 1907 by three Harvard Law School students who hoped to found a social organization to provide some relief from the stress of law school.
Some of the most distinguished members of the legal profession count themselves among the society's over 3,200 alumni, including U. S. Supreme Court Justices Stephen Breyer, Anthony Kennedy and David Souter, several U. S. Senators and Representatives, managing partners from the nation's most prestigious law firms; the Inn is more than a gathering place. The Inn has a lively social calendar that includes some of the most exciting events at the Law School. Winter Dinner: The flagship event of the Inn is the annual Winter Dinner, a black tie/formal event held at a downtown hotel. Members meet early in the evening at the Inn for the signing of the annual poster, a tradition as old as the Inn itself. Original posters from as far back as 1918 can be found adorning the walls of the house. Tickets are free. In 2007, due to a lack of funds, the winter dinner was not held, but members of the Society hope to reinstate it soon. Harvard/Yale Game: Harvard may not be a university known for its athletics, but the annual Harvard/Yale game is a tradition that Inn members, most of the community, can get excited about.
The Inn provides a pre-game tailgate party and, when the game is held at Yale, a bus to transport members to New Haven to cheer on the Crimson. Theme Parties: The Inn throws a number of festive themed events throughout the year; some past highlights have included "Hell," the Inn's annual Halloween party. Spring Fling: In the mid 2000s, the Spring Fling offered students a chance to unwind a bit from their pre-exam stress by taking a scenic boat cruise of Boston Harbor. In some years, the Spring Fling has been a semi-formal dance as well. A poster signed by all the current members is drawn every year to commemorate that year's Christmas/Winter Dinner; the Inn itself is an historic three-story Victorian house located across the street from the Law School campus. The house's amenities, before renovation, included three fireplaces, a pool table, a foosball table and a refurbished sports bar. All members receive full access to the Inn during its operating hours. In 2007, the inn was renovated to change the second floor into offices and provide a more academic feel.
Lincoln's Inn is located at 44 Follen Street. The property is owned by the society; the house is over 100 years old and has housed Lincoln's Inn for 60 years. Judiciary Stephen Breyer'64 — Associate Justice of the Supreme Court Anthony Kennedy'61 — Associate Justice of the Supreme Court David Souter'66 — Associate Justice of the Supreme Court Laurence Silberman'61 – Senior Judge, United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia CircuitPolitics Joseph Califano'55 — Former U. S. Secretary of Health and Welfare Jim Cooper'80 — U. S. Congressman from Tennessee Bob Graham'62 — Former U. S. Senator from Florida Ken Mehlman'91 — Chairman of the Republican National Committee Larry Pressler'71 — Former U. S. Senator from South Dakota Ted Stevens'50 — U. S. Senator from Alaska Clark T. Randt, Jr.'74 — U. S. Ambassador to China Jack Reed'82 — U. S. Senator from Rhode IslandBusiness Victor F. Ganzi'71 — President and CEO of the Hearst Corporation Laurance Rockefeller — Financier and philanthropistLaw Firm Robert Joffe'67 — Former Presiding Partner of Cravath Swaine & MooreAcademia Roger Fisher'48 — Professor at Harvard Law School, Author of "Getting to Yes" John H. Langbein'68 — Professor at Yale Law School Charles Nesson'63 — Professor at Harvard Law School Lincoln's Inn blog