Pedestrian Drama is a site-specific public art work by American artist Janet Zweig, located on the east end of Wisconsin Avenue in downtown Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The artwork consists of a series of mechanical flaps, like signage associated with public transportation, that present animated narratives; the mechanical flap displays are installed on five kiosks on existing light poles. The $300,000 work was commissioned by the City of Milwaukee and Wisconsin Department of Transportation. Zweig collaborated with 200 local actors, film makers, fabricators throughout the process of creating the work; the site of Pedestrian Drama, near Northwestern Mutual, connects Milwaukee's lakefront with downtown. Zweig is based in Brooklyn, she is a public artist. Pedestrian Drama is her first art commission in Milwaukee. 7:11AM 11.20.1979 79°55'W 40°27'N
Washington Monument (Milwaukee)
The Washington Monument is a public artwork by American artist Richard Henry Park located on the Court of Honor in front of the Milwaukee Public Library Central Library, near Marquette University in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The bronze sculpture is a full-length portrait of a 43-year-old George Washington, stands on a granite pedestal, it was sculpted by Richard Henry Park and was erected in 1885 with philanthropic financial support from Elizabeth Plankinton. The statue was restored 2016-2018; the 10 foot and 6 inch high full-length sculpture depicts George Washington at the age of 43. "He wears a hat with flower, boots, jacket and pants. He holds a sword with both hands in front of him." There are two bronze figures at the foot of the base that were added at the suggestion of Miss Elizabeth Plankinton. One, a woman, points up to the statue with her proper left arm, while the second figure, a child, gazes upward while holding an open book at his side; the inscription on the lower left side of the sculpture reads "RH PARK SC".
The inscription on the proper right lower side of the sculpture reads "F. GALLI FUSERO"; the front of the base reads "WASHINGTON". The back of the base reads "The Gift of/ Elizabeth A. Plankinton/ To the City of Milwaukee/ 1885". Richard Henry Park's George Washington, dedicated on November 7, 1885, was the first public monument in Milwaukee, it was given to the city as a gift by Elizabeth Plankinton, popularly known as Miss Lizzie, as a gesture of her love for Milwaukee. "It would ensure, as one of the speakers noted at the dedication of the statue, that'during the coming generations when other men shall walk these streets, this monument will stand a text for the old and a lesson for the young.' Because this was to be the city's first public statue, it seemed fitting that the nation's first president, George Washington, be its subject." The 43-year-old Washington is depicted wearing an exact copy of the Commander-in-Chief uniform of the Continental Army. The sculpture cost about $20,000. Thousands of people attended its unveiling.
It was placed on the boulevard on one of the city's earliest parks. This location became known as the Court of Honor because of the crowning of Rex, King of the Milwaukee Midsummer Carnival Festival, which took place in the same area; every year on Washington's birthday the Military Order of the Purple Heart places a wreath on the monument to honor its founder. Artist Richard Henry Park was born on a farm in Connecticut in 1832. Park was inspired to become a sculptor after attending a Hiram Powers exhibition, he worked as a marble cutter's apprentice. The sculptor moved to Florence in 1871 where he met Thomas Hardy, yet he remained a popular artist with Milwaukee's elite, he became acquainted with Elizabeth Plankinton while making a sculpture of her father and they became engaged, but he ended up marrying a different woman. Park is known for sculpting a silver statue of Justice for Montana's exhibit at the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893 in Chicago. A 1994 survey reported in the Smithsonian American Art Museum's Inventories of American Painting and Sculpture database indicated that the sculpture was deteriorating and that treatment was needed.
Problems include that Washington's uniform is covered in dirt and corrosion and that part of the head of the bronze figure of a woman at Washington's feet is missing. In July 2016, the statue was moved to the Conservation of Sculpture and Objects Studio in Forest Park, Illinois where Andrzej Dajnowski supervised its restoration. A great deal of fundraising has been done to support the work, expected to cost about $100,000; the process of moving the statue revealed several additional challenges, including the rust in base that he described as "a big issue because inserted a 1 inch rod in both of his legs and that's why one of the legs is splitting," and the possibility that Washington's sword is not the original but has been replaced at some point in the past. The restored statue, now a dark bronze color instead of the previous green, was returned to its pedestal at North 9th St. and West Wisconsin Avenue in January 2018. As the 3,000 pound, 10-foot tall statue was hoisted into place by a crane, Mayor Tom Barrett observed that "our first piece of public art is in pristine condition."
Juneau Monument Thomas A. Hendricks Monument Washington Monument, Greetings from Milwaukee, UWM Archives, George Washington, 3
Referee is a public artwork by American artist Tom Queoff, located on the south entrance of the U. S. Cellular Arena, in Milwaukee, United States; the 9 foot laminated marble sculpture depicts an abstracted referee with legs spread apart and arms raised. Tom Queoff's Referee is made of white laminated travertine marble, carved into the simplified figure of a referee; the referee stands with his legs out in an inverted "V" shape, has both arms raised up and bent at the elbows. His face consists of a negative oval space. There are no inscriptions on the sculpture. Referee was funded through the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act, a program that operated in Wisconsin from 1977 through 1981; the program's goal was to give university-trained artists the opportunity to create artworks, while finding them employment within their communities. Thirty Wisconsin artists participated in CETA during its short run. Tom Queoff joined the City of Milwaukee's CETA from 1977 to 1978. During this time he shared a studio with another sculptor, worked on various art projects for the city.
One of these projects was Referee. Since CETA could not afford to pay for an artist's materials, Queoff had the marble for the sculpture donated by the Milwaukee Marble Company; the marble was the remainders from the First Wisconsin Bank building's construction. The artist laminated the marble pieces together and carved the sculpture out of this resulting material. Although the artwork sat in storage for some time, it was placed on the south entrance of UW-Milwaukee Panther Arena in Milwaukee. Tom Queoff was raised in Green Bay, Wisconsin, he received a BFA from the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee in 1975, an MFA from the same school in 1977. Queoff established the Thomas Queoff Studio and Gallery in 1978. In 1985 he was introduced to an activity he excelled at; the sculptor has taught at Cardinal Stritch University and received various awards at snow competitions, including the Finland International Snow Sculpting Championship in 1987 and 1988. Queoff was a member of the 2002 US Olympic snow sculpting team and was named a snow sculpting US National Champion.
His studio is located in the Historic Third Ward, MilwaukeeTom Queoff created the Miller Valley Veterans Monument, unveiled on November 11, 2010, at the MillerCoors Brewery. The sculpture, an American bald eagle, is meant to honor the Miller-Coors employees killed in military action, he created the sculpture United We Stand in front of Froedtert Hospital. Two Opposites Reaching Up Toward the Peak of Progress RiverSculpture! Frontier Airlines Center
Woodland Indian and Whistling Swans
Woodland Indian and Whistling Swans is a bronze sculpture created by American sculptor Marshall Fredericks in 1963. It is located at the Milwaukee Public Museum at 800 West Wells Street, Wisconsin; the Woodland Indian and Whistling Swans sculpture adorns the south façade of the Milwaukee Public Museum spanning 40 ft x 28 ft x 3 ft. The Native American Indian figure kneels with his arms outstretched, leading the viewers' eye to the prominent flock of four swans above. Architect Theodore Eschweiler commissioned the artist, Marshall Fredericks, to design a sculpture for the museum's new building; the sculpture cost spans the building's facade from the second to fourth floors. A nearby plaque reads: The Milwaukee Public Museum is one of the leading museums of human and natural history as well as the first museum to create full-sized dioramas, it shared a space with Milwaukee Public Library. In 1950 the architectural firm Eschweiler and Eschweiler proposed designs for a new building to house the museum.
The building was built in the 1960s when Stephan Borhegyi museum director, led the effort to finish the project and incorporate advanced museum theories to the interior spaces. The building's architects commissioned Marshall Fredericks to create a sculpture for the museum's entrance facade. Woodland Indian and Whistling Swans symbolizes the Great Lakes area. "A Woodland Indian, ready to release an arrow from his bow, pauses in awe before the beauty of nature as seen in the flight of swans." Although Fredericks was paid $50,000 for the artwork, the mounting of the work was problematic because of the sculpture's weight and size. The city had to negotiate with contractors before the sculpture was installed; the bronze sculpture has served the museum well. During the museum's centennial in 1983, the image was selected to be reproduced as the celebration logo. Today it continues to be the identifying image of the museum representing the focus of the museum on both human and natural history. Marshall Fredericks was an American sculptor born in Rock Island, Illinois in 1908.
He graduated from the Cleveland School of Art in 1930. Fredericks taught at the Cranbrook and Kingswood School in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan for ten years until joining the armed forces in 1942. Following World War II he created numerous pieces of commissioned artwork, including sculptures, bronze portraits and various memorials and fountains. Much of his work had a humanist nature, which reflected the artist's personality, it is administered by Milwaukee County, Department of Parks and Culture, 9480 West Watertown Plank Road, Wisconsin 53226. The work is well maintained, although there is some green patina
Ritual II is a public art work by Russian-American artist Alexander Liberman located at the Lynden Sculpture Garden near Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The sculpture is an abstract form; the sculpture consists of a black monolith set on a circular base. Near the shaft's base is a circular form. Argo Axeltree Orbits
Gambrinus is a legendary European culture hero celebrated as an icon of beer, brewing and joie de vivre. Traditional songs and stories describe him as a king, duke, or count of Flanders and Brabant. Typical representations in the visual arts depict him as a rotund, bearded duke or king, holding a tankard or mug, sometimes with a keg nearby. Gambrinus is sometimes erroneously called a patron saint, but he is neither a saint nor a tutelary deity, it is possible his persona was conflated with traditional medieval saints associated with beermaking, like Arnold of Soissons. In one legendary tradition, he is beer's envoy. Although legend attributes to him no special powers to bless brews or to make crops grow, tellers of old tall tales are happy to adapt them to fit Gambrinus. Gambrinus stories use folklore motifs common to European folktales, such as the trial by ordeal; some imagine Gambrinus as a man. Among the personages theorised to be the basis for the Gambrinus character are the ancient king Gampar, John the Fearless and John I, Duke of Brabant.
The source of the legend of Gambrinus is uncertain. An early written account, by German historian Johannes Aventinus, identifies Gambrinus with Gambrivius, a mythical Germanic king about whom little is known. Two other men purported to have inspired the creation of Gambrinus are John I, Duke of Brabant, John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy - both expounded upon below. In his magnum opus Annals of Bavaria, German historian Johannes Aventinus wrote that Gambrinus is based on a mythical Germanic king called Gambrivius, or Gampar, Aventinus says, learned brewing from Osiris and Isis. In 1517, William IV, Duke of Bavaria had made Aventinus the official historiographer of his dukedom. Aventinus finished composing the history in 1523. However, it is a work that blends history with myth and legend. European anecdote credits Gambrinus with the invention of beer. Aventinus attempted to reconcile this account with much older stories attributing its origin to Osiris' agricultural teachings. In Aventinus' chronicle, Gambrivius was the paramour of Osiris' sister, Isis.
It was by this association, he says. Aventinus' account of Gambrivius contributed to the reverence for Osiris and Isis held by 17th-century European scholars. Perceiving Osiris and Isis as "culture bearers" enabled a willingness to see historical connections where there were none; the 59th stanza of the English drinking ode "The Ex-ale-tation of Ale" evidences a British appropriation of the myth: To the praise of Gambrivius, that good British kingThat devis'd for the nation by the Welshmen's taleSeventeen hundred years before Christ did springThe happy invention of a pot of good ale. According to Aventinus, Gambrivius is a seventh-generation descendant of the Biblical patriarch Noah. By incorporating earlier myths recorded by Tacitus, Aventinus reckoned that Gambrivius was the fifth son of Marso, the great-grandson of Tuisto, the giant or godly ancestor of the Germanic peoples whom Tacitus mentions in Germania. Tacitus alludes to an earlier source who lists tribes called the Gambrivii and the Marsi among the peoples descended from Tuisto: the offspring or subjects of Gambrivius and Marsus, respectively.
Gampar claims new lands east of the Rhine, including Flanders and Brabant, founds the towns of Cambrai and Hamburg. The names of both these towns were theorized to be cognates of Gambrivius, as one of Hamburg's ancient Latin names was alleged to be Gambrivium. One of Aventinus' sources was Officina, an encyclopedia compiled by French scholar Jean Tixier de Ravisi; this work purported that Gambrivius were giants descended from Noah. But Jean Tixier had only catalogued and reported a conjecture made in the name of the Hellenistic-era historian Berossus, by the fraudster Annio da Viterbo, who had used the same hypothesis to postulate an ancestry for the Gauls; some Francophone and Germanophone scholars reject the others' claim to Gambrinus as an appropriation of one of their own cultural heroes. Aventinus' account did not just establish a claim to Gambrivius, but to a glorious ancestry and heritage; the myths reimagined Gambrivius as a catalyst for the enlargement of the territory of a Germanic people, made him a divine conduit into Germania for the Egyptians' ancient beer lore.
In 1543, Hans Guldenmundt published a series of 12 broadside prints of "ancestors and early kings of the Germans". The series includes Tuiscon and Gambrivius and other kings historical and mythological; the heading for Gambrivius translates as "Gampar, King of Brabant and Flanders". Aventinus' contemporary Burkard Waldis wrote a descriptive verse for each of the 12 kings in the series; the verses for Gampar and Tuiscon recapitulate. John I was well-liked, admired, a champion jouster, his dukedom, the Duchy of Brabant, was a wealthy, beer-producing jurisdiction that encompassed Brussels. The brewers' guild in Brussels may have made the Duke an honorary member and hung his portrait in their meeting hall. In his 1874 monograph on Gambrinus, Victor Coremans of Brussels reported that references to Brabant and Flanders in Gambrinus legends seemed to be recent. However, he reports a similarity between the likeness of John I on his tomb and the faces in some illustrations of Gambrinus. John's name, has a hypothetical connection to Gambrinus
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon, sometimes other elements. Because of its high tensile strength and low cost, it is a major component used in buildings, tools, automobiles, machines and weapons. Iron is the base metal of steel. Iron is able to take on two crystalline forms, body centered cubic and face centered cubic, depending on its temperature. In the body-centered cubic arrangement, there is an iron atom in the center and eight atoms at the vertices of each cubic unit cell, it is the interaction of the allotropes of iron with the alloying elements carbon, that gives steel and cast iron their range of unique properties. In pure iron, the crystal structure has little resistance to the iron atoms slipping past one another, so pure iron is quite ductile, or soft and formed. In steel, small amounts of carbon, other elements, inclusions within the iron act as hardening agents that prevent the movement of dislocations that are common in the crystal lattices of iron atoms; the carbon in typical steel alloys may contribute up to 2.14% of its weight.
Varying the amount of carbon and many other alloying elements, as well as controlling their chemical and physical makeup in the final steel, slows the movement of those dislocations that make pure iron ductile, thus controls and enhances its qualities. These qualities include such things as the hardness, quenching behavior, need for annealing, tempering behavior, yield strength, tensile strength of the resulting steel; the increase in steel's strength compared to pure iron is possible only by reducing iron's ductility. Steel was produced in bloomery furnaces for thousands of years, but its large-scale, industrial use began only after more efficient production methods were devised in the 17th century, with the production of blister steel and crucible steel. With the invention of the Bessemer process in the mid-19th century, a new era of mass-produced steel began; this was followed by the Siemens–Martin process and the Gilchrist–Thomas process that refined the quality of steel. With their introductions, mild steel replaced wrought iron.
Further refinements in the process, such as basic oxygen steelmaking replaced earlier methods by further lowering the cost of production and increasing the quality of the final product. Today, steel is one of the most common manmade materials in the world, with more than 1.6 billion tons produced annually. Modern steel is identified by various grades defined by assorted standards organizations; the noun steel originates from the Proto-Germanic adjective stahliją or stakhlijan, related to stahlaz or stahliją. The carbon content of steel is between 0.002% and 2.14% by weight for plain iron–carbon alloys. These values vary depending on alloying elements such as manganese, nickel, so on. Steel is an iron-carbon alloy that does not undergo eutectic reaction. In contrast, cast iron does undergo eutectic reaction. Too little carbon content leaves iron quite soft and weak. Carbon contents higher than those of steel make a brittle alloy called pig iron. While iron alloyed with carbon is called carbon steel, alloy steel is steel to which other alloying elements have been intentionally added to modify the characteristics of steel.
Common alloying elements include: manganese, chromium, boron, vanadium, tungsten and niobium. Additional elements, most considered undesirable, are important in steel: phosphorus, sulfur and traces of oxygen and copper. Plain carbon-iron alloys with a higher than 2.1% carbon content are known as cast iron. With modern steelmaking techniques such as powder metal forming, it is possible to make high-carbon steels, but such are not common. Cast iron is not malleable when hot, but it can be formed by casting as it has a lower melting point than steel and good castability properties. Certain compositions of cast iron, while retaining the economies of melting and casting, can be heat treated after casting to make malleable iron or ductile iron objects. Steel is distinguishable from wrought iron, which may contain a small amount of carbon but large amounts of slag. Iron is found in the Earth's crust in the form of an ore an iron oxide, such as magnetite or hematite. Iron is extracted from iron ore by removing the oxygen through its combination with a preferred chemical partner such as carbon, lost to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.
This process, known as smelting, was first applied to metals with lower melting points, such as tin, which melts at about 250 °C, copper, which melts at about 1,100 °C, the combination, which has a melting point lower than 1,083 °C. In comparison, cast iron melts at about 1,375 °C. Small quantities of iron were smelted in ancient times, in the solid state, by heating the ore in a charcoal fire and welding the clumps together with a hammer and in the process squeezing out the impurities. With care, the carbon content could be controlled by moving it around in the fire. Unlike copper and tin, liquid or solid iron dissolves carbon quite readily. All of these temperatures could be reached with ancient methods used since the Bronze Age. Since the oxidation rate of iron increases beyond 800 °C, it is important that smelting take place in a low-oxygen environment. Smelting, using carbon to reduce iro