Ablitas is a town and municipality located in the province and autonomous community of Navarra, northern Spain. From:INE Archiv ABLITAS in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Ablitas Website
Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey
Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey, 1st Duke of Conegliano, 1st Baron of Conegliano, Peer of France, Marshal of France, was a prominent soldier in the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars. He became Governor of the Hôtel des Invalides. MONCEY is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe, on Column 33, he was born on 31 July 1754 in Moncey, Doubs. His father was a lawyer from Besançon. In his boyhood he twice enlisted in the French army, but his father procured his discharge on both occasions, his desire was at last gratified in 1778. He was a captain. Moncey won great distinction in the campaigns of 1793 and 1794 during the War of the Pyrenees, rising from the commander of a battalion to the commander-in-chief of the Army of the Western Pyrenees in a few months, his successful operations were instrumental in compelling the Spanish government to make peace. After this he was employed in the highest commands until 1799, when the government, suspecting him of Royalist views, dismissed him.
From 1801-15 he was inspector general of the police. The coup d'état of 18 Brumaire in 1799 brought him back to the active list, in Napoleon's Italian campaign of 1800 he led a corps from Switzerland into Italy, surmounting all the difficulties of bringing horses and guns over the formidable Gotthard Pass. In 1801, Napoleon made him inspector-general of the French Gendarmerie, on the assumption of the imperial title created him a Marshal of France. In 1805 Moncey received the grand cordon of the legion of honor. In July 1808 he was made duke of Conegliano; the title was confirmed under the Bourbon Restoration, since he had no surviving son, the Marshal was granted permission to pass it to his son-in-law. The same year, the first of the Peninsular War, Moncey was sent to Spain in command of an army corps, he distinguished himself by his victorious advance on Valencia, but the effect of, destroyed by Dupont's defeat at the Battle of Bailén. Moncey took a leading part in the emperor's campaign on the Ebro and in the Second Siege of Saragossa in 1809.
He refused to serve in the invasion of Russia, therefore had no share in the campaign of the Grande Armée in 1812 and 1813. However, when France was invaded in 1814, Marshal Moncey reappeared in the field and fought the last battle for Paris on the heights of Montmartre and at the barrier of Clichy. In 1814 he was created a Peer of France as Baron of Conegliano, he remained neutral during Napoleon's return, the'Hundred Days', feeling himself bound to Louis XVIII by his engagements as a Peer of France, but after Waterloo he was punished for refusing to take part in the court martial of Marshal Ney by imprisonment and the loss of his marshalate and peerage. The King returned his title of Marshal in 1816, he re-entered the chamber of peers three years later, he continued his military career: his last active service was as commander of an army corps in the short war with Spain in 1823. From 1833 to 1842, he became Governor of the prestigious Hôtel des Invalides. Present at the return of Napoleon's body in December 1840, he said after the ceremony, "Now, let's go home to die".
He married Charlotte Prospère Remillet, by whom he had 3 children: Anne-Francoise, married to Louis-Charles Bourlon de Chevigné, permitted by the King to add "de Moncey" to his surname in 1819. Bon-Louis Jeanne-Francoise, married Alphonse-Auguste Duchesne de Gillevoisin de Conegliano, 2nd Baron de Gillevoisin and 2nd Duke of Conegliano and 2nd Baron of Conegliano, who inherited his father-in-law's titles; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Moncey, Bon Adrien Jeannot de". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. Cambridge University Press. P. 693. Beckett, Ian F. W.. "Moncey: An Honest Man". In Chandler, David G. Napoleon's Marshals. New York, N. Y.: Macmillan. ISBN 0-02-905930-5. Clerget, Charles. Tableaux des Armées Françaises pendant les Guerres de la Révolution. Paris: Librarie Militaire R. Chapelot et Cie. Retrieved 25 July 2015
A municipality is a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns and hamlets; the term municipality may mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district; the term is derived from French Latin municipalis. The English word municipality derives from the Latin social contract municipium, referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments. A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, to a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York.
The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass only one populated place such as a city, town, or village several of such places only parts of such places, sometimes boroughs of a city such as the 34 municipalities of Santiago, Chile. Powers of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state. Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, corporate income tax, but may receive substantial funding from the state. In various countries, municipalities are referred to as "communes", notably in Romance languages such as French commune, Italian comune, Romanian comună, Spanish comuna, in Germanic languages such as German Kommune, Swedish kommun, Faroese kommuna, Norwegian, Danish kommune. However, in Moldova and Romania exist both municipalities and communes, a commune may be part of a municipality. Similar terms include Spanish ayuntamiento called municipalidad, Polish gmina, Dutch/Flemish Gemeente and Luxembourgish Gemeng.
In Australia, the term local government area is used in place of the generic municipality. Here, the "LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia. Incorporated areas are designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility." In Canada, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation within general municipal statutes. Types of municipalities within Canada include cities, district municipalities, municipal districts, parishes, rural municipalities, townships and villes among others; the Province of Ontario has different tiers of municipalities, including lower and single tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario include regional municipalities. Nova Scotia has regional municipalities, which include cities, districts, or towns as municipal units. In India, a Municipality or Nagar Palika is an urban local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. However, there are exceptions to that, as Municipality were constituted in urban centers with population over 20,000, so all the urban bodies which were classified as Municipality were reclassified as Municipality if their population was under 100,000.
Under the Panchayati Raj system, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in. Smaller district cities and bigger towns have a Municipality. Municipality are a form of local self-government entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined in the Constitutional Act,1992. In the United Kingdom, the term was used until the 1972 Local Government Act came into effect in 1974 in England and Wales, until 1975 in Scotland and 1976 in Northern Ireland, "both for a city or town, organized for self-government under a municipal corporation, for the governing body itself; such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, of superior members, as aldermen and councillors". Since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is known as a district, in Scotland as a council area. A district can retain its district title. In Jersey, a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12 parishes into which it is subdivided.
This is the highest level of regional government in this jurisdiction. In Trinidad and Tobago, "municipality" is understood as a city, town, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. A town may be awarded borough status and on may be upgraded to city status. Chaguanas, San Fernando, Port of Spain and Point Fortin are the 5 current municipalities in Trinidad and Tobago. In the United States, "municipality" is understood as a city, village, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. In a state law contex
Battle of Orbaizeta
The Battle of Orbaizeta was fought from 15 to 17 October 1794 during the War of the Pyrenees, between the French Army of the western Pyrenees led by Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey and Spanish forces under the command of Pedro Téllez-Girón, 9th Duke of Osuna. Part of the wider French Revolutionary Wars, this engagement was fought over a wide area to the northwest and northeast of Pamplona in Navarre and ended in a French victory; the Spanish defenders gave up territory to the north of Pamplona, including a number of strategic locations. While 1793 saw no important battles in the western Pyrenees, the following year saw significant action. With General of Division Jacques Léonard Muller leading the Army of the western Pyrenees, minor engagements occurred at Hendaye on 5 February, Izpegi Pass on 3 June, at Bera on 23 June. In late July, Muller put MG Moncey in charge of three divisions, including his own and those of MG Henri Delaborde and MG Jean Henri Guy Nicolas de Frégeville. With this force, Moncey won the Battle of the Baztan Valley and followed up his success by capturing Pasaia, San Sebastián and Tolosa.
Promoted to command the army for his great success, Moncey planned to lay siege to the Spanish fortress of Pamplona. On 15 October 1794, Moncey launched an offensive on a broad front with 46,000 troops. Commanding the French divisions were Generals of Division Delaborde, Frégeville, Jean Mauco, Thomas-Alexandre Dumas, Jean-Antoine Marbot. Generals of Brigade Antoine Digonet, Pierre Rouché, Louis Hyacinthe Le Feron, Pierre Bories de Castelpers, Jean Daniel Pinet led brigades during the operation. Lieutenant General Duke of Osuna commanded the 13,000 Spanish defenders of Navarre, his commanders were Generals Manuel Cagigal, Antonio Filangieri and Marquis de la Canada Ibagniez. Moncey launched his offensive from the Baztan valley, from the area of Roncevaux Pass to the south toward Pamplona. On the west, the attack was from Leitza toward Lekunberri. In the center, the direction of advance was from Doneztebe across the Donamaria Pass and from Elizondo across the Puerto de Belate toward Sorauren. In the east, the French moved from Roncesvalles southeast to the Rio Urroti valley and southwest to the Rio Irati.
Moncey, who had "a particular penchant for encircling movements" hoped to cut off substantial enemy forces. On 15 October, Delaborde's division attacked Filangieri at Mezkiritz, 8 kilometres southwest of Roncesvalles; the French deployed 640 dragoons and hussars. The Spanish suffered 200 killed and 724 captured out of a total of 4,000 troops engaged, while French losses are unknown; the French captured Lekunberri on 16 October and Villanueva, 9 kilometres farther south, on 17 October. Both villages were at the western end of the line. At the eastern extremity, Orbaizeta fell together with its arms foundry, 4 kilometres north of the village; the French captured the Spanish navy's mast store on the Irati and a second foundry at Egui. The offensive stopped short of Pamplona because the Representatives-on-mission did not authorize a further advance; the bulk of the defenders escaped encirclement. One authority faults Delaborde for failing to cut off the Spanish; the Spanish losses numbered about 4,000 soldiers killed and missing.
In addition, the French seized 50 artillery pieces. French casualties are unknown; the French gained ground closer to the Pamplona fortress. Worse for the Spanish was the loss of two arms foundries and the navy's mast store. In November 1794, the Spanish suffered a disaster at the Battle of the Black Mountain in the eastern Pyrenees. A deadly outbreak of disease stalled French operations in the western Pyrenees during the winter 1794–1795. In June 1795, Moncey launched a victorious advance to the west, taking Bilbao; the Peace of Basel on 22 July 1795 brought the war to a close. When the news of peace reached the front in August, Moncey's advance was across the Ebro, while other forces prepared to invest Pamplona. Footnotes Citations French Wikipedia Liste des généraux de la Révolution et du Premier Empire
Bakaiku is a town and municipality located in the province and autonomous community of Navarre, northern Spain. It is an average 515 m above mean sea level. BAKAIKU in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Bakaiku, pueblos of Spain
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Navarre. The capital city is Pamplona; the first documented use of a name resembling Navarra, Nafarroa, or Naparroa is a reference to navarros, in Eginhard's early-9th-century chronicle of the feats of the Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne. Other Royal Frankish Annals feature nabarros. There are two proposed etymologies for the name. Basque nabar: "brownish", "multicolour". Basque naba: "valley", "plain" + Basque herri; the linguist Joan Coromines considers naba to be linguistically part of a wider Vasconic or Aquitanian language substrate, rather than Basque per se. During the Roman Empire, the Vascones, a pre-Roman tribe, populated the southern slopes of the Pyrenees, including the area which would become Navarre. In the mountainous north, the Vascones escaped large-scale Roman settlement, except for some coastal areas—for example Oiasso —and the flatter areas to the south, which were amenable to large-scale Roman farming—vineyards and wheat crops. There is no evidence of battles fought or general hostility between Romans and Basques, as they had the same enemies.
Neither the Visigoths nor the Franks completely subjugated the area. The Vascones assimilated neighbouring tribes as of the 7th century AD. In the year 778, the Basques defeated a Frankish army at the Battle of Roncevaux Pass. Following the Battle of Roncevaux Pass, the Basque chieftain Iñigo Arista was elected King of Pamplona supported by the muwallad Banu Qasi of Tudela, establishing a Basque kingdom, called Navarre; that kingdom reached its zenith during the reign of Sancho III, comprising most of the Christian realms to the south of the Pyrenees, a short overlordship of Gascony. When Sancho III died in 1035, the kingdom was divided between his sons, it never recovered its political power, while its commercial importance increased as traders and pilgrims poured into the kingdom via the Way of Saint James. In 1200, Navarre lost the key western Basque districts to Alphonse VIII of Castile, leaving the kingdom landlocked. Navarre contributed with a small but symbolic force of 200 knights to the decisive Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212 against the Almohads.
The native line of kings came to an end in 1234. However, the Navarrese kept most of their strong institutions; the death of Queen Blanche I inaugurated a civil war period between the Beaumont and Agramont confederacies with the intervention of the Castilian-Aragonese House of Trastámara in Navarre's internal affairs. In 1512, Navarre was invaded by Ferdinand the Catholic's troops, with Queen Catherine and King John III withdrawing to the north of the Pyrenees, establishing a Kingdom of Navarre-Béarn, led by Queen Joan III as of 1555. To the south of the Pyrenees, Navarre was annexed to the Crown of Castile, but kept a separate ambiguous status, a shaky balance up to 1610—King Henry III ready to march over Spanish Navarre. A Chartered Government was established, the kingdom managed to keep home rule. Tensions with the Spanish government came to a head as of 1794, when Spanish premier Manuel Godoy attempted to suppress Navarrese and Basque self-government altogether, with the end of the First Carlist War bringing the kingdom and its home rule to an end.
After the 1839 Convention of Bergara, a reduced version of home rule was passed in 1839. However, the 1841 Act for the Modification of Fueros made the kingdom into a province after a compromise was reached by the Spanish government with officials of the Provincial Council of Navarre; the relocation of customs from the Ebro river to the Pyrenees in 1841 prompted the collapse of Navarre’s customary cross-Pyrenean trade and the rise of smuggling. Amid instability in Spain, Carlists took over in the rest of the Basque provinces. An actual Basque state was established during the Third Carlist War with Estella as its capital, but King Alfonso XII's restoration in the throne of Spain and a counter-attack prompted the Carlist defeat; the end of the Third Carlist War saw a renewed wave of Spanish centralisation directly affecting Navarre. In 1893–1894 the Gamazada popular uprising took place centred in Pamplona against Madrid's governmental decisions breaching the 1841 chartered provisions. Except for a small faction, all parties in Navarre agreed on the need for a new political framework based on home rule within the Laurak Bat, the Basque districts in Spain.
Among these, the Carlists stood out, who politically dominated the province, resented an increased string of rulings and laws passed by Madrid, as well as left leaning influences. Unlike Biscay or Gipuzkoa, Navarre did not develop manufacturing during this period, remaining a rural economy. In 1932, a Basque Country's separate statute failed to take off over disagreements on the centrality of Catholicism, a scene of political radicalisation ensued dividing the leftist and rightist forces during the 2nd