1.
Electron
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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol e− or β−, with a negative elementary electric charge. Electrons belong to the first generation of the lepton particle family, the electron has a mass that is approximately 1/1836 that of the proton. Quantum mechanical properties of the include a intrinsic angular momentum of a half-integer value, expressed in units of the reduced Planck constant. As it is a fermion, no two electrons can occupy the same state, in accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle. Like all elementary particles, electrons exhibit properties of particles and waves, they can collide with other particles and can be diffracted like light. Since an electron has charge, it has an electric field. Electromagnetic fields produced from other sources will affect the motion of an electron according to the Lorentz force law, electrons radiate or absorb energy in the form of photons when they are accelerated. Laboratory instruments are capable of trapping individual electrons as well as electron plasma by the use of electromagnetic fields, special telescopes can detect electron plasma in outer space. Electrons are involved in applications such as electronics, welding, cathode ray tubes, electron microscopes, radiation therapy, lasers, gaseous ionization detectors. Interactions involving electrons with other particles are of interest in fields such as chemistry. The Coulomb force interaction between the positive protons within atomic nuclei and the negative electrons without, allows the composition of the two known as atoms, ionization or differences in the proportions of negative electrons versus positive nuclei changes the binding energy of an atomic system. The exchange or sharing of the electrons between two or more atoms is the cause of chemical bonding. In 1838, British natural philosopher Richard Laming first hypothesized the concept of a quantity of electric charge to explain the chemical properties of atoms. Irish physicist George Johnstone Stoney named this charge electron in 1891, electrons can also participate in nuclear reactions, such as nucleosynthesis in stars, where they are known as beta particles. Electrons can be created through beta decay of isotopes and in high-energy collisions. The antiparticle of the electron is called the positron, it is identical to the electron except that it carries electrical, when an electron collides with a positron, both particles can be totally annihilated, producing gamma ray photons. The ancient Greeks noticed that amber attracted small objects when rubbed with fur, along with lightning, this phenomenon is one of humanitys earliest recorded experiences with electricity. In his 1600 treatise De Magnete, the English scientist William Gilbert coined the New Latin term electricus, both electric and electricity are derived from the Latin ēlectrum, which came from the Greek word for amber, ἤλεκτρον
2.
Angular momentum
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In physics, angular momentum is the rotational analog of linear momentum. It is an important quantity in physics because it is a conserved quantity – the angular momentum of a system remains constant unless acted on by an external torque. The definition of momentum for a point particle is a pseudovector r×p. This definition can be applied to each point in continua like solids or fluids, unlike momentum, angular momentum does depend on where the origin is chosen, since the particles position is measured from it. The angular momentum of an object can also be connected to the angular velocity ω of the object via the moment of inertia I. However, while ω always points in the direction of the rotation axis, Angular momentum is additive, the total angular momentum of a system is the vector sum of the angular momenta. For continua or fields one uses integration, torque can be defined as the rate of change of angular momentum, analogous to force. Applications include the gyrocompass, control moment gyroscope, inertial systems, reaction wheels, flying discs or Frisbees. In general, conservation does limit the motion of a system. In quantum mechanics, angular momentum is an operator with quantized eigenvalues, Angular momentum is subject to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, meaning only one component can be measured with definite precision, the other two cannot. Also, the spin of elementary particles does not correspond to literal spinning motion, Angular momentum is a vector quantity that represents the product of a bodys rotational inertia and rotational velocity about a particular axis. Angular momentum can be considered an analog of linear momentum. Thus, where momentum is proportional to mass m and linear speed v, p = m v, angular momentum is proportional to moment of inertia I. Unlike mass, which only on amount of matter, moment of inertia is also dependent on the position of the axis of rotation. Unlike linear speed, which occurs in a line, angular speed occurs about a center of rotation. Therefore, strictly speaking, L should be referred to as the angular momentum relative to that center and this simple analysis can also apply to non-circular motion if only the component of the motion which is perpendicular to the radius vector is considered. In that case, L = r m v ⊥, where v ⊥ = v sin θ is the component of the motion. It is this definition, × to which the moment of momentum refers
3.
Spin (physics)
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In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles, and atomic nuclei. Spin is one of two types of angular momentum in mechanics, the other being orbital angular momentum. In some ways, spin is like a vector quantity, it has a definite magnitude, all elementary particles of a given kind have the same magnitude of spin angular momentum, which is indicated by assigning the particle a spin quantum number. The SI unit of spin is the or, just as with classical angular momentum, very often, the spin quantum number is simply called spin leaving its meaning as the unitless spin quantum number to be inferred from context. When combined with the theorem, the spin of electrons results in the Pauli exclusion principle. Wolfgang Pauli was the first to propose the concept of spin, in 1925, Ralph Kronig, George Uhlenbeck and Samuel Goudsmit at Leiden University suggested an physical interpretation of particles spinning around their own axis. The mathematical theory was worked out in depth by Pauli in 1927, when Paul Dirac derived his relativistic quantum mechanics in 1928, electron spin was an essential part of it. As the name suggests, spin was originally conceived as the rotation of a particle around some axis and this picture is correct so far as spin obeys the same mathematical laws as quantized angular momenta do. On the other hand, spin has some properties that distinguish it from orbital angular momenta. Although the direction of its spin can be changed, a particle cannot be made to spin faster or slower. The spin of a particle is associated with a magnetic dipole moment with a g-factor differing from 1. This could only occur if the internal charge of the particle were distributed differently from its mass. The conventional definition of the quantum number, s, is s = n/2. Hence the allowed values of s are 0, 1/2,1, 3/2,2, the value of s for an elementary particle depends only on the type of particle, and cannot be altered in any known way. The spin angular momentum, S, of any system is quantized. The allowed values of S are S = ℏ s = h 4 π n, in contrast, orbital angular momentum can only take on integer values of s, i. e. even-numbered values of n. Those particles with half-integer spins, such as 1/2, 3/2, 5/2, are known as fermions, while particles with integer spins. The two families of particles obey different rules and broadly have different roles in the world around us, a key distinction between the two families is that fermions obey the Pauli exclusion principle, that is, there cannot be two identical fermions simultaneously having the same quantum numbers
4.
Quantum mechanics
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Quantum mechanics, including quantum field theory, is a branch of physics which is the fundamental theory of nature at small scales and low energies of atoms and subatomic particles. Classical physics, the physics existing before quantum mechanics, derives from quantum mechanics as an approximation valid only at large scales, early quantum theory was profoundly reconceived in the mid-1920s. The reconceived theory is formulated in various specially developed mathematical formalisms, in one of them, a mathematical function, the wave function, provides information about the probability amplitude of position, momentum, and other physical properties of a particle. In 1803, Thomas Young, an English polymath, performed the famous experiment that he later described in a paper titled On the nature of light. This experiment played a role in the general acceptance of the wave theory of light. In 1838, Michael Faraday discovered cathode rays, Plancks hypothesis that energy is radiated and absorbed in discrete quanta precisely matched the observed patterns of black-body radiation. In 1896, Wilhelm Wien empirically determined a distribution law of black-body radiation, ludwig Boltzmann independently arrived at this result by considerations of Maxwells equations. However, it was only at high frequencies and underestimated the radiance at low frequencies. Later, Planck corrected this model using Boltzmanns statistical interpretation of thermodynamics and proposed what is now called Plancks law, following Max Plancks solution in 1900 to the black-body radiation problem, Albert Einstein offered a quantum-based theory to explain the photoelectric effect. Among the first to study quantum phenomena in nature were Arthur Compton, C. V. Raman, robert Andrews Millikan studied the photoelectric effect experimentally, and Albert Einstein developed a theory for it. In 1913, Peter Debye extended Niels Bohrs theory of structure, introducing elliptical orbits. This phase is known as old quantum theory, according to Planck, each energy element is proportional to its frequency, E = h ν, where h is Plancks constant. Planck cautiously insisted that this was simply an aspect of the processes of absorption and emission of radiation and had nothing to do with the reality of the radiation itself. In fact, he considered his quantum hypothesis a mathematical trick to get the right rather than a sizable discovery. He won the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics for this work, lower energy/frequency means increased time and vice versa, photons of differing frequencies all deliver the same amount of action, but do so in varying time intervals. High frequency waves are damaging to human tissue because they deliver their action packets concentrated in time, the Copenhagen interpretation of Niels Bohr became widely accepted. In the mid-1920s, developments in mechanics led to its becoming the standard formulation for atomic physics. In the summer of 1925, Bohr and Heisenberg published results that closed the old quantum theory, out of deference to their particle-like behavior in certain processes and measurements, light quanta came to be called photons
5.
Angular momentum operator
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In quantum mechanics, the angular momentum operator is one of several related operators analogous to classical angular momentum. The angular momentum operator plays a role in the theory of atomic physics. In both classical and quantum systems, angular momentum is one of the three fundamental properties of motion. There are several angular momentum operators, total angular momentum, orbital angular momentum, the term angular momentum operator can refer to either the total or the orbital angular momentum. Total angular momentum is conserved, see Noethers theorem. The classical definition of momentum is L = r × p. This can be carried over to quantum mechanics, by reinterpreting r as the position operator. L is then an operator, specifically called the angular momentum operator. Specifically, L is an operator, meaning L =. However, there is type of angular momentum, called spin angular momentum. Almost all elementary particles have spin, spin is often depicted as a particle literally spinning around an axis, but this is only a metaphor, spin is an intrinsic property of a particle, unrelated to any sort of motion in space. All elementary particles have a spin, for example electrons always have spin 1/2 while photons always have spin 1. However, L and S are not generally conserved, for example, the spin–orbit interaction allows angular momentum to transfer back and forth between L and S, with the total J remaining constant. The orbital angular momentum operator is an operator, meaning it can be written in terms of its vector components L =. The components have the commutation relations with each other, = i ℏ L z, = i ℏ L x, = i ℏ L y. This can be written generally as = i ℏ ∑ n =13 ε l m n L n, where l, m, n are the component indices, and εlmn denotes the Levi-Civita symbol. There is a relationship in classical physics, = ε i j k L k where Ln is a component of the classical angular momentum operator. The same commutation relations apply for the angular momentum operators
6.
Nuclear magnetic resonance
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Nuclear magnetic resonance is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation. NMR allows the observation of quantum mechanical magnetic properties of the atomic nucleus. Many scientific techniques exploit NMR phenomena to study physics, crystals. NMR is also used in advanced medical imaging techniques, such as in magnetic resonance imaging. The most commonly studied nuclei are 1H and 13C, although nuclei from isotopes of other elements have been studied by high-field NMR spectroscopy as well. A key feature of NMR is that the frequency of a particular substance is directly proportional to the strength of the applied magnetic field. Since the resolution of the technique depends on the magnitude of magnetic field gradient, many efforts are made to develop increased field strength. The effectiveness of NMR can also be improved using hyperpolarization, and/or using two-dimensional, three-dimensional and higher-dimensional multi-frequency techniques, the principle of NMR usually involves two sequential steps, The alignment of the magnetic nuclear spins in an applied, constant magnetic field B0. The perturbation of this alignment of the nuclear spins by employing an electro-magnetic, the required perturbing frequency is dependent upon the static magnetic field and the nuclei of observation. The two fields are chosen to be perpendicular to each other as this maximizes the NMR signal strength. The resulting response by the magnetization of the nuclear spins is the phenomenon that is exploited in NMR spectroscopy. NMR phenomena are also utilized in low-field NMR, NMR spectroscopy and MRI in the Earths magnetic field, in 1946, Felix Bloch and Edward Mills Purcell expanded the technique for use on liquids and solids, for which they shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1952. Yevgeny Zavoisky likely observed nuclear magnetic resonance in 1941, well before Felix Bloch and Edward Mills Purcell, russell H. Varian filed the Method and means for correlating nuclear properties of atoms and magnetic fields, U. S. Patent 2,561,490 on July 24,1951, Varian Associates developed the first NMR unit called NMR HR-30 in 1952. Purcell had worked on the development of radar during World War II at the Massachusetts Institute of Technologys Radiation Laboratory. His work during that project on the production and detection of radio frequency power, when this absorption occurs, the nucleus is described as being in resonance. Different atomic nuclei within a molecule resonate at different frequencies for the magnetic field strength. The observation of magnetic resonance frequencies of the nuclei present in a molecule allows any trained user to discover essential chemical and structural information about the molecule
7.
Quantization (physics)
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In physics, quantization is the process of transition from a classical understanding of physical phenomena to a newer understanding known as quantum mechanics. It is a procedure for constructing a quantum field theory starting from a field theory. This is a generalization of the procedure for building quantum mechanics from classical mechanics, one also speaks of field quantization, as in the quantization of the electromagnetic field, where one refers to photons as field quanta. This procedure is basic to theories of physics, nuclear physics, condensed matter physics. Quantization converts classical fields into operators acting on states of the field theory. The lowest energy state is called the vacuum state, the reason for quantizing a theory is to deduce properties of materials, objects or particles through the computation of quantum amplitudes, which may be very complicated. Such computations have to deal with certain subtleties called renormalization, which, if neglected, can lead to nonsense results. The full specification of a procedure requires methods of performing renormalization. The first method to be developed for quantization of field theories was canonical quantization, however, the use of canonical quantization has left its mark on the language and interpretation of quantum field theory. Canonical quantization of a theory is analogous to the construction of quantum mechanics from classical mechanics. The classical field is treated as a variable called the canonical coordinate. One introduces a commutation relation between these which is exactly the same as the relation between a particles position and momentum in quantum mechanics. Technically, one converts the field to an operator, through combinations of creation and annihilation operators, the field operator acts on quantum states of the theory. The lowest energy state is called the vacuum state, the procedure is also called second quantization. This procedure can be applied to the quantization of any theory, whether of fermions or bosons. There is a way to perform a canonical quantization without having to resort to the non covariant approach of foliating spacetime and this method is based upon a classical action, but is different from the functional integral approach. The method does not apply to all possible actions and it starts with the classical algebra of all functionals over the configuration space. This algebra is quotiented over by the ideal generated by the Euler–Lagrange equations, then, this quotient algebra is converted into a Poisson algebra by introducing a Poisson bracket derivable from the action, called the Peierls bracket
8.
Atomic orbital
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In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom. This function can be used to calculate the probability of finding any electron of an atom in any specific region around the atoms nucleus. The term, atomic orbital, may refer to the physical region or space where the electron can be calculated to be present. Each such orbital can be occupied by a maximum of two electrons, each with its own quantum number s. The simple names s orbital, p orbital, d orbital and these names, together with the value of n, are used to describe the electron configurations of atoms. They are derived from the description by early spectroscopists of certain series of alkali metal spectroscopic lines as sharp, principal, diffuse, Orbitals for ℓ >3 continue alphabetically, omitting j because some languages do not distinguish between the letters i and j. Atomic orbitals are the building blocks of the atomic orbital model. In this model the electron cloud of an atom may be seen as being built up in an electron configuration that is a product of simpler hydrogen-like atomic orbitals. The lowest possible energy an electron can take is therefore analogous to the frequency of a wave on a string. Higher energy states are similar to harmonics of the fundamental frequency. The electrons are never in a point location, although the probability of interacting with the electron at a single point can be found from the wave function of the electron. Particle-like properties, There is always a number of electrons orbiting the nucleus. Electrons jump between orbitals in a particle-like fashion, for example, if a single photon strikes the electrons, only a single electron changes states in response to the photon. The electrons retain particle-like properties such as, each state has the same electrical charge as the electron particle. Each wave state has a single discrete spin and this can depend upon its superposition. Thus, despite the popular analogy to planets revolving around the Sun, in addition, atomic orbitals do not closely resemble a planets elliptical path in ordinary atoms. A more accurate analogy might be that of a large and often oddly shaped atmosphere, atomic orbitals exactly describe the shape of this atmosphere only when a single electron is present in an atom. This is due to the uncertainty principle, atomic orbitals may be defined more precisely in formal quantum mechanical language
9.
Molecular orbital
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In chemistry, a molecular orbital is a mathematical function describing the wave-like behavior of an electron in a molecule. This function can be used to calculate chemical and physical properties such as the probability of finding an electron in any specific region, the term orbital was introduced by Robert S. Mulliken in 1932 as an abbreviation for one-electron orbital wave function. At an elementary level, it is used to describe the region of space in which the function has a significant amplitude, Molecular orbitals are usually constructed by combining atomic orbitals or hybrid orbitals from each atom of the molecule, or other molecular orbitals from groups of atoms. They can be calculated using the Hartree–Fock or self-consistent field methods. A molecular orbital can be used to represent the regions in a molecule where an electron occupying that orbital is likely to be found, Molecular orbitals are obtained from the combination of atomic orbitals, which predict the location of an electron in an atom. A molecular orbital can specify the configuration of a molecule. Most commonly a MO is represented as a combination of atomic orbitals. They are invaluable in providing a model of bonding in molecules. Most present-day methods in computational chemistry begin by calculating the MOs of the system, a molecular orbital describes the behavior of one electron in the electric field generated by the nuclei and some average distribution of the other electrons. In the case of two electrons occupying the orbital, the Pauli principle demands that they have opposite spin. Necessarily this is an approximation, and highly accurate descriptions of the electronic wave function do not have orbitals. Molecular orbitals arise from allowed interactions between orbitals, which are allowed if the symmetries of the atomic orbitals are compatible with each other. Efficiency of atomic orbital interactions is determined from the overlap between two atomic orbitals, which is significant if the atomic orbitals are close in energy. Finally, the number of molecular orbitals that form must equal the number of orbitals in the atoms being combined to form the molecule. Here, the orbitals are expressed as linear combinations of atomic orbitals. Molecular orbitals were first introduced by Friedrich Hund and Robert S. Mulliken in 1927 and 1928, the linear combination of atomic orbitals or LCAO approximation for molecular orbitals was introduced in 1929 by Sir John Lennard-Jones. His ground-breaking paper showed how to derive the electronic structure of the fluorine and this qualitative approach to molecular orbital theory is part of the start of modern quantum chemistry. Linear combinations of atomic orbitals can be used to estimate the molecular orbitals that are formed upon bonding between the constituent atoms
10.
Pearson Education
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Pearson Education is a British-owned education publishing and assessment service to schools and corporations, as well as directly to students. Pearson owns educational media brands including Addison–Wesley, Peachpit, Prentice Hall, eCollege, Longman, Poptropica, Scott Foresman, Pearson is part of Pearson PLC, which formerly owned the Financial Times. Pearson Education was rebranded to Pearson in 2011 and split into an International, although Pearson generates approximately 60% of its sales in North America, it operates in more than 70 countries. Pearson International is headquartered in London, and it maintains offices across Europe, Asia and its online chat support is based in the Philippines. Pearson North America is headquartered at 330 Hudson in New York City and it previously was located in Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. In 2010, Pearson agreed to a 5-year, $32 million, greyCampus partnered with Pearson for higher-education teaching-learning solutions under the Learningware brand. Que Publishing, an imprint of Pearson based out of Seattle, partnered with AARP in order to develop. The series, which includes My iPad For Seniors, and My Social Media for Seniors, are large-print, in the spring of 2012, tests that Pearson designed for the NYSED were found to contain over 30 errors, which caused controversy. One of the most prominent featured a passage about a talking pineapple on the 8th Grade ELA test, after public outcry, the NYSED announced it would not count the questions in scoring. In May 2015, the Wall Street Journal online reported British comedian John Oliver reviewing problems with Pearsons standardized tests on his HBO series Last Week Tonight, Pearsons products include MyMathLab and Mastering Platform. Pearson owns Cogmed, a fitness and working memory training program founded in 1999 by Swedish researcher Torkel Klingberg. Educational publishing companies List of largest UK book publishers Official website Official website Official website Official website
11.
International Standard Book Number
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The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, however, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces. Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is also done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
12.
Cambridge University Press
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Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by Henry VIII in 1534, it is the worlds oldest publishing house and it also holds letters patent as the Queens Printer. The Presss mission is To further the Universitys mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education, learning, Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global presence, publishing hubs, and offices in more than 40 countries. Its publishing includes journals, monographs, reference works, textbooks. Cambridge University Press is an enterprise that transfers part of its annual surplus back to the university. Cambridge University Press is both the oldest publishing house in the world and the oldest university press and it originated from Letters Patent granted to the University of Cambridge by Henry VIII in 1534, and has been producing books continuously since the first University Press book was printed. Cambridge is one of the two privileged presses, authors published by Cambridge have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, and Stephen Hawking. In 1591, Thomass successor, John Legate, printed the first Cambridge Bible, the London Stationers objected strenuously, claiming that they had the monopoly on Bible printing. The universitys response was to point out the provision in its charter to print all manner of books. In July 1697 the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university towards the house and presse and James Halman, Registrary of the University. It was in Bentleys time, in 1698, that a body of scholars was appointed to be responsible to the university for the Presss affairs. The Press Syndicates publishing committee still meets regularly, and its role still includes the review, John Baskerville became University Printer in the mid-eighteenth century. Baskervilles concern was the production of the finest possible books using his own type-design, a technological breakthrough was badly needed, and it came when Lord Stanhope perfected the making of stereotype plates. This involved making a mould of the surface of a page of type. The Press was the first to use this technique, and in 1805 produced the technically successful, under the stewardship of C. J. Clay, who was University Printer from 1854 to 1882, the Press increased the size and scale of its academic and educational publishing operation. An important factor in this increase was the inauguration of its list of schoolbooks, during Clays administration, the Press also undertook a sizable co-publishing venture with Oxford, the Revised Version of the Bible, which was begun in 1870 and completed in 1885. It was Wright who devised the plan for one of the most distinctive Cambridge contributions to publishing—the Cambridge Histories, the Cambridge Modern History was published between 1902 and 1912